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THE 



Parish of Campsie 



A SERIES OF BIOGRAPHICAL, ECCLESIASTICAL, HISTORICAL, 
GENEALOGICAL, AND INDUSTRIAL 



{ 



SKETCHES AND INCIDENTS. 






JOH?^: <).A^ERON, J.P., 

.. KIRKmTELL'OGH. 



J ' * 



»«) 



Mrtl^ "Calko frinting in Campsie'' ^pvihtb. 



KIRKINTILLOCH : 
D, MACLEOD, 47 COWGATE STREET. 

1892. 



THE NEW YORK 

PUBLIC LIBRARY 

707577 

ASTOR, LrNOX AND 

TILDEN FOUNDATIONS 

« 1915 L 



. • • • 
• • • • 



•• • 
• •• 






• •• 



• • •; •••• 

• ••• , • • • 

• • .. • •• 



• • • •• 



PREFACE. 



The following papers originated in a very simple way, and 
without any previous intention or plan on my part. I had 
presided at the Campsie Re-union in Glasgow, in 1876 ; and 
when again requested by the committee to take the chair, in 
February, 1885, I accepted with reluctance, owing to the difficulty 
of getting anything new to say about the parish which had not 
been dilated on year after year at the then annual soirees. To 
impart some freshness to my speech as Chairman, I referred to 
some matters connected with the early history of the parish. 
My remarks created the desire to hear something further, and 
this led to my receiving an invitation from the committee of the 
Campsie Mechanics' Institution to^d^liYej* one or two lectures in 
the Town HA\\\\ijf^m>^tqvfn\f ia gopij^^cftion with their following 
winter course. * "- '^ ' ' ^ , .-,. 

I accepted this invifaDtida-, atid -giEtvie two lectures — one on " The 

Ecclesiastical Histofy of .ihe^Parieh/' and another on "The 

Parish of Campsie: ' its. ^EfhyslcVi' Features and Geology, its 

Landed Families, add' ihe Rise of its Manufactures," &c. Both 

lectures were very fully reported in the Lennox Herald and Stirling 

Observer newspapers, and their publication led to correspondence 

with some interested in one or other of the topics referred to, 

and opened to me sources of additional information from original 

charters, old minute books, pamphlets, and correspondence on 

\ Campsie affairs, the existence of which 1 knew nothing of previ- 

j^ ously, and to which very few had means of access. It was also 

the means of putting me in communication with several individu- 

\ als who had long resided in the parish, whose reminiscences of old 

;:;^ times were freely imparted to me, and by whose assistance I have 

been enabled to collect some of the old parish traditions which 

are now passing rapidly away, and owing to the great changes 

that have occurred in the population, both agricultural and 

w7 industrial, much interesting parochial history has now been 

-h. entirely lost. 



IT PREFAC1B. 

It thus came about that it became one of the relaxations of a 
busy life to revisit my native parish, in which I ceased to reside 
as long ago as 1864, in order to collect the materials which 
have been partially utilised in the following papers. When 
in quest of information I have always been received with 
the greatest kindness and courtesy, information was freely 
imparted, and much trouble was sometimes taken to obtain 
it for me, or to sift out the truth from conflicting accounts or 
narratives. 

The subject matter naturally divided itself into either particular 
subjects or localities, and as details accumulated these grouped 
naturally into their various sub-divisions, referred to in my second 
lecture under the rise of its manufactures. I had been asked to 
publish the two lectures delivered in Lennoxtown, but had decided 
to delay this and re -write and extend them when I was asked by 
the Young Men's Association to give the opening lecture of their 
literary course in 1889. I chose local subjects in that and the 
two subsequent years, in order to encourage the study of parochial 
subjects by the members of the Y.M.A. In this way, a brief 
reference to the pastoraAf : of- , the Rey. James Lapslie in the 
lecture on the Ecclesiastical .History of.tJ\« £ftcis|i expanded into 
" The Rev. James Lapslie : a-Sljetoh,/rf, his" Life' and Times," as 
now printed. The reading o£-'ttjsJ le<Jture»was followed by the 
usual discussion. I was fftvoiniBd,:with th^. presence of some old 
friends who took part in thls)*^jC>n^ if^hott .'additional information 



».'• 



was obtained, and also some anecdotes which were quite new to 
me, and these have been incorporated with the text of the lecture. 
In the following year (1890), having again re9eived an invitation 
from the Y.M.A. to open their winter's course with a lecture, I 
took up the subject of " Calico Printing in Campsie," as nearly 
all the members were more or less connected with Lennox mill. 
The introduction of calico printing had been briefly referred to in 
my second lecture under the rise of manufactures. It was treated 
in much greater detail in the lecture to the Y.M.A. This lecture 
was very fully reproduced in the columns of the Kirkintilloch 
Herald^ and awakened considerable local interest, and again 
publication led to my being put in possession of additional facts 
and anecdotes, which were duly incorporated. To suit the 
convenience of Campsonians no longer resident in the parish it 
was published in pamphlet form, and the flrst edition has been 
completely exhausted. 



PRBFACB. ▼ 

On the sn^estion of those interested in the subject a second 
edition of " Calico Printing in Campsie " is issued with the pre- 
sent series of papers. 

When again asked to open the Y.M.A. course, in 1891, I took 
as my subject the ministry of the Rev. Dr. Norman Macleod and 
Dr. Robert Lee in Campsie, and at the close of the lecture the 
meeting unanimously expressed a request that I should publish 
that lecture as well as the other one that was to follow in the 
same course on *' The Clachan and District," and 1 consented. 

It occurred to uie afterwards that it would be a pity to print 
'' The Clachan and District " and take no notice of Lennoxtown 
and district, with which I was more particularly identified, so I 
wrote out in the form of a lecture the paper on " Lennoxtown 
and District" which appears in this volume. In doing this 1 had 
occasion frequently to refer to the Lennox family, and I wrote 
the paper on the t* Lennoxes of Lennox Castle " in the form of a 
lecture. Lennox Castle led to Woodhead, which led to the 
earliest seat of the family at Balcorrach, and this naturally 
suggested the next paper on the genealogies of the old landed 
families and their original towers or mansions. 

I had obtained information about the original feuars of 
Torrance and their ploughgates, which I considered deserved a 
place in any parish history. Birdston had a history of its own, 
which has more than a merely local interest, and which could not 
well be omitted in a series of papers dealing with the parish as a 
whole, as it completes all the districts which the parish naturally 
divides into. 

This volume has attained a size never anticipated by me when, 
at the request of the Y.M.A., I consented to publish the two lec- 
tures of last winter's course. I have, therefore, withheld papers 
on the etymology of place names, the physical features and geo- 
logical history of the district, the Auld Wives' Lifts, and the 
sun worship which prevailed there in pre-Christian times, &c., &c. 
Perhaps at some future time 1 may be able to publish these 
papers and also complete the ecclesiastical history down to 
the appointment of the late Rev. Dr. Monro, of which the papers 
on Lapslie, Macleod, Lee, and G-ovane, and sessional affairs are 
sub-divisions, as the time has hardly arrived when ** Sunday 
Racing in Campsie" and ^^Ecclesiastical Electioneering" can be 
dealt with in the strictly impartial spirit in which all history 
should be written. 



I cannot conclude without thanking all who have so kindly 
assisted me in the preparation of these papers. In this connec- 
tion I cannot refrain from mentioning the following gentlemen, 
nearly all of whom are natives of the parish, to whom I am 
under great obligations : — Mr. John Young, F.G.S., Hunterian . 
Museum, Glasgow University; Mr. James Millar, 17 Monteith 
Row, Glasgow ; Mr. John Cowan, Wycliffe House, Anlaby 
Road, Hull ; Mr. Rowland Hill Eadie, 108 Woodlands Road, 
Glasgow ; Mr. Malcolm Baird, registrar, Lennoxtown ; Mr. 
Robert Blair, session clerk, Campsie Glen ; Mr. John Russell, 
Milton ; Dr. A. T. Wilson, Kirn ; and others who may not wish, 
that their names should appear here. 

J. C. 

ft 

South Bank- House, 
EiBKiNTiLLOCH, May^ 1892, 



\ 



CONTENTS. 



REV. JAMES LAPSLIE. 

His pastorate : an epoch — Parentage — College— Tutorship — Camp- 
Hie parish becomes vacant — Crown presents Mr. Lapslie to 
benefice — Opposition — Secessions — Relief congregation 
originates — A kirk session appointed — Lunardi's visit — 
Statistical account of the parish — Funeral customs — Great 
changes during his ministry — Case of Thomas Muir — Fight 
with Forrest, the miller — New Militia Act — Malsse set on 
fire— Organ controversy in Glasgow, 1808 — Quotation from 
squib — Dulness: a poem — Preserves Collins* grave — Pro- 
posed new church — Resolution carried in favour of delay — 
Home and family — Lapslie as a preacher — His facility in 
"greeting" — His reminiscences of Whitefield — A clachan 
" natural" — Rab's prayer — Lockhart's description — Missions 
— Rev. Edward Irving's speech — Church discipline — How fines 
were disbursed— Anecdotes — Mr. Lapslie and the minister of 
the Relief — The cream of the parish and the butter^ — Agri- 
cultural Society plough glebe — The " Relief " farmers plough 
it — ^Takes out his teeth at Birdston — Feats as a tea-drinker 
— His sudden death at Glasgow — Corpse arrested at grave — 
Rumours about the body — The grave re -opened — Teeth 
found — A Campsie man^s reminiscences of Lapslie, - 3-26 

NORMAN MACLEOD, D.D. 

Committee appointed for filling vacancy — Mr. Gartshore Stirling 
convener — Committee recommend Rev. Norman Madeod — 
Campbeltown man's recommendation — Parishioners petition 
Crown — His presentation — Family — Ordination— Campbel- 
town — Receives hearty welcome in Campsie — Cold reception 
in Glasgow Presbytery — Attaints immediate popularity — 
Rev. James Brown — His office-bearers wish assistant — Mr. 
Brown declines this — Displeases some of his people — Seces- 
sions from Relief — Return to Parish Church — Preaching 
versus Praying — Want of church accommodation — New 
church decided on — Details — Site — Plan — Freestone —Level- 
ling — Access — D. Fleming's plan — Ceremonial at foundation 
stone — Speeches — Mr. Dennistoun of Golfhill presents Com- 
munion plate — Parish Church without artificial light — 
Appeal to parishioners to defray expense of lighting with 
gas — The opening of new church — Cholera — Dr. Madeod 



VUl CONTEHTS. 

protects a poor ttnnger's body — No. 1 Uur in new bniying- 
gronnd presented — Tent preaching — Collapse of tent— Dr. 
liacleod's literary work — Interest in Highlanders — Sermons 
in Gaelic on Snmmer afternoons — Good bomonr — Unfailing 
tact — Beviyal of Roman Catholic worship — First Mass since 
Reformation — Sketch of Roman Catholic chnrch in parish 
— Appointed to St. Colamba — Presentation — His testimony 
on leaving — His life and work in Glasgow — His death — 
HighU&nd woman visits corpse — Fnneral — Tomhstune and 
inscription, -..-.-- 29-44 

ROBERT LEE, D.D. 

Crown presents Lee at request of parishioners — Birth — School — 
Boatbuilding — Studies at St. Andrews — Distinguished 
student — License — Appointed to Inverbrothick — How he 
came to Campsie — Dr. Guthrie's farewell letter — Induction 
— Marriage — Systematic visitation — Anecdotes — His ambi- 
tion — Non-intrusion — Deals with parishioners — Lectures in 
Summer — Recollections of former residents — Chartist move- 
ment—Latter-Day Saints — Thomas Shields— Candidate for 
{.rofessorship — Disruption — Called to Edinburgh — His fare- 
well sermon — Presentation— Rev. W. G. Smith's letter — 
Degree conferred — Mr. John Toung's reminiscences — Mr. 
John Cowan's — Rise of Free Church in parish — His talents : 
Administrative and constructive — Not a missionary — Reform 
of worship — Innovations — His work in Old Greyfriars — 
Conflict — Death — Parish offered to Rev. Norman Macleod — 
Declines — Goes to Dalkeith — Rev. Mr. Monro of Fala 
preaches at Dalkeith induction — Favourable impression — 
*' That's the man for Campsie " — Rev. Thomas Monro 
succeeds Lee as minister of the parish, ... 45-58 

THE CLACHAN OF CAMPSIE. 

St. Machan — First church built over St. Machan's grave — The 
• church described — Church too long and narrow — Altered — 
Transept formed — Earliest recollections of old church — 
Tolling bell at funerals — Bell removed to school-house — 
Appearance of ruin and of church-yard — Mr. Galloway's 
offer to heritors — Sleeping grounds for Christian dead — 
Inclosures round churches —Burials in churches — Decision 
of General Assembly on burying within churches — Tombs 
of Craigbarnet and Glorat families — Auchinreoch tomb — 
Miss Lennox of Woodhead builds second storey on mauso- 
leum — Uses this as a place of retreat— The Lennox mauso- 
leum — Coffins on stone shelves — Practice discontinued — 
Inscriptions in room — Graveyard sought to be closed — Len- 
nox Mausoleum now closed — Kincaid tombstones —William 
Boick's tombstone — John M'Farlan's — Bells of Antermony — 



OONTENtS. IX 

Tablets in old church — Mrs. Gartshore Stirling yisits hus- 
band's tomb when blind — Ladie Hainan's stone — The minis- 
ter's tomb — Inscriptions — Jamie Gray's stone — Rev. William 
James — William Muir, Birdston poet — Quaint epitaphs — 
Seven brothers' stones — The sailor's grave — Graves filled 
with stones — Miss Dow's tombstone — Her body lifted night 
of burial — Resurrectionists — Anecdotes of these — Will Mon- 
ach loses his leg — Henry Daisley buys pin leg for a heel 
stock — Body-lifting at Gadder — Mr. Gilchrist, parochial 
teacher — His sister gets Willie's pipe ready — " Gran' sour 
milk" — Great changes in Clachan — Clachan characters — The 
Inn — The Muirs— The preachings — Yeomanry and their 
ball— Belles of the ball in 1836— Mr. R. Dalglish's award- 
Mr. Brown's opinion — Miss Jane Buchanan of Shields — 
Walking barefoot to church — Feetbathing — Localities — Ha' 
end — Howe Loan — Clashmore — The Dinnins — Maggie Laps- 
lie's knowe — Miss Spence's sketches — White spots on door — 
Their meaning — Old James Provan — A young would-be 
suicide — Superstitions — Rowan tree and red thread — The 
Rankins— Cures witchcraft in cows — Laird Samson of 
Wetshod's great specific — Witchcraft at Netherton — Nicol 
Hunter — Donald Blair — Old song — The Fergusons — David 
the Earl — Old families of tenant farmers — John M'Farlan 
throws open Campsie Glen — Petition to close Glen on Sun- 
days — M»Farlan's refusal — Right-of-way case — Old Clach- 
an Road over Cumroch Brae — Old parish roads — Diversion 
of road between Whitefield and Haughhead — Haughhead — 
Laird Buchanan and the Corshouse Kirn — Parish Mills — 
Dougal Graham — James Bell — Inscription at Thebes on 
Captain Lennox's grave, 61-98 

LENNOXTOWN AND DISTRICT. 

Campsonians in Salt Lake City, Australia, Portugal — Freemason- 
ry — William Morrison — Handloom weaving — Carriers — 
Jamie Foyer — Distilleries — Smuggling — Dougal the Ranger 
— Bible, Missionary, and School Society — Sabbath Schools 
and Christian workers — Reading room — Circulating Lib- 
rary — Illuminations — Fairs —Penny reels — Music — William 
Cuddie — Alexander Norris — Alexander Rodger — Chartist 
movement in Lennoxtown— The Relief Church — The Rob- 
ertson Arms Inn — Cholera — Letter from Dr A. T. Wilson — 

• 

Victualling Society — James Dennistoun of Golfhill — Anec- 
dotes — Robin Stirling— Thomas M'Luckie — Glazert Coach 
Company — Miss Oswald — Census of church attendance in 
1876 — Ministers belonging to Campsie — Re-union in Glas- 
gow — The designation, " of Campsie " — Great public demon- 
strations — Reform Bill — Abolition of Corn Laws — Close of 
Russian War — Welcome home to Major Graham Stirling — 



X CONTENTS. 

Reception of Mr. R. Dalglisb, M.P. — Home-coming of Hon. 
Mr. and Mrs. Hanbury Lennox — Testimonial to Rev T. 
Monro, D.D. — Conversazione in U. P. Charch — Novel ex- 
hibition of objects of interest — Lighting — Water supply — 
Muckcroft Bridge — The late James M. Neilson — The Brass 
Band — Players in first band — New band — Mr. E. B. Conner 
— Band plays at Clachan — Cavalry corpse versus Volunteer 
corps — Ridotto at Dumbarton — Players — The Duchess of 
Montrose's opinion — Qames and pastimes — Snowstorms — 
A contrast, 1798-1874 — Cloohcore ploughman and the wise 
mare, Maggie — A christening party lose the baby — Legends, 
freits, and stories — Tanison's wraith — Rab Turner thidks 
his father's been forgotten — Medicinal virtues of native 
plants — Note regarding William Morrison — Population 1881 
and 1891— Vital statistics of the parish for ten years, 1881-91, 101-158 

THE LENNOXES OF LENNOX CASTLE. 

The genealogy — The case of Margaret Lennox — John Lennox 
Kincaid Lennox — Plan to enlarge old mansion-house — A new 
Lennox Castle to be built — Woodhead House made interest- 
ing ruin — Family — Young Laird joins 12th Lancers — Goes 
out to Caffre War — Hardships bring on disease — Goes to 
Nile valley with mother and sister — Death at Thebes — 
Viscount Strangford — Viscount marries Miss Lennox— His 
death follows marriage — Death of Mr. J. L. K. Lennox — 
Viscountess marries Hon. Mr. Hanbury Lennox — Mrs. 
Kincaid Lennox — Dr. Monro's funeral sermon — Feudal 
jurisdiction and courts — Woodhead Baron Bailie's Court — 
Baron Bailies from 1660 till 1775 — Cases in the court — 
Charter by Duncan, Earl of Lennox, to his son Donald, - 161-170 

GENEALOGIES AND PARISH TOWERS. 

Chartulary of Lennox Earls — Earl Alwyn's sons— The pedigree of 
the M^Farlans — Camsi Castle bestowed by Earl on third 
son, Malcolm — Daughter marries Finli — Succession — 
Heiress marries Gilbert de Strivelyn of Cadder — King James 
' IV. visits Cragbernard — Sir John Striveling divides his 
estates between his sons — Cragbernard — Miss Spence's 
sketches — New house built in 1662 — James Stirling or 
" Burry " — Chaplainry founded in Parish Church — Relics at 
Craigbarnet — Glorat — William Strivelyng of Glorat — Dum- 
barton Castle — A new house built in 1625 — Baronetcy con- 
ferred by King Charles II. — Renton — Miss Stirling succeeds 
to Renton, Sir Charles E. F. Stirling to Glorat — Kyncade 
(latterly Kincaids) of that ilk — Lands — Edinburgh Castle — 
Armorial bearings — Parochial squabbles — Tower mill — The 
Tower — Giles, son of Donald, resigns to Alicia, lady of 
Cragbernard —Charter granted to Sir William Graham, lord 



CONTENTS. XI 

of Kyncardine — Ballyncorrauch — Balcorrach — Residence of 
Donald de Levenax — Site— Midge Knoll— Midge Hole — 
Tower of Bencloich — Sir James Livingstone — Site of Tower 
— Recollections of David Miller and John Stewart — Estate 
of Bencloich — Tower used in snow storms to protect sheep 
— Old woman squatter — Swarming with rats — " Rumpy " — 
Mineral workings — Antermony — Flemings — Rev. Patrick 
Bell— John Bell— Travels— Advertisement in 1827— Alton 
or Aulton — Burying-places here — Stevensons — King's hill — 
Ballancleroch — Charters — Brisbanes — Patrick M^Farlan 
buys in 1642 — M'Farlan proprietors — Laird marries Mary 
Keith and builds new houses-Malacca cane — William 
assassinated — Letter from William III. — Family documents 
destroyed by a fire — Hugh fights a duel — Kills opponent and 
flees the country — A ghost story — Serves in Low Countries 
under Marlborough — Brings home young trees — Beeches cut 
in glen — M^Farlan and Doig Arms — Miss M^Farlan of 
Arrochar presents ring, seal of chief, &c. , to John M'Farlan — 
The old house — Croft-an-Righ — James M'Farlan, surgeon — 
Extends Ballancleroch— Death, 1852— John Warden M*Far- 
lan, present laird — Heir presumptive, Lieutenant- General 
David M*Farlan, C.B. — The haunted house — Auchinreoch 
— Etymology — A ruin — Situation — Pastoral lands — Kin- 
caids — Church discipline— Parish valuation in 1691, - 173-200 

THE ELEVEN PLOUGHS OF BALGROCHAN. 

The Grahams of Montrose — How Abraham Hannay acquired 
Barraston — Settling the marches by the " Erie " and " Wood- 
heid " — Archaic march dyke — Career of James, Marquis of 
Montrose — A Balgrochan rhyme — Ploughgates — The 
original feuars of Balgrochan lands — Reddendo — Winnings of 
the Tower — Montrose's estates forfeited — Lands and Barony 
of Mugdoch bestowed on Marquis of Argyll and called 
Neilstown — Barony restored to Montrose — Services to Duke 
converted into money payment— Land originally in run rig 
— Divided m 1735 — Coal and lime — Ironstone — Working 
the minerals — Mr. Maitland becomes tenant — Sub-lets to 
Hurlet and Campsie Alum Company — Scheme of division 
of mineral rents among '* lairds " — Old methods of working 
minerals — Mr. Charles Mackintosh starts tanning leather 
near Barraston — Leases ironstone and discovers alum schist 
— Alum works commenced in 1805 — Original partners — Mr. 
Mackintosh buys the lands in 1835, .... 203-210 

BURSTON, BURDSTON, NOW BIRDSTON. 

Little hamlet feued off, 1653-58 — Many vicissitudes in families of 
feuars — Mrs. Forrest sole survivor of old stock — Failure of 
heirs male—Burstonlands^ A fourth carried away in 1350 



xii COKTENTS. 

— Hamilton of Cadzow marries Galbraith heiress and 
acquires lands — Bardowie rebuilt and Craigmaddie Castle 
abandoned — Hamiltons of Bardowie — Sir James Livingstone 
— Feuing Burston resorted to — Mr. Alexander Galloway's 
" Notes for Dr. Stewart, Kirkintilloch " — Burston feuars — 
Infield lands — Outfield in common — Feuars build dwelling- 
houses in cluster — Common barn, kiln and stack-yard — 
Division of common lands agreed on and carried out — 
Flooding by Glazert and Kelvin — Muir's poem, " Kelrin, 
keep low " — Koman oflScers make streams first line of 
defence when constructing Antonine wall — Mr. Galloway's 
conjecture as to former levels of Kelvin and Glazert — Names 
of farms in haughs — Etymology — Connection of families of 
feuars traced — Robert Donaldson's murder — Conflict of testi- 
mony as to site of murder — The story of the murder as told 
in Law's Memorials — Records of case — Unique in our 
criminal records and why — Mr. John Gray — Morrisons, 
Patersons, &c. — Mr. Robert Cowan — Sitters in Campsie 
Church — Calders — Stevensons — Death of James Stevenson, 
1846 — Mark and Robert Stevenson in Birdston — Mr. Prentice 
becomes tenant — 121 ploughs at love darg — Great changes 
in tenant farmers in parish — Roman urns exhumed — Coins 
dug up while casting peats — William Muir, the Birdston 
poet — Mr. Alexander Galloway — His family — Professional 
training — Becomes resident at Birdston — Resigns appoint- 
ment to commence business as land agent, &c., in Glasgow — 
Induced to resume former charge — Advises appointment of 
resident factor — Becomes consulting land agent — His fond- 
ness for travel — His favourite studies — Extracts from his 
letters — Literary projects — Campsie dearer than any other 
part of the world — Death — Tombstone erected by his 
daughter — Inscription, ----- 213-226 

REV. JOHN GOVANE AND "SESSIONAL AFFAIRES." 

Ecclesiastical records carried off by Rev. George Milne — Milne 
expelled in 1688 — Diocesan records and muniments 
removed to France at Reformation — Restored in 1798 — 
Records of Glasgow Presbytery — Extracts published by 
Maitland Club — Dr. Porteous' notes of the Records — 
Ecclesiastical history of parish from 1560 to 1688 full of 
interest — Keen struggles for supremacy — Depositions, 
imprisonment, banishment, and expulsion of clergymen — 
Revolution of 1688give8 peace— Mr.Law, the "on ted" minister 
— Has house and meetini^-place built for him at the Burn 
House — These demolished by order in 1678 — Law refuses 
call — Rev. John Govane ordained — Govane's antecedents — 
Present at Bothwell Brig — Sent to Bass and imprisoned at 
Stirling — Preceptor of Hutchesons' Hospital — Studies 



CONTENTS. XIU 

medicine — Successful ministry in Campsie — Lives like 
hermit — After 41 years' ministry has accumulated savings 
£6000 — Augmented by presents — His character as Moderator 
of Session — Ecclesiastical jurisdictions — Church — House of 
prayer, preaching, discussion of public questions, house of 
correction and of penance — The Session — Their methods — 
Book of Sessional Affaires— Ordination of Elders and of 
Deacons — Case of Lybel on an Elder — Alehouses — Testi- 
monials — Contumacy — Church attendance and Sabbath 
desecration — Fast-days kept strictly — Drunks and dis- 
orderlies — Discipline — Miscellaneous cases, - - - 229-244 



Notes and Corrections, 245-248 



APPENDIX. 

CALICO PRINTING IN CAMPSIE. 

Introductory — Calico printing in India — Described by Pliny — 
Revocation of Edict of Nantes — Introduced by a French- 
man — Heavy protective duties imposed on India calicoes — 
Introduced into Scotland — Processes — Discovery of 
effects of weak solution of chloride of lime in bleaching — 
Charles Tennant and Charles Macintosh — Tennant's 
patents — Parish owes much to its printfields — Kincaid, or 
Easterfield, commenced by Henderson, Semple, & Co. — 
Thomas Muir of Huntershill and Reform — Discreet valour — 
The Inglis firm — The Messrs. Duncan — Military, detach- 
ments quartered during strike of 1834 — Caldwell & 
Ritchie — Lennoxmill started by Lindsay, Smith, & Co. — 
Whitefield erected — Newtown of Campsie — Transformation 
of parish caused by the printfields — Rev. James Lapslie and 
his Statistical Account — Lennoxmill stopped — Recommenced 
— The Dalglishes — Endrick Bank — John Monteith & Co. — 
R. Dalglish, Falconer, & Co. — Robert Dalglish— Mr. Alex- 
ander Dalglish — Mr. Patrick Falconer — Falconer's inter- 
view with Marshal Mortier — Mr. Dalglish's sons — Andrew 
Stevenson Dalglish — Sandy Rogers' poems — " Mr. Robert" — 
Mr. R. Dalglish's kindness of heart — Is elected M.P. for 
Glasgow — Resumes management at Lennoxmill — Firm be- 
comes limited company — Mr. Barclay — The field kirk — 
Bleaching — A premium on soap — Colour printing — A crisis 
in the Vale of Leven — Lennoxmill put on its mettle — Mr 
Gordon Wilson and others come from Dalmonach — Discon- 
solate exiles of the Leven— Machines and tables in 1835 — 
Wages — Trade entry money — Shop fines and pay-offs — The 
strike of 1834 — Nobs — Hostile collisions — Enoiskillen dra- 



XIV CONTENTS. 

goons quartered in the Lennoxmill barracks — A courageous 
trooper and a timid crowd — " Time to rin awa " — Amateur 
theatricals — Moses M*Lay — Collapse of strike — Turkey red 
— The Macbeans — Mr. John Young's reminiscences — The 
King's birthday — ^Temperanoe moyement — Miss M'Pherson 
— Payment of wages — Friendly societies — Field men who 
have got on — John Toung, F.G.S. — John Cowan — William 
Gardner — James and Alexander Tonng — The Youngs devise 
new methods of printing on wood, glass, or iron — Named in- 
vention *^Ro8sendale" — ^A Campsie gathering in Manchester 
— Mr. James Millar's speech in 1 872 — Coal supply — Fires — ' 
Volunteer movement — Pleasing traits of character — A 
horse story — Games and matches on Saturday afternoons — 
Mr. William Partington's reminiscences — Mr. Gordon Wil- 
son — Alloch Printfield — Haughhead Printfleld — Lillybum — 
Bankier printwork — Distillery — George M*Farlane & Co. — • 
Purchased in 1843 by Mr Macnab — Boyd, Smellie, & Mac- 
nab's — Bellfield — Mr. Smellie a dandy — His passion for dogs 
— " Blue Pauls " — Mr. Smellie retires from Bellfield firm — 
"Bellfield prints "—Expiry of Bellfield lease— Mr. Boyd 
goes to Barrhead — The Messrs. Macnab take Lillybum — 
Business increases— Works extended — Latest improvements 
adopted — Electric lighting — Mr. Macnab*s labours as lec- 
turer — As a public man —A great traveller — Lennoxmill 
Cottage hospitality, ------ 1-62 



REV. JAMES LAPSLIE, 



MINISTER OF CAMPSIE, 



A SKETCH OF HIS LIFE AND TIMES. 



%kl*\s^ 



.•: 






x<— 



R^^^^^r-^^A^tf^S-tal^^EaX^ E , 



MINISTER OF CAMP8IE, 



A SKETCH OF HIS LIFE AND TIMES. 



f^ 



fIMiJt<f 



qf^^^Ldi^ 



Qg ^11 llm llllil lHl^W 6i ihe p arish t^iBCyfll^ttuf ui miiiiiw^iiwph^ps 
tbM^Arfy^iiCtPKos^fRWffltWHtji JUilUim mil iu gutli UuiU Ml^f ^^ jgi 
Ha lt|m ev. James LapsHe, iniiv held office for a period of mi Cik^^ 
upwards of forty years, namely, from 178^ till 1824w ^His ^ ^^^ 
pastorate forms quite an epoch in the parochial annals. ^UfrMC^ 
jBmk^m^pmmmm sHH^urvive who have heard him preach, up ictulletl) 
bMNf«0#MpaiHM#MlMi^ hut we are all familiar with his najne, 
and have heard something ahout his eccentricities. Xjeantws to 
♦Kq» o °^^t^|] ftf. his life , with some ofjtbe-jtlcldents 

tfil 



stimng times m which 
Young Men's AssociaJ 
annals. 



^g chapter in our Campsie 



Mr. Lapslie belonged to an old parish family. In 1660 ^he 
name of a John Lapslie appears as ** tenant of Baghrochan," 
in the same year another John Lapslie is a *' cotar in Boghous."^ 
Mr. Lapslie was probably descended from one of those. The 
burying-place of his father and mother is marked by a tombstone 
in the Clachan churchyard, which may be familiar to many of 
you. This stone has a shield, with armorial bearings on the top, 
and this motto below — " Corona mea Chnstus^^ and the following 
inscription :^ , 

JOHN LAPSLIE, 

LATE OP GREENFOOT AND 

TACKSMAN OP BANCLOICH 

MILLN. DIED 21 SEPTR, 

1774, AGED 73. 

MABGARET LOCKHART, 

HIS SPOUSE. DIED DEC. 19, 

1754, AGED 24. 

Greenfoot, the farm of which John Lapslie was tacksman, was 
a stnali one at the clachan, from which a pllce of laud was taken 
in 1 660 to enlarge the graveyard. It was ultimately merged into 

6 




u^ 



ntan4^ 



9 OjtO^ 



/rt,-V4. ^ 



//.^^ 



B^korrach farm. ^ At the* llftic of his birth Mr. Lapslie's father 
was tenant of Bencloieh Mill. Young Lapslie displayed aptitude 
as a scholar. He had an excellent memory, Wtu ubu c HTfttion, ' 
rustic mC Uis boyish cleverness encouraged his friends 



to_ sid,hi m in the struggle to obtain a university education, with 
tb^ffiw of his entering the ministry. If the parish tradition is 
correct Lapslie had the entire sympathy of his fathe r in pr osecut- 

boy'41 TttfenTMCTfttljrTWnifflnrsuecessin the pulpit, ana sbe is 
reported to have* expressed her opi nion that ** the craws would 

' __^ ^^ ^ a saying which became a pro- 
verbTaT expression in CampSle. tiouuf't/r^tA% 

Lapslie studied in Glasgow C oll t gc , a seat of learning of which 
John Mayne wrote — 

" If ye've a knacky son or twa, 
To Glasgow College send them a* ; 
. WiVwhilk, for gospel, or for law, ^* 

Or classic lair, 
Yu'U find few places here awa\ 
That can compare ! 

/. There ane may be for sma propvnp' 
Physician, lawyer, or divine ij^P^ 
The gem, lang bury'd in ^le mine, 

Is polished here. 
Till a' its hidden beauties shine 
-• ^^i'i^^^i*; And 



v^ 



- --.T. 



•^ u 



He was licensed by the Glasgow Presbytery on 29th March, 
1780. He then became tutor and travelling companion to Sir 
James Suttie, of Prestongrange, with whom he made a tour on 
the Continent. Lapslie, /^wtoiaJMMbii^ splendid physique, now 
cultivated an aristocratic manner, and became an extreme Tory. 




ytUit^ 



While abroad with his pupil the. living of Campsie became 
vacant by the death, on the 7th May, 1 783, of the incumbent, 
Mr. William Bell, who had been minister since 1747. During 
the whole thirty-six years of Mr Bell's ministry there was un- 
broken peace and concord throughout the pari sh. The peop le 
had long been ipn\\\Qge^^jfiUgtdjBWSSB^BSS^^ScrS^ 

and they appear to have fully appreciated their advant- 

rouaire of the paricA v£^4^d in the 

by 



t^ ages in this respect. The 
crown, 
any local influenti^Vlierit 

__ in^^5fegar4-^ 

Had this beeH^one^liere mi 
parishion^ ob^Rfning their 
LapslieJi^'su^i^^Si^ars, 
iheQ^^fmpttseuXed Mie man 
anaji^Dple. 



tJ%_Q 



oj 



imei 



\& 



th 



hai 



es, 



'as 



vacancy. 
^ L* chance of the 
iff the '6ot# of Mr 
Jee jnd Mr. Monro, when 
Te'^s^gggp^lJtbe heritors 



r 




^oaU^ 



Mr, Lapslie nuj ihiu l bltelB ft W Hill U WUl^Wwwwy^wrtl^PitWMy 
asked the influence of the Suttie family with the Government, on 
his behalf. SMli^^i^MNPC^i^nrwH^vnmfMiiiM, and within 
seven weeks of the late minister's death the Cro wn issued a pre- 
sentation in favour of tllHflhiP^ames Lapslie, 




unnapQSSi 
who/ was 
parBhionerj 
his lid acqi 



gen#al feeliig iii.*|ii>:om: 
wholhad becL Mr. Bell's 
the Ittties wl 



The people were a|l|jry at 
haste, and w^ also diimtisfled wit 
t spiritually I minded j;iR>ug 
while his nev airs a^ra opijnous we 
intances.' I| th^i^ranspi 

th^ appoint 



ill a 
the te 
resisffily w 
muellfee 
tinuel to g 
ordailed and 

Mr.yLapslieliscnie 
aware who hasVver 



much acc< 
indiy intere 

r of t 
Id have 6 
nd strong a 

r^in vol 



e presentee, 

e Uw9 devout 

eTished by 

e was a* very 

Mr. Crawford, 

had disdiarged 

ghly earned the 

alll^kusses. 



t^..^ifrc 

, and 
of the 

arch Courts 
o. chance„p^TVtt3^s, 
tiiMT'liad 
d int«ffSity,J|^rLajS 
oieni{|dKollow| 

ve ^^tlseparish as^ar as 
a nmnist^rwithin its bounds. 



any open 
aljjiough 
d con- 
ic wKs 



am 





The result was the secession of all who were o{^osed to him, 
who thereupon resolved to erect a Chapel of Ease, as pear the 
centre of the parish as possible, where, in respect of their, volun- 
tary contributions, it was understood that the communicants 
would have the election and appointment of the minister. A site 
ior this chapel was selected on the estate of Mr. Lennox of 
Woodhead, who gave a feu for one hundred yd&V^at a flfliiHHiir 
lMia» nominal ^^imHdh^gppMi|;t. He also laid the foundation 
stone and contributea to the funds. Farmers and others assisted 
by contributions in money, materials, cartages, or labour. Th^ 
contractor for the mason work was Mr. Stevenson, a grandfather 
of the late Mr. Stevenson of Alton. The edifice was completed 
^ i i^Jv ^fto expenditure of about £600 in money. The building^as gg 
ib^'^^^bstantial, hut uf Ihu pli i lwjuU iltj^^Ui WB. 'y6^immmy^€»l^ ^ 
earth, and wooden forms without b^^^^rved for seats. ' |g^^#y 
WUtoLthe Chanel was «HH#nn^3eoiipilKlr~a~ diipu tation, ^ 
consisting #&>«9iM0^lliv leading meters of 4liiP Kirk-Session, 
4MP^ipfP9HMlNl to wait^odLtSRlGlsfl^w. Presbytery ,.4Hm1 Hi'AR 
them i^o^intedrwit^ thp sJlJe^ m^^p.jgs^rding the erection 
of th|(j(uJni^H^I#iHl| arql((3m ^m-wMr the unanimous wish 

:s that Mr. Crawford should be appointed its first 

Dr. Porteous, tlMHOf 
afterwards first minister of St. George's, 






informed them that it was in vain for them 



to think of having Mr. James Crawford, lately assistant, as their 
minister, as the Presbytery were determined he should not be 
settled in Campsie. This was duly ti^ported by the deputation, 
and the people, qj|«|^S0MMal«m#Hiir;'reM)lved that they would not 
be dictated to by the Presbytery, and TO^l Mwq 
as in many other parishes, t\ 

^' '1ST lUISIl^ l&lRbrs 
the members of 





Fc^nnatelyt the promotoi^ had stilKJp their own hands the 
titles bf the property, and tl^y could, am| did, retain their new 
ehurcm^ They were quite uii^mous in me course they decided 
to follo^^— to forisake the Church .of Scothnyl and apply to the 
Relief Prcsbytery |to take th^ under thej^ charge and. grant 
them sern\n. 

On the 6th October, 1784, eleven months after Mr. Lapslie's 
induction, " the Relief Presbytery formally agreed to take them 
under their inspection and give them what supply of sermon they 
can afford." 

KIRK SESSION APPOINTED. 

When Mr. Lapslie entered on his duties he found no Kirk- 
Session in existence, atl the elders having withdriawn before his 
ordination, and the appointment of deacons, which had been 
revived by Mr. G0fb0llfy^l7Ol, had iifp^ fallen into disuse. He 
had, therefore, to apply to the Presbytery for advice and assist- 
ance. After consideration, they empowered the ministers of 
Kirkintilloch, Cumbernauld, and Kilsyth to act along with him in 
managing Session affairs and in electing a new Session. A Kirk- 
Session was in due course appointed. Each elder had assigned to 
him a district. The members and some of their districts were : — 
James Muir, Aulton, who had Woodhead, Clachan, and the 
Eleven Ploughs ; John Gray, Birdston, who had Birdston, Kin- 
caid, and the new Printworks ; James Calder, Highdykes, who 
had Auchinreoch, Antermony, Craigbarnet, and Kirkton. J. 
Hunter, Hayston ; John Calder, Baldorran ; James Calder, Spit- 
head, were the other members, who also bad their districts. 
There were also admitted afterwards to the eldership, during Mr. 
Lapslie's ministry, Sir John Stirling of Glorat ; John Gardiner, 
Lennox Mill ; William M*Leroy, and John M*Farlan, of Kirkton. 

It has been reported of Mr. Lapslie that, at the beginning of 
bia ministry at the Clachan, he occasionally left the pulpit while 
the first psalm was being sung, walked into some of the cottages 
and entreated or ordered the members to leave and go into churcli. 




This wa^ 4jetrf uAiiUgdll l g dlbfuiliini, unit wan 8UUll diMtuuUiiu o J . 
That he was considered an unwelcome intruder was forced upon 
his notice in many ways which would seriously have discouraged 
most men. #But he, no d 
minister hJa who^when 
are leavinf the mrk the 
jocosely slid, ** %ery tru 
stipend g^n atogthem/V 




the (Ansolation that a brother 
deplAed, ** What a lot o' folk 
gaunf to the meeting house," 
but w dinna see ony o' the 



LUNARDI'S VISIT. 



The year following his induction Lunardi ascended in a balloon 
VfU4^9/^ from Glasgow^BRd"- alighted in Campsie,--«nd was hospitably 
^kj^ f^tAa received by Mr. Lapslie, who returned with him to Glasgow in the 
^0A0*^ afternoon, and appeared along with him in the boxes of the 
or ' theatre th e same eveningr. HaiaiM Nwgwp^^^^icTreiitJluuj fCUllllfas 

" ' ^-"-^ --• ^ — ^""'^^'11 iihmlhi tjie r eligious 

. 'LRpalliTifiSI egarded 
puDi{U,^«j^BiMi^pm^~C2MpnporarylfNoriety tfie incident gave him. 



HIS ACCOUNT OF THE PARISH. 



It fell to him to write the history of the parish for the Statistical 
Account of Scotland, edited by Sir John Sinclair, and he performed 
.. ^ his task with great ability and success. U o o na oan road th a t 

/&A^tft1»«^faadacti on without obaerg qigi^bftMiiiii writer was a naturalist, a 
sportsman, and an agriculturist ; in particular, his love of nature 
and his keenr observation of its varying moods are exhibited. He 
describes with the minu%|p» of a specialist th^ wild animals and 
birds then found within the parish, but no longer to be seen in 
it — ^the different kinds of badgers and foxes, the weasels, otters, 
polecats, hedgehogs, wild cats* and the different species of hawks. 
^* So common (Mr. Lapslie notices) was the glade or kite that its 
various modes of flight were considered as an almanac for the 
weather, and its note a symbol of moral conduct. Every boy will 
tell you that it is not for nought that the glade whistles, alluding 
to the note of the bird when it glides through the air, watching 
its prey. The golden eagle used formerly to build in our rocks. 
Till within these two years (that is up to 1790), we had a regular 
bred huntsman, who hunted the district. His salary was paid by 
the tenants at so much per plough." 

Mr. Lapslie also describes the mineral workings of that period 
the parish roads and their maintenance, and the methods of the 
Kirk-Session in administering 'relief to the poor. 




en an erne. 



CLtfJ^^ 




8 

FUNERALS. 



His description of the customs that then obtained at fanerals is 
most interesting. Practically the whole parish was invited to 
attend the funeral of a laird or farmer. Those bidden were 
invited by special messenger' to come to such an one*s burial 
to-morrow against ten hours. Although the invitation was for 
ten o'clock in the forenoon, the corpse was never interred till the 
evening. At what Mr. Lapslie calls the old funeral entertainment 
in Campsie, the routine was as follows: — A prayer was pro- 
nounced before and after the "service." The service consisted 
of, first, a drink of ale, then a dram, then a piece of shortbread i 
then another dram of some other species of liquor, then a piece of 
currant bread, and a third dram ekher of wiue or spirits. This 
was followed by loaves and cheese, pipes and tbbacco. This was 
sometimes repeated, in which case it was a double service. It 
was sure of being repeated at the ** dredgy."* However 
distant any part of the parish from the place of inter- 
ment, it was customary for those attending the funeral to carry 
the corpse on handspokes in easy stages, and with frequent 
changes of bearers. Before the funeral it was customary to have 
at least two lyke-wakes, where the young neighbours watched the 
corpse, being merry or sorrowful according to the situation or 
rank of the deceased. A funeral cost at least a hundred pounds 
Scots to any who followed the old course. 

Not less interesting is his account of the state of the parish at 
the three different periods which he brings before us for comparison. 
In 1714, he tells us that very little butcher meat could have been 
used, for, the gentry excepted, only three cows are said to have 
been killed for winter beef in the whole parish. No wheaten 
bread was used in the parish. The men wore bonnets and plaids, 
plaiding waistcoats, and plaiding hose. No English cloth what- 
ever was worn by the inhabitants, the gentry excepted. There 
were no enclosures except about gentlemen's gardens or woods. 
There was neither cart nor chaise ; and the gentry rode to church 
on horseback. The rental of the whole pansh was only £800. 
Thirty years later, in 1744, there was still no wheaten bread, nor 
were potatoes, carrots, or turnips used by the inhabitants. Only 
a few kail were planted in the yards for the pot. There was 
still no chaise in the parish, but some few carts were used to Carry 
out manure in spring. The wheels were not shod with irbn, and 
the moment the manure was carried out they were taken down 
till next spring. The bulk of the farmers ploughed their land 
with what was styled the broad plough, four horses being yoked 

* The " dredgy,^ according to Dr. Jamieson, means (1) the funeral service, 
(2) the compotation of the funeral company on their return to the house of 
the deceased after tlie interment had taken plaee. Some derive it from 
Dirigi nos Domine, one of the psalms sung in the office for the deiad. 



9 

abreast la 1748 the rental of parish v^s £l«500, but in 1763 it 
had risen to £3000. The population in 1783, the year in which 
Mr. Lapslie was inducted, was 1627, and consisted -of , 3*1 7 
householders or *' Reeks," giving an average of over five for each 
family or reek. In 1793 the rental was £7000, and the population 
had risen to 2517, owing to new Printfields.* In 1794 there were 
nearly 200 carts in the parish. Mr. David Dqpn, grazier and 
famed cattle breeder, while paying a rental of £1400 per annum 
for grass lands, did not so much as grow a cabbage plant. 
Potatoes were now used by all classes for six months of the year. 
Wheaten bread was common, and there were actually two bakers 
in the parish. Three hundred fat cows were killed annually, 
about Martinmas, for winter provision. Every lad was now 
dressed in English cloths and fancy vests, with thread or cotton 
stockings ; and every girl in cotton stuff, black silk cloaks, and 
fancy bonnets. Inclosures were now gradually being made. Up 
to 1763 farms were possessed in run- rig, and as soon as the crop 
was cut the cattle of the neighbouring tenants grazed in common 
till next spring. Mr. Lapslie says there had been a sudden 
transition from strict to loose manners, caused by a number of 
wandering people settling at the different printfields, but that was 
now improved. His strong political bias comes out when he 
refers to the operative part of this community, whom he writes of 
as conceiving themselves to be groaning under the most abject 
slavery. Their associations for Parliamentary Reform he terms 
Jacobin Societies. He rails at the Relief meeting, which had 
drawn off a considerable number from the Establishment, and 
made them in some measure hostile to the powers that be. Then 
he goes on to ^* be doubtful but the spirit of innovation was 
encouraged by their public teachers with a view to increase the 
adherents to their own tabernacle." 

Mr. Lapslie also gives a brief sketch of the ecclesiastical history 
of the parish, and details his ministerial duties in 1794, which 
consisted of visiting and regularly examining the congregation 
once in the year, preaching three discourses every Sunday from 
10th April to 10th October, and in winter two discourses, one of 
them always a lecture. The sacrament was given once a year ; 
three discourses on the ^''ast-day, two on Sunday, the action ser- 
mon in the church and the evening sermon, besides preaching in 
the tent ; and two on Monday. He states that ** the ecclesiasti- 
cal discipline of this parish is still kept up. As for discipline 
against fornicators, two days doing public penance in the church 
are required, besides a fine of a crown for each guilty person to 
the poor. Public baptism is regularly adhered to, parents requir- 
ing private baptism for their children pay half-a-crown to the 
poor." 

*Iti 1891 the population of the parish was 5338, being a decrease of 535 
sinee 1881, and the valuation for 1891-2 was X25,936 Is 2d. 



10 

Great changes took place during Lapslie's ministry. His own 
boyhood was spent in the parish, and he has recorded that at the 
time of writing his Account (about 1793), he had not heard of a 
salmon being seen in the Glazert for eighteen years. Yet, in 
former times, salmon were plentiful in that stream and it was a 
great deposit for salmon spawn, which greatly recruited the 
fisheries in the Clyde. It was customary, though unlawful, to 
bum the water for them in spawning time. This method of 
killing salmon by torches made of the dressings of lint, and long 
spears with which to strike the fish, was then a common sport, 
both on the Glazert and on the Blane. Notwithstanding the 
statement that he had not heard of a salmon in the Glazert, 
salmon came up that stream till 1798, when a weir was 
placed on the Kelvin at Killermont, which effectually barred 
their passage. The older weir at the Partick Mills, while 
an obstacle, did not entirely prevent the fish getting over, as it 
was low. From the erection of the Killermont weir salmon have 
been unknown in the Campsie waters, but printworks, alum works, 
bleach works, distilleries were soon in evidence on these streams 
as injurious to the fish lower down, and their pollutions might have 
caused the fish to disappear had the burns above them not been 
wr§H» stocked and able to replenish them. 



!*»►• 



\ • CASE OP THOMAS MUIR. 

Mr. Lapslie came into thMMMA^HMAMMe notoriety in connec- 
tion with the political prosecution of Mr. Thomas Muir of 
Huntershill. He was on terms of intimacy with Muir's family, 
from whom he had always received the greatest kindness and 
hospitality. He had been their guost for^ weeks at a time. But 
when the Government decided ^to lii^Mite a^?^)MlDf|jo%^%^|pst 
Muir, he Wt | g »g | ^ i 4 hj jI^n^i ic^edaB^qflif most strenuously 
JMfishiflgfeout evidence kHKf^^Mil against him. He attended the 
preliminary precognition of the witnesses for the Crown, o^m^Bf 

nt- 
nS^^todn^, ht, in the pWUm^ce of the SherjjE^Iinted ^^ thaT it 

wa^Mihe power of the Shen^^h^Aififc^'^^^ ^^ procure him a 
$rth.'' He was not himself cited as a witness by the Crown, but 
he went to Edinburgh and voluntarily tendered himself as a wit- 
ness. To his being accepted Muir objected, stating his reasons 
for doing so^ and intimating that it was his intention as soon as 
he was at liberty to do so, to institute proceedings against him. 
After discussion, the court sustained Muir's objection, and Lapslie 
was ordered to stand down. The cruel sentence of fourteen years' 
transportation, the harsh treatment after sentence, the rescue 
under such peculiar circumstances, the adventures, and the tragic 
death of Muir made a deep impression throughout this country 
and America. I<apslie's conduct aihHMi|idUMHH9^WHi>MiiMI, 
j^ tmdtk drove his (Opponents in the parish to exasperation. It was 



11 

remarked that be never prospered afterwards, a blight seemed to 
fall on his whole life, his usefulness and influence for good were im- 
paired, and he was harassed by personal worries and family troubles. 
The national interest taken in the political trial of Muir gave him 
a wide notoriety. The Government, in 1793, appointed him 
chaplain to the Blue Gown Beggars, for which he received £50 a 
year. The duties of the office consisted in preaching a sermon 
annually in Stirling. This appointment to an ecclesiastical post 
was at once underwood .to be a recognition of his officious 
political zeal. That this was so indeed was seen from the fact 
that it was continued to his family after his death. Such a 
reward gave rise to heated controversy ; it inspired the satirist, 
and gave the rhymster a popular theme. The minister of Camp- 
sie was honoured with a cartoon in Kay's Portraits. Under the 
name of Pension Hunter, he is represented dressed in black, with 
top boots and white stockings, reading a book on the " Manage- 
ment of Bees," of which he was said to be the author. He is 
standing on an open Bible, inscribed with Rev. xiii. — *' And the 
world wondered after the beast." In the letterpress to the por- 
trait it was remarked of him that ** in settling accounts he was 
the dreichest of the dreich, and nothing in the shape of a gift 
came amiss to him." The sting o f this wa s its tr uthfuln ess, '"fi^ 

Muir family, and for extreme political servility. E fp u jn the 
streets of Glasgow and Campsie ballads were sung in doggerel 
like this — ;^-..^.;. ^ - ...^ 

" My name is Jamie Lapslie, 

I preach, and I pray, 
And as an informer 

Expect a good nay." 

^^qfeaftmiy^pElg^e ^b|^pstil#'8^Kii§- was reproduced in the 

poemsand songs o&^Alexandei:4,R$^ger,> wh^Jl^h^|i4y gave a 

great deal of attention to the Campsie folks, s(Sne of whom lA 

intr^jiced into his verses and sarcasm. He refers to Lapslie m 

** Slack coats and cravats sae white " :— ^ >^ • ^ , 

" Theresa pensioner Jamie, corruption's chief tool, - ^ 

Whose tears flow as freely as whisky at Yule ; "^^"^ 

Wie his black coat and cravat sae white. 
So keenly he feels for the suffering poor 
That he'd willingly do what he did for Tom Muir-^- 
To get them sent off to a far better state, 
By hanging or starving them out at the gate ; 

Wie his black coat and cravat sae white." 

HIS FIGHT WITH FORREST, THE MILLER. 

It was during the period of great local excitement which fol- 
lowed Muir's trial that the incident occurred in which Lapslie's 
name as Minister of Campsie got published far and near, as hav- 
iorl^^Migli^^viiip t>ne of his parishioners. It is, I believe, an 
undoubted fact that a regular pitched battle took place between 



'^ llu. 



the minister and a miller named Forrest. Forrest was m\ vAvvm i A ^ ^ 
of Thomas Muir of Huntershill, and in common with a great V^^ 
many in Campsie was very wroth at the part taken by Mr. Lapslie 
in connection with Mr. Mutr*s prosecution. Meeting Lapslie one I 

day he gave the minister a bit of his mind, adding *' that were it 
not for his black coat, he would have thrashed him then and 
there." Lapslie, who was a tall powerfully built man, accepted 
^ the challenge at once. He threw off his black coat, and casting 
uigjgM^df^^^ on the ground, said, ** Lie there jKbMI^ Now here, am 1, 
^V Jamie Lapslie ! " A regular fight then took place, in which the 

minister proved the bietter man. The fight with the miller 
occurred about 1793. The alacrity with which the mipister 
doffed his black coat, and tbe^uccess with which he emerged from 
the contest, gave the ijK^gitlW world-wide currency. The late 
Rev. Dr. Monro uHeouUlTi'ed the story in South America,^ in 
1860. He had been commissioned by the General Assembly to 
''^^roceed to British Guiana, on a mission to the churches there. 
It was advertised that on a certain day, in a church nf^med, 
a sermon would be preached by the Rev. Thomas Monro, M.A., 
Minister of the parish of Campsie. A Scotchman of ranker an 
enquiring turn of mind, came to the vestry after the 8e|4ftf^^^^ 
asked if he was the minister who had thrasl^d J^^Aiw^/kr. 9x/\ 
Monro wms greatly amused at hf'^nraH/t. capable|^|[{|tJilffiDg 
rank with those militan^ clerj^l^hcy^coul^thijiiife^a TniUftr^iv^ ^ 
stand up fight or "jM»<JK^a faa^ ^^A^^ ^^^^^^ 

U^ IJl^^r^^ni ENFORCEMENT OF NEW MILITIA ACT. 

In 1797 an Act of Parliament was passed anent the militia in 
Scotland. Under it all persons not labouring under bodily 
infirmity and not specially exempted as a class, such as peers, 
half-pay officers, clergy, teachers, and persons over 45 years of 
age, were liable to be chosen by ballot to serve in the militia, 
unless they found a substitute. The introduction of this Act was 
unpopular, and its enforcement caused many riots throughout 
Scotland. That it was a Government measure ensured Mr. i 

Lapslie's support. He threw himself with characteristic energy I 

into giving effect to the Act within his own parish. This was 
strongly resisted by those liable to be called on to serve — the 
block printers, block cutters, and weavers being specially promin- 
ent. The hostility became so strong that it found vent in action, 
and on the 22nd August, 1797, when Mr. and Mrs. Lapslie were 
absent, the outbuildings at the manse were deliberately set on fire 
and burned to the ground, and but for the prompt assistance 
rendered by the people in the Clachan, the manse itself would 
have shared the same fate. The parties to this wilful fire-raising 
were said to be well known, but no proceedings were ever insti- 
tuted to bring them to justice. When the minister realized the 
volume and intensity of the hostility against him, he took the 



13 

more prudent course of allowing it to die down. To have insti- 
tuted a prosecution would only have intensified it. 

THE ORGAN QUESTION IN GLASGOW. 

In the year 1806, Dr. Kitchie, of St. Andrew's Church, Glas- 
gow, supported by his whole congregation, wished to obtain the 
use of an organ as an a ccompaniment to the church psalmody. 
This, according to*19ff*§*rang, ** at once roused the intolerant 
spirit of (Grlasgow Presbytery, who at once saw in this reform the 
most insidious and fatal of all engines to destroy the venerable 
Kirk of Scotland. The tender conscience of the redoubtable 
Mr. Lapslie of Campsie wa» at once stung, the unimaginative 
brain of Dr. Rennie was at onee set on fire," &c. 

Iti eoarie «f time, without leave either from Town Council or 
Presbytery, an organ was placed in the Church. This roused 
the Presbytery to madness, and the Town Couneil were also^ 
displeased ; but Dr. Ritehie, in January, 1808, obtained an 
a^^pointment to tlie High Church in Edinburgh, and he left the 
battle to be fought out by others. The Presbytery, before he 
could be loosed from his cliarge, tried his conduct before the 
Court. After several of the most violent and wordy of the 
objectors had poured oul^Pl^ir wrathon their brother, they suc- 
eieeded ill getting the majority of the Presbytery to agree to the 
following resolutfon : — '* The Presbytery did and do hereby de- 
clare that the use bf organs in the public 'worshif» of God is 
contrary to the law of the land and to the law and coH8tttiil^ft^\j^ ^, 
the Estahlished Churehj and, therefore, the l^esbytery did and 
hereby do prohibit tbe use of organs in all churches and 
chapels wil^iti th^ir bounds." The question excited great inter- 
est at the time, f^nd gave rise to much discussion and bickering. 

Mr. Lapslie was in the hottest of the fight. He published " A 
Statement of the Proceedings of the Presbytery of Glasgow, 
relative to the use of an Organ in St, Andrew's Church in the 
putjlic v^bi^hip of God." This was written in a spirit intensely 
hostile to the proposal. On the other side, a satirical political 
sqfutb, e<itided ** Dulness/' was published in 1807, in which 
amoi^st other opponents, Mr. Lapslie came under the lash. This 
is what is said of him — 

" The great Profundus rose, 
Broad was his forehead, pointed was his nose ; 
His swelling cheek and wildly rolTing eye 
Betokened pride that aimed at something liigh. 
Fat had he grown beneath the Royal hand — 
A famed protector of a sinking land ; 
(For much he talked in troublous times now past, 
And got a pension for his talk at last.) 
Mmi of great words but maa of little sense, 
Now, rise, and use thy boisterous eloquence ; 
Be thou the mighty bulwark to defend 
iThe Cfhurch Trom all the dangers that impend ; 



u 

Hise and display thy law. tliy classic lore, 
Each innovation of the times deplore ; 
Condemn whatever thy fathers did not know. 
And all thy pedantry and dulness show. 
And much he spoke, the goddess foe to sense 
Listened with joy to his frothy eloquence. 
She itily Iiailed her kingdom now begun, 
And hailed Profundus an adopted son.** 

PRESERVES COLLINS' GRAVE. 

The first act which put him really in sympathy with his parish- 
ioners was his resolute conduct in preserving the grave of the 
Rev. John Collins, the murdered minister, from being appropri- 
ated as a burying-place by one of the parishioners. The memory 
of Collins had always been cherished. Notwithstanding the great 
scarcity of ground, his grave bad always remained undisturbed. 
About 1806, John Brown, of the Newton of Campsie, made some 
claim to obtain this ground for himself and family. Mr. Lapslie 
prevented him from opening Collins* grave, and, in consequence, 
had an action raised against him in the Sheriff Court of Stirling. 
Unsuccessful there Mr. John Brown appealed to the Court of 
Session, who confirmed the decision of the lower court. Mr. 
Lapslie this time had the hearty support of his Kirk-Session, who 
entered the following minute in their Record : — 

'* Clachan of Campsis, 

'* 5th Feb., 1807. 

** Considering it is of the utmost importance for the interest and peace of 
the parish that the graves and burial-places of our dead should not be en- 
croached upon and disturbed by violent possession, therefore, we, the Kirk- 
Session of Campsie, most hearUly approve of and sanction, as we did for- 
merly in a verbal manner, the Rev. Mr. Lapslie's conduct in defending the 
grave of the Rev. Mr Collins, formerly minister of this parish, from the 
encroachment and violent possession of John Brown, cottar and labourer, 
in Newton of Campsie. That, in order th'«.t there be no dubiety concerning 
our hearty approbation and sanction of Mr. Lapslie's conduct in carrying 
out the law plea against the said John Brown, now before the Sheriff of 
Stirling, we order a mandate to be made out for this purpose, to be sub- 
scribed by us respectively and individually, as elders and members of the 
Kirk-Session of Campsie. 

(Signed) '^ James Lapslib, idoderator. 

" John M^FarlanA Session Clerk." 

For the time being Mr. Lapslie became the champion of popular 
feeling. This did much to allay the old irritation against him 
and to engender a better disposition towards him in many who 
had hitherto been always in antagonism. 

PROPOSED NEW CHURCH. 

The question of a new church was one of the deepest interest to 
Mr. Lapslie. Even as early as 1794 Mr. Lapslie wrote in the 
StatisticcU Account of Scotland: — "If the population of this 
district continues to increase there will be absolute necessity for 
building a more commodious church in a more centrical site for 



15 

the better accommodation of the inhabitants." The large secession 
to the Relief which his induction caused had relieved the pressure 
in the parish church for a time, but as population was continuing; 
to increase the want of accommodation was becoming year after 
year more clamant With the cry for more seats came also that 
for a church on a more suitable site, and nearer to where the bulk 
of the,, population resided. The great increase of population had 
taken place at the Newtown and the Milltown, and the unsuit- 
ableness of the Clachan site to the existing requirements of the 
parish was generally acknowledged. It was found to be an 
excuse for only attending church for a Sunday or two before 
and after the communion, and when the defaulters were 
remonstrated with, the long distances from Torrance, 
Birdston, Milton, and Lennoxtown, were urged in excuse, 
in addition to which there was the want of room if they 
did attend. The interest was getting deeper and deeper, two 
parties forming, holding opposite views — the one wishing to 
retain the church in the Clachan, the other desirous to have a 
new church in the centre of the parish. Miss Lennox of Wood- 
head was strongly in favour of retaining the Clachan site. 
At a meeting of the heritors on Idth September, 1821, it was 
unanimously agreed that a new church should be built as early 
as possible in the year 1823, and that it was impossible that it 
could be built within the churchyard. A new site was therefore 
agreed on, to the east of the Clachan Green, where there is still 
a large elm tree, almost directly in front of Mr. Jamieson 
Provan's cottage. Mr. Stirling of Craigbarnet and Mr. M*Farlan 
of Kirkton were appointed to wait on Miss Lennox, to ascertain 
whether she approved of this site, or if she would suggest any 
others. Miss Lennox approved of the site, on certain conditions, 
provided the heritors adopted the plan of new church submitted 
by Mr. David Hamilton, architect, Glasgow, and provided also 
that the ground required would be paid for at a fair valuation. 
The plan which Miss Lennox was determined to have shewed a 
Gothic building to seat 1200. On certain objections being made 
to the size as being larger than what was necessary, and the 
expense in con^quence greater than the occasion called for, 
it was agreed to reduce the width shewn on the plan and give 
accommodation for only 1000, in order to meet the objections of 
these grumblers. On 2nd April, 1822, a committee was authorised 
to invite offers to execute the work in conformity with Mr. 
Hamilton's plan and specification, and the meeting separated 
under the impression that the whole affair had been happily 
settled. On the 6th August of that year a meeting of the 
heritors was called to decide as to the offers sent in, when, 
instead of proceeding to discuss the offers and accept the most 
favourable, Mr. Buchanan of Carbeth submitted the following 
motion : — " That the building of the new church should be put 
off till 1826, in consequence of the pressure of the times, and that 



1« 

the church is not ruinous, but in a condition to afford public 
worship, notwithstanding of the minute of the heritors of date li)th 
September, 1821. Sir Samuel Stirling seconded this motion. Mr. 
Kincaid moved as a counter- motion: — ** That this meeting follow 
out the former resolution of the heritors and proceed to examine 
the estimates." This having been {seconded the meeting proceeded 
to vote. Delay (Mr. Buchanan's motion)— Buchanan, Sir S. 
Stirling, Thomson, Maitland, Downie, Buckie, Angus, M'Nichol, 
Fergus, Ewing, Peat, Wilson, and Turner — 13, being a majority 
in number. Proceed (Mr. Kincaid*s counter- motion) — Stirling of 
Craigbaraet, Kincai^«.Kipcaid, juci., Davidson (factor), Gordon, 
Gray, Reid, Dick, J. Buchanan, M^Farlane, and Samson— ^^ 
minority in number but a majority in value. This surprise vote 
upset the whole scheme on the very day when it was expected the 
matter would have been settled by the acceptance of tenders. No 
one could have been more deeply disappointed than Mr. Lapslie. 
The tactics pursued by the majority were severely criticised, and 
controversy followed, which was about to end in litigation, when 
Mr. Lapslie died suddenly at the end of the year following, and 
is death caused a truce. 



I 



HOME AND FAMILY. 



On 10th Sept., 1792, Mr. Lapslie was married to Elizabeth 
Ann, third daughter of Sir John Stirling, the fifth baronet of 
Glorat, then in her eighteenth year. Tradition has it that the 
lady did not look with favour on the advances of her reverend 
isuitor, who was considerably her senior in age, but Sir John had 
a very large family of sons and daughters and a limited income, 
and he took a very prosaic and unsentimental view of the situa- 
tion, declaring there was no use for old maids if honest men 
could be got to marry them. The young lady took the hint and 
yielded to parental suggestion, and the marriage followed in due 
J ^^^ course. It could not be called a happy one, diffeitut IkBles llud 

^ ^g£4r gossips bad it that sometimes for weeks together the husband and 

Zt^^^^j wife di^,Mr|/^eak to each other. Where it was necessary to 

JUjl^t li y^mriliipiixe this was done in writing. Those gossips further 

^^^^/' l/%r^w^ extravagance at home, and it was known that the minister 

Jjf^ys^ was in debt wherever he could obtain credit. There was also emA 

^^m^^^ ith^^ feckles^s management, as it frequently happened that the 

^^ manse domestic had to be sent out late on the Saturday night to 

borrow tea, sugar, bread, &c., of which it had just been discovered 

that the stock was insufficient for family use till Monday. The 

children grew up proud and self-willed, .JHNMfflltaMi^^liAM^ to 

home training. Even their manners were^«et* 
to, and the boys were wild and under no restraint. In 
1806, when Mrs. Gartshore Stirling was making her first call at 
the manse after her marriage, while seated in the drawing-room 



q^ 




17 

witli Mrs. Lap6lie,'a boy rudely rushed into the room, roiann<]: 
out, " Father ! ' father ! leather Sandy for biting Mary (the house- 
maid) and kieking *' . Here he dibcovered that his father 

was not in the room, but that his mother and a lady were, where- 
upon he bolted out as unceremoniously as he had rushed in. 

Being without any restraint at home, where their mischief was 
allowed to pass unpunished, the boys proved very troublesome pupils 
in the parish school, where they sorely tried the temper and 
patience of Mr. M^F-arlanf, the teacher. One day, during the 
morning prayer, three boys — a Lapslie, a Stewart of Blairtumach, 

<^i«ife— set the teacher's coat tails on fire while his eyes were shut. 
Tlte teachei* ascertained who were the parties to the trick, but re- 
mained ominously silent. He carefully examined his tawse, and 
was evidently not satisfied, but he said nothing. At the play hour, 
however, he took a walk up the Glen, where he selected a switch, 
wliich he carefully dressed, and with this he administered such a 
thrashing to the three delinquents as had probably never been 
seen in that schoolroom before. On another occasion one of the 
Lapslie boys, on being reproved or punished by Mr. M^Farlani, 
struck him. The teacher promptly expelled both him and his 
brother. Mr. M^Farlane had already endured much provocation, 
he was receiving no fees for his labours, and his patience was 
completely exhausted. But the father took the boy back in the 
afternoon, and the scholars saw the minister standing weeping at 
the door of the school, entreating the schoolmaster to take his son 
back. The old teacher's heart relented at the pitiful sight, and 
the boy was allowed to resume his place in the school. There is 
another story of a " lark " of one of the boys. On one occasion a 
minister was officiating in the absence of Mr. LapsHe. He had 
returned to the manse and was waiting for his dinner. The ser- 
vant entered and placed a gigot of mutton on the table, but 
almost immediately thereafter one of the sons came into the 
rciom, seized the mutton, and ran off. Having heard something 
of the wildness of the family, he realized that if he were to get 
anything to eat he should not lose the mutton. He therefore 
pni*sued the runaway almost to the end of the road at Haughhead 
Bridge, and forcibly took possession of the mutton, which he 
carried back in triumph, and then had his dinner. There is another 
story in which one of the boys was the principal. A dinner party 
was being given which Mrs. Lapslie was particularly anxious 
should pass off with as much style as possible. To contribute to* 
this, one of her own boys was dressed up as a page in buttons, 
and had t^agjiglijo wait table. He was carefully drilled in his 

^dulies^y'msinother, who promised the largest plum on the table 
as a reward. Everything passed off well till the fruit was being 
handed round, in order to secure the plum, Mrs. Lapslie thought 
of lifting it and putting it on her own plate, to give the boy after- 
wards. She was taking it up when the page, looking frightened, 



18 

exclaimed in the heariDg of all the guests, *' Oh ! mother, mother, 

Lapslie had a family of four sons (John, James, Alexander, 
and Andrew) and two daughters (Margaret and Gloriana). With 
him Gloriana, the youngest, was a great favourite. 

LAPSLIE AS A PREACHER. 

Lapslie's preaching was said to be very irregular. He had a 
few crack sermons, but was often very unprepared for his pulpit 
duties ; but he had the frankness to confess this himself, apolo- 
gising from the pulpit " that there was nothing new to-day, but if 
they would all come back next Sabbath he would have something 
better." He had a strongly emotional nature, on which he placed 
no restraint ; a certain fervid eloquence, which was accompanied 
by an extraordinary amount of physical exertion. One who 
heard him preaching at Milton described him as beginning to 
fumble with a vest button, then button by button the vest was 
unbuttoned, until at the end he appeared to be undressing, all 
the while he was laying off his sermon, with the perspiration 
streaming off him. But the most peculiar feature about his 
speaking was that he was frequently moved to tears by 
his own utterances, and when this was the case his tears were 
both freely and copiously shed. The sight of a man moved to 
tears by his own speeches, and especially in public, in the pulpit 
or on the platform, is so unusual that his ^* greeting" added a 
zest to all his public appearances, which were considered flat when 
there was no good display. The facility with which he could 
'* turn on " the " greet " was wonderful. His brother-in-law, 
the late Mr. Joseph Stirling, who died unmarried, at Hillhead, 
Kirkintilloch, in 1878, remark^ of him — '^Mr. Lapslie is an 
awfnl man for greeting. Man, he would greet reading an al- 
manac I " Lapslie had seen the Rev. George Whitfield and had 
heard him preach. Whitfield's preaching made a deep impression 
on him, and afterwards he seems to have taken Whitfield as his 
model. WhitBeld's preaching has been thus described : — '* He 
gesticulated, stamped, and wept with a tempestuous abandonment 
to which the most successful efforts of counterfeit passion on the 
stage seemed poor." 

After a severe snowstorm Lapslie was accompanying his sons 
a part of the way to Glasgow, where they were going to resume 
attendance on the classes at the College, and John Edwards joined 
the party going through Lennoxtown. The conversation turned 
on Whitfield, whom Lapslie said he had heard, and whom he de- 
clared to be the greatest preacher since the days of the Apostle 
Paul. Lapslie suddenly stopped, and raising his arms to heaven, 
in imitation of Whitfield, declared he could never forget the im- 
pression made upon himself of awed solemnity when Whitfield 
lifted up his arms in appealing to heaven. This incident perhaps, 



19 

gives the clue to Lapslie's maDoer of speaking in the pulpit. While 
there was often an apparent straining after dramatic effect, with 
but indifferent success, his addresses were sometimes strikingly 
eloquent. He took advantage of local incidents with which the 
congregation were all familiar to point a moral and reach their 
hearts. There was one occasion on which he did this effectively. 

RAB'S PRAYER. 

A '* natural " in the Clachan, named Rab, one day accidentally set 
himself on fire. In his distress he threw htmself down on his straw 
bed, and in this way ignited it also. He was terribly burned, and 
after lingering in great agony for a short time died. To his great 
physical sufferings were added mental distress. In prospect of 
death he was alarmed about his soul. A neighbour, distinguished 
as Red Rab, called on him to inquire for him. He revealed his 
state .of mind, and piteously entreated his neighbour — ^^ Oh, pray 
for me, Rab ; pray for me." " Oh, man," replied Red Rab, " I 
canna pray." Then said the poor natural — " Oh, the Lord help 
us baith, then ! " Those who heard Mr Lapslie tell this story and 

There is a very vivid description of his appearance when 
addressing the General Assembly. The case itself was a charge 
of immorality against a minister, who was accused of having been 
too familiar with his housekeeper. 



H^ 




iiiMni4-«MM0^r awfthonuJ nail hio hat r ed fce 
^^fM^^^lb^dlti4/l^\\\^ accused.. The 
writer is "^Lockhart, in ** Peter's L^tt^rs to his Kinsfolk," and 
Lapslie is thus described : — " Mr. Lapslie is undoubtedly the most 
enthusiastic speaker I ever heard. He is a fine, tall, bony man, 
with a face full of fire and a bush of white locks, which he shakes 
about him like the thyrsus of a Bacchanal. He tears his 
waistcoat open, he bellows, he sobs, he weeps, and sits down at 
the end of the harangue trembling to the finger ends, like an 
exhausted pythoness." 

MISSIONS-REV. EDWARD IRVgirG'S SPEECH. 

In politics Lapslie wasan ultra Tory. ^^VHAMiA^wny-itTilfflr 
4ir4*iigbiHl«i^ He saw it |^ missions to the heathen, in Sabbath 
schools, and he was rather hostile to these movements in conse- 
quence ; but he consented to take the chair at a public meeting of 
the inhabitants, held on 30th January, 1819, in the Lennoxtown 
Public School-house, when the Campsie Bible, Missionary, and 
School Society was constituted. At its third annual meeting, on 
14th August, 1821, in the Relief Meeting-house, after sermon bj ^f 

the Rev. James Brown, Relief Church, the Rev. «James Lajwli^^^j^^itl^A^ 



20 

called to the chair. Although presiding, Mr. Lapslie, in his 
opening address as chairman, showed little or no sympathy with 
the cause of Christian missions. It appeared to him that the 
conversion of the heathen was far too vast and ditficult a matter 
to be attempted by human organization. In his opinion it could 
only be affected by the direct visitation of the Lord God 
Almighty, The adoption of the report was then moved by the 
Rev. Edward Irving, assistant to Dr. Chalmers, Glasgow, and 
seconded by the Rev. Andrew Marshall, Kirkintilloch. Irving 
began his address by declaring he could not agree with the Chair- 
man's views, and proceeded to deliver an earnest address on the 
duties of Christians to send the Gospel to lands in pagan dark- 
ness. The Chairman demurred to some of his glowing periods. 
The interruption roused Irving, his eyes flashed, he grasped his stick 
nervously, and declared that the man did not exist on earth who 
would deter him from uttering what he believed to be the truth. 
He closed an earnest and impressive address with a passionate 
appeal on behalf of missions, and so deeply impressed was one of his 
hearers, the late Rev. Dr. Edwards, that after a lapse of seventy 
. years the whole incident remained engraven on his memory — 
the looks, action, and words. 

« 

DISCIPLINE- HOW FINES WERE DISBURSED. 

Under him the rigid discipline of previous times was relaxed. 
About 1791 a money payment for the poor of the parish was 
accepted in lieu of standing two days in church, and there 
is an entry under date of 13th August, 1807, to the effect that 

, eldest son of , in , paid a line of five pounds 

. sterling to the poor, being the sum required by the Kirk-Session 
^ in lieu of his undergoing public discipline by standing two days 
in church, being the alternative allowed by the Session about 
sixteen years ago, and in which already several of the parishioners 
had acquiesced, receiving a Sessional rebuke at the time they 
paid the fine. The money thus paid at first to the poor was soon 
diverted to other purposes. On 14th January, 1810, a fine of 
five guineas was levied. The session, for particular reasons, 
agreed to return two. Two were given to Mr. Lapslie in part 
payment of the balance due to him for the. winter's sacrament, the 
other guinea was ordered to be distributed among the regular 
poor. On 19th January, 1812, a 15/ fine, levied for irregular 
marriage, was devoted to buying a new pulpit Bible. A very 
intelligent member of his church had frequently counted the 
number of worshippers. On three several occasions the enumera- 
tion was 37, 40, and 50, all told. The church was very small, 
and there was a very short space between the pulpit and the 
gallery. It was no unusual occurrence for Mr Lapslie, as soon as 
he had pronounced the benediction, to accost a hearer thus : — 
" Jamie, ye'll bWng a cart o' coals the morn." The late Rev. Dr. 



\ 



21 

Edwards has told how he was admitted a member of the Parish 
Church. He went along to the manse to see the minister, with 
a view to his joining the church. The minister was out walking 
in his glebe. He was dressed carelessly in knee-breeches, and one 
of his stockings had slipped down, leaving his leg partially bare. 
He accosted his visitor — " Well, my man, what do you want ? " 
" I want to join. I want a token." " What's your name ? " 
*' John Edwards." "Who are you? who is your father?" 
"Edwards, the mason." "Oh, a very decent man. Here, take 
your token." This was all the enquiry. Because his father was 
a very decent man — " Here, take your token ! " 

ANECDOTES. 

Allusion had been made in Kay's Portraits to his dreichness in 
paying accounts. He was always hard up and in debt, and in his 
straits for money tried begging and borrowing in the parish, 
where his credit was soon gone. In his impeciiniosity he actually 
tried to borrow from Laird Beid, Hayston. The response cam,e 
promptly — " I say, lad, I canna gie ye ony siller," but in order 
to compensate somewhat for the refusal of money which he could 
well ' have given, he stuffed Lapslie's pockets with bread and 
cheese, till they had the appearance of meal pocks. Mr. Lapslie's 
impecuniosity made him disagreeably familiar with duns, and he 
acquired a wonderful dexterity in eluding their pursuit. Constant 
practice developed fertility of resources, plausibility of excuses, 
and soft sawder. It is said that a grocer, seeing him about to pass 
his shop door when the sti*eet was quiet, thought it was a capital 
opportunity to remind him of his account, and accosted him. 
Mr. Lapslie enquired for himself and for his family, and passed 
on before the grocer could get a word in. But the minister 
turned back and cried out — **0h, Mrs. Lapslie was just saying 
the cheese was done ; you might just send a cheese the same as 
the last. Good-bye." One story as to his borrowing is that he 
called on Mr. David Fleming, who, when he went away, came 
lausrhing into the weaving shop, where his brother, John Brown, 
and others were employed. He said — "The minister's very 
anxious to get a loan of ten pounds, and says, * Ye maun lend me 
the ten pounds and I'll mak' ye an elder.' " Mr. Fleming lent 
the money and was made an elder, and at his death the ten pounds 
were still standing at Mr. Lapslie's debit — an undoubted bad debt. 
An eldership in Campsie cannot now be obtained for ten pounds. 

Mr Baird, draper and merchant, Kirkintilloch, was an active 
member of Dr. Marshall's church. He wrote to Mr. Lapslie 
and asked him to preach a special sermon on behalf of 
some undenominational object Mr. Lapslie complied readily 
with the request and preached an excellent sermon. Shortly 
afterwards he called at Mr. Baird's shop, and said he wished some 
cloth to make up into a suit of clothes for himself. He saw what 



22 

suited hirn exactly, and having selected what he required he had 
it put up into a parcel, which, he said, he would just take with 
him. Then came the question — " Will you pay for it just now or 
will I mark it down ? " " Oh," said Lapslie, *' I gied ye a sermon 
lately, thisUl just do fine for the sermon," and away he went with 
his parcel under his arm. 

Lapslie often obtained the loan of a horse to ride to Glasgow 
to attend meetings of one kind or another. On such occasions 
he generally contrived to evade payment of the Balquharrage 
Toll. He always made some excuse or another, generally that 
he had no small change and would pay next journey. He some- 
times went into the toll-house to admire the young toll -keeper's 
live birds, and the cages he had made for them, then he would 
pat him on the head and ^ay he was a very clever boy, and thus 
try to please him for the lotJS of his toll money. 

When, in the autumn of 1824, the Rev. David Gemmell, for- 
merly of Gourock, but then Bailie Gemmell, Kirkintilloch, asked 
him if he would marry him, he consented to do so upon one or 
other of these conditions. As his suit of clothes was very shabby 
the Rev. Bailie would either require to give him a new suit or 
come to the Clachan and repair his old ones. Rather a shabby 
reminder that in his early days at Milton the bailie had worked 
as a tailor. 

James Dennistoun of Golfhill, Glasgow, the famous banker, 
and founder of the great mercantile house of J. & A. Dennistoun, 
was born in a thatched cottage that once stood near the Clousy 
Firs. His father afterwards became tenant of New Mill of Glorat, 
and James started for Glasgow to push his way in life, crossing the 
Glazert opposite New Mill with the proverbial half-crown in his 
pocket. lie continued to take an interest in Campsie, and was 
very kind to the minister. Lapslie, who latterly was most 
slovenly and careless in the matter of dress, had called on him 
one day, when he said, " Excuse me, Mr. Lapslie, but that hat of 

yours is very shabby. Just step down to , mentioning a 

well known hatter, and get a new hat, and tell him to put it down 
to me." " If you call that shabby," replied Lapslie, ** I wonder 
what ye would say to my boys' hats." " Well, well," said Mr. 
Dennistoun, " take a new hat out to your boys also." 

MR. LAPSLIE AND THE MINISTER OF THE RELIEF. 

Mr. Lapslie regarded the minister of the Relief Kirk with no 
friendly eye ; they had occasion to meet sometimes at funerals, 
and there is a story told of a funeral procession proceeding west- 
wards by the old road to the Clachan, and when going over the 
Cumroch* Brae, which was a very rough road, Mr. Colquhoun 
stumbled and fell, his head connng into contact with a large 
stone at the side of the road. When he had regained his feet, he 
put his hand up and exclaimed, ** Oh, my head ; it's ringin'," 



23 

" RiDgin'," said Lapslie superciliously, "ringin*, then it must be 
empty. Only empty vessels ring." **Well," said Colquhoun, 
"yours would not ring, at any rate, Lapslie." "Why not?" 
'* Man, it's crackit, and no crackit pot '11 ring." 

THE CREAM OF THE PARISH AND THE BUTTER. 

The feelings of sectarian rivalry displayed by the pastors were 
also shown by their respective flocks. The Reliefs often assumed 
an air of superior sanctity, but carried things a little too far, 
when they alleged that all that were worth anything had forsaken 
the Auld Kirk, in fact, that in the Kelief Kirk was to be found 
the cream of the parish. This came to be rather a popular 
phrase. It was used by a farmer one day, who sent his butter to 
Glasgow for sale. Shortly before this his butter had been 
stopped and weighed by the Glasgow authorities, and being found 
too light had been taken to the police oifice and confiscated. Dry- 
burgh retorted, ** So ! so ! the cream o' the parish gangs tae the 
Kelief Kirk, and the butter, Broon, gangs tae the polis oifice in 
Glasgow." But the keenness of feeling had greatly abated on 
both sides before Lapslie's death. 

THE AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY PLOUGH THE GLEBE. 

One evening, on his way home, Mr. Lapslie went into a public- 
house to obtain an orange for Gloriana. The public-house was 
then kept by a sister of the late Laird Buchanan of Crosshouse. 
In the wee room off the kitchen there was a number of farmers 
assembled in connection with their Agricultural Society. Recog- 
nizing the minister, Stevenson of Alton called out they " had no 
secrets, would he no' come ben ? " He complied and joined them. 
Laird Buchanan asked him if he would not join their society. 
When he did not respond, the laird offered on behalf of the mem- 
bers that if he would join their society the members would put 
his glebe right for him. He asked what membership cost. He 
was told it was only five shillings a year. He thereupon became 
a member, and Laird Buchanan was authorised to make arrange- 
ments for giving him a day's ploughing of the glebe. Seven or 
eight farmers united and made a somewhat better job of it than 
the bowed furrows they found on it. 

* The Rev. James Colquhoun was the first minister of the Relief. After 
a saccessf al pastorate of ten years, he was obliged to resign in conseqaence 
uf a/ama. Ue had gone to attend a Fair in the' western part of the coanty. 
Here three young men proposed to put the lielief minister "on the fuddle." 
He seems to have been of a frank and sociable nature and fell into the trap 
set for him. He was put on his horse facing the tail and led in this state to 
the Relief Manse of Kilmaronock. When this became known in Campsie 
he resigned. It is said of the three young men who for a bit of amusement 
made him tipsy, that not one of them died in his bed. All came to sudden 
or yioient deaths; and this was popularly regarded as a '* judgment" for 
their tempting Mr Colquhoun. 



24 

'THE RELIEF FARBiERS PLOUGH IT. 

On another occasion, when he had not been getting on very well 
with his farmers, he applied to Malcolm Brown for some assistance 
in working the glebe, and complained to Brown that his own folk, 
with one or two exceptions, would not give him a helping hand. 
Brown replied, " Weel, weel, ye whiles speak gey an' hard aboot us 
woe bodies in the Relief Kirk, but provided ye'll no* ask any o' your 
ain folks, I think I can get as many ploughs frae elders in the Relief 
as 'ill soon put the manse glebe in order." The minister gladly ac- 
ceded to the conditions, so Brown went on, *' Weel, we'll dae this for 
you the noo, and, tak my word for it, ye'll never be ill off again 
to get your glebe ploughed. Your ain folk will no' like to see the 
Reliefs at the job." The Relief ploughs duly turned out, and 
soon accomplished the work. I'here was abundance of refresh- 
ment provided, both meat and drink, and Mr. Lapslie was most 
effuse with his thanks. The farmers were highly pleased with 
their treatment, and before the meeting had broken up the Reliefs 
were getting rather boisterous in their hilarity. One of those 
who held a plough on this occasion is still spared to enjoy a green 
old age, and Mr. William Craig, late of Balglass, is now perhaps 
the sole survivor of that day's ploughing. This was the last 
occasion Mr. Lapslie ever required to have his glebe sorted, as he 
died before the end of that year. 

TAKES OUT HIS TEETH AT BIRDSTON. 

Calling at Birdston one day, Mrs. Forrest mentioned she 
remembered Mr. Lapslie coming to her father's house on his 
pastoral visits. Mrs. FoiTCst's reminiscences were very interest- 
ing. She said, " Mr. Lapslie was a real plain man. He wisna 
like ministers now-a-days ; he had nae airs. I mind o' him comin' 
to our house, and as we keepit cows my mither set down bread 
and milk before him. My sister and me w^ere in the house, so he 
cried out, * Come here, my little lassies, an' I'll gie ye a bawbee if 
ye can do this.' So he put his finger and thumb to his mouth ; 
there was a click; wi' that his teeth cam' oot in his haun'. 
Putting the teeth upon the table before him he said to us, * Noo, 
a bawbee to ye baith, if ye tak' oot your teeth like that.' " This 
act produced such astonishment at the time that the little girl 
never forgot it, and she narrated the incident in 1889, nearly 
sixty-one years after its occurrence, with all the freshness of 
recollection of an incident that had just happened. 

FEATS AS A TEA-DRINKER. 

He partook heartily of his friends' hospitality, but his perform- 
ances as a tea-drinker were wonderful. In a farm-house, while 
drinking tea, he happened to iemark that he never took more 
than three cups of tea. This astounding statement completely 



'26 

look his hostess ahack. She exclaimed, " Never tak* raair than 
three cups ! Ye are at your twelfth cup the doo." A similar 
story is still current as having happened in The Cottage, when he 
was enjoying Provost Dalglish's hospitality. *» Will ye no' have 
another cup, Mr. Lapslie?" "No, I think Fll no' have any 
more." " Do ye know how many cups ye have had already?" 
** Well, no, 1 didna count them." " Well, that's your thirteenth 
ye are at now." 

HIS SUDDEN DEATH IN GLASGOW. 

Lapslie's death was a very sudden one. He was in the enjoy- 
ment of excellent health and was walking to Glasgow to attend a 
meeting of Presbytery. On the way he c|illed at Haystou, where 
he saw a daughter of Mr. Reid, afterwards Mrs. Weir of Bar- 
rochan. Miss Reid, in her kind-hearted hospitality, went to the 
churn and took out a large bowlful of cream, which she offered to 
Mr. Lapslie. He was heated with walking, but he relished the 
excellent fare and drank heartily. He went on to Glasgow, 
where he was suddenly seized with severe inflammation and died 
the same day, in the Star Inn, Glasgow, in the very place where 
on 3rd Oct., 1792, the Society of the Friends of the Constitution 
was formed, of which Thomas Muir of Huntershill was vice-presi- 
dent. 

CORPSE ARRESTED AT GRAVE. 

After his death a coffin which was believed then to contain his 
body was laid to rest in the Clachan Churchyard. His wife died 
at Campsie in 1825, and she too was buried in the Clachan, but 
strange to say, their graves are marked neither by a tombstone of 
their own nor by any inscription on any other tomb. This 
strange fact may be accounted for by two reasons. On the day 
of the funeral the body was arrested at the mouth of the open 
grave, and further procedure barred by some legal process, until 
the arresting creditor had satisfaction given him for the payment 
of debt owing by the deceased. Sir Samuel Stirling, sixth 
baronet, became surety to the arresting creditor, and the body 
was then consigned to the grave. This incident greatly annoyed 
his friends. Shortly after the funeral a keen controversy broke 
out whether his body had ever been brought back to the parish at 
all, the statement made being that, within twenty-four hours 
after his death in the Star Inn, Glasgow, his corpse was recog- 
nised on the dissecting tables in the College, having been sold for 
ten pounds, and the coffin in which it was supposed his remains 
were brought back to Campsie for burial contained only a 
dummy and stones. It was currently rumoured that a Campsie 
student, recognising the corpse as Lapslie's, went out shocked, and 
said to some fellow-students, *^ I think that is the body of Lapslie, 
the minister of Campsie. I cannot look at it myself, but Lapslr "" 



26 

had false teeth.*' These were described by him in detail. The 
report brought back was to the effect that the corpse had false 
teeth exactly as had been described, which satisfied the student as 
to the accuracy of his conjecture. To allay the disquieting 
doubts on the subject, the Rev. Norman Macleod caused the 
grave to be opened. The coffin was forced. It contained a 
corpse which had a set of false teeth, which were taken out in 
witness of the fact. This was held to set the matter at rest, but 
many doubted how the teeth got there. These teeth got into Mr. 
Muir's possession, and then into Dr. Monro's. They were some- 
times produced at the elder's dinner in the manse after the com- 
munion, and the old story re-told and discussed. 

Lapslie's most enduring memorial is his account of the parish. 
His descendant's are quite unknown in the district. It is rather 
strange that we have now no descendants of any of the ministers 
resident or connected with the parish. 

I sent this MS. to an old .Campsonian, who in returning it 
wrote: — 

*' I have been delighted in reading your narrative of Lapslie. Where on 
earth have you got the materials to weave such a web ? What a strange 
man, or rather what a strange minister, he nmst have been I I remember 
him. His figure and dress are stamped on my memory— his hat, and top- 
coat high up on his neck and reaching nearly to his feet. I was tired 
reading to-night, and your paper makes me feel as if living my young life 
over again, and my mind has been full of Lapslie. I sat down and tried to 
sketch from memory the * old man eloquent.' I drew the full figure, but 
was dissatisfied with the production as a whole, as I failed to g^ve the right 
proportion, and I have torn the lower half off. Perhaps some of your family 
may complete the figure, and bring the topcoat down nearly to the heels, 
place a staff in his right hand, and put his left in his pocket. 

'* I recollect accompanying my mother one night to Tammy M'Luckie's 
wright shop, which was cleared out and seats extemporised for a district 
meeting. Mr Lapslie, then an old man, came in and gave an address and 
catechised the young. I remember the scene well ; the whole surroundings 
stand out most distinctly in my mind's eye to-night. 

" Glasgow, $Oth October, 1891." 

The sketch is reserved for the illustrated edition of **The 
Parish of Campsie," &c. 



♦ NB '' ■ Sg> tST-* 




NORMAN MACLEOD, D.D., 



AND 



ROBERT LEE, D.D., 

MINISTERS IN CAMPSIE, 1828-1843. 

Lecture delivei'ed on 10th October, 1S9 1, to Canipsie Young Aleuts 

Association. 



NORMAN MACLEOD, D.D 

MINISTER OF CAMP8IE, 
A SKETCH OF HIS LIFE AND TIMES. 



Aft£K the death of Mr. Lap^slie, the parishioners, warued by what 
had occurred at the last vacancy, were resolved that the appoint- 
ment of his successor should not be made without th^r voice 
being heard in the matter. To accomplish this end a committee 
was appointed, which included representatives from the heritors, 
kirk-session, and congregation, whose duty was to make enquiry 
and submit a recommendation as to the filling up of the vacancy. 
This committee appointed Mr A. Gartshore-Stirling of Craig- 
barnet, convener, and entered at once on its duties. In due 
course it submitted a report, in which it recommended that the 
Rev. Norman Macleod, then minister of Campbeltown, should be 
appointed. In supporting this recommendation Mr. Gartshore- 
Stirling mentioned that when they turned their thoughts towards 
the Rev. Mr. Macleod they made exhaustive enquiry concerning 
him and his antecedents. Amongst the pile of letters, all favour- 
able, there was one ^^lth which he had been much struck. It 
impressed him favourably, although some people might not have 
considered it any recommendation at all. This communication 
was from a Campbeltown man, who, in replying to the queries 
addressed to him, prefaced his statement by frankly admitting 
that he was not very often at the kirk himself, and when he was 
there, maybe was not a great judge of a sermon ; but he could 
testify that, throughout the whole of his parish, there was not a 
bung drawn from a cask of whisky, nor a cork from a bottle • of 
wine, but Mr Macleod was aye a welcome guest at all their 
gatherings, be the occasion joyous or sad. As the writer associ- 
ated wine with funerals, and whisky with festive enjoyment and 
hilarity, Mr. Stirling further stated, that he took that to imply 
that in his social and pastoral relations Mr. Maoleod was 
eminently popular, that he seemed to have a sympathetic nature, 
and that he was held in the highest respect for his personal 
character and ministerial gifts. All the other letters seemed to 
corroborate this. The report was adopted, and the kirk-session, 
heritors, and male communicants presented a humble petition to 
the Crown to present the Rev. Mr. Macleod to the vacant benefice 
at Campsie, as the unanimous choice of the people of Campsie. 



30 

FAMILY— ORDINATION— CAMPBELTOWN. 

Norman Macleod was born in the manse of Morven on 2nd 
Dec, 1783. He was licensed by the Presbytery of Mull in 1806. 
In the same year he was appointed assistant in the parish of Kil- 
brandon. In 1808 he was ordained minister of Campbeltown, and 
in 1811 he married Agnes Maxwell, eldest daughter of Mr. James 
Maxwell, chamberlain to the Duke of Ar<ryle. In 1824 he called 
the attention of the Church to the want of elementary education 
in the Highlands and Islands, and from this movement, then orig- 
inated by him, arose the Education Scheme of the Church of 
Scotland. His connection with the education question brought 
him into prominence at the time, and it was probably partly 
owing to this that the Campsie parishioners were made acquainted 
with his existence. When their call reached him there were many 
reasons which induced him to consider favourably the offer of 
such a parish as Campsie. To a man whose increasing family 
required a greater expenditure, the larger stipend of Campsie was 
welcome, but another great point was its proximity to the Univer- 
sity, where he could send his sons. He accordingly accepted 
Campsie, but found it a sore and trying struggle to break away 
from the many associations and friends in and around Campbel- 
town. But he never regretted the step he then took. The Crown 
issued the presentation on the 25th Jan., 1825, and the induction 
took place on the 11th August following. The settlement was a 
most harmonious one, and Mr. Macleod received a most hearty 
welcome from all classes in Campsie. In the Glasgow Presby- 
tery, however, there was at first unusual coldness shown him. 
Referring to this afterwards, Mr. Macleod said, " The cold recep- 
tion 1 met with from my brethren in the Presbytery only served 
to stir me up to greater activity in the work of the ministry. I 
knew that I had all the people on my side, and from none of them 
did I meet with greater sympathy than from the dtssenters, the 
members of the Belief congregation." 

In Campsie Mr. Macleod at once attained great popularity as a 
preacher. His style had been unconsciously modelled on that of 
his father. There was the same peculiar pleading of tender affec- 
tion, simple, clear statement, touching pathos, with occasional 
bursts of fervid eloquence. 

At the period of Mr. Macleod's induction the minister of the 
Relief Church was the Rev. James Brown. Mr. Brown had been 
a mason to trade, and began to study for the Church after having 
wrought as journeyman for some years.* He was ordained 
minister of the Relief in 1810, when about thirty-six years of age. 
He was a diligent and conscientious pastor, a true son of consola- 

* There is a story told of his meeting a labourer in Lennoxtown one day 
who bad formerly carried the hod to him. Noticing his changed dress, he 
said, " Gude preserre me, Jamack, what are ye daen noo ?" " Wheesht, 
man, wheesht, I'm a preacher now,'' said Mr Brown. 



31 

tion, and as a comforter in sorrow or bereavement was gratefully 
remembered by many outside his own congregation. But. he was 
an uninteresting preacher. I have heard the late Mr James 
Gray say of him, that he became eloquent only when speaking of 
the love of Christ on a communion Sabbath ; he then glowed 
with an unwonted fervour. 

The erection of the new Parish Church in Lenuoxtown, especi- 
ally with a minister possessing so many popular gifts as Mr. Mac- 
leod, had been a matter of deep concern to the Rev. Mr. IJrown's 
people in the Relief Church. The office-bearers conferred, and 
came to the conclusion, that it was expedient that an assistant to 
Mr. Brown should be obtained. They suggested this to Mr. 
Brown, to whom the proposal was most obnoxious. He assured 
them his health was good ; he was quite able to overtake the whole 
of the pastoral supervision, and regarding preaching, he could 
preach as well as ever. The proposal was not pressed at that time, 
but one candid office-bearer told his minister in regard to his preach- 
ing as well as ever, " Well, ye ken yoursel', Mr. Brown, ye were 
never very guid at it." Those who were desirous of forsaking the 
Relief Zion and returning to the ** Bondage of Egypt" made 
Mr. Brown's refusal of an assistant their pretext for leaving. 

A number of the smaller lairds, farmers, and others, whose 
families had left the Parish Church when Mr. Lapslie was, in 
their opinion, obtruded on the parish, or who, from various 
reasons, had left it during his ministry, now returned to the 
bosom of the mother church. Among the families who gradually 
returned about this time were : — Buchanan of Crosshouse ; Robert 
Ferrie, North Balgrochau ; Stevenson, Alton ; Samson, Wetshod ; 
Samson, Whitehill ; Reids of Hayston and Carlston ; Ferrie, 
Balgrochan Mill ; Buckie, East Balgrochan ; M*Pherson, Milton ; 
M'Ouat, slater; Motherwell, smith. 

Forsaking the Relief Kirk was a terrible wrench to old William 
Stevenson, Alton. His father had built the church and his early 
associations were all connected with it. As he wended his way 
past it the first Sunday he was going to the new church, he looked 
at it lovingly, and said, " Man, I min' the biggin' o't." 

PREACHING VERSUS PRAYING. 

The numerous secessions revived the old spirit of rivalry be- 
tween the Parish Kirk and the Relief. Comparisons were freely 
made by the members of both congregations, in illustration of 
which the following characteristic anecdote may be mentioned. 
One day a stranger accosted a flesher named Neil Rankin, who 
was standing at what was then known as Bulloch's corner, where 
Crossbill Street strikes off the Main Street. Havins: obtained 
the information he sought regarding his road, conversation was 
continued, and happened to turn on the relative merits of the two 
ministers. Neil said, " They were both very good men, Macleod 



32 

was a braw man and a gran' preacher ; a gran', gran' preacher." 
Asa preacher he liked him far the best ; ^^ but, faith," he added, 
** if J was deein' I would rather hae Broon's prayin'." 

WANT OF CHURCH ACCOMMODATION. 

Under Mr. Macleod's ministry the people soou attended church 
with far greater regularity, and there was also an accession to the 
membership. These and other causes combined to raise again 
the question of church accommodation, and make it a matter that 
required immediate attention. The old church at the Clachan 
had long been inadequate, even for those who were in the habit 
of attending previous to Mr. Macleod's settlement, as we have 
seen already, when dealing with Mr. Lapslie. In the divided 
state of opinion on the question of a new church nothing was be- 
ing done by the heritors in the way of necessary maintenance and 
repairs, and the fabric of the church had got into a most dilapi- 
dated state. Mr. Macleod ascertained what were the wishes of 
all classes of his parishioners in the various districts, and deter- 
mined to take up the matter and act resolutely. He first broached 
it in the Session, stated his views, met objections, explained his 
reasons, and soon got all his Session on his side. Then, with 
singular tact and prudence, he approached the principal heritors, 
and succeeded in enlisting their sympathy and securing their 
co-operation. When the question was formally taken into con- 
sideration by the heritors, it was agreed that the Clachan Church 
was very much out of repair, and that it was simply impossible by 
any alterations to suit it to modern requirements. It was far too 
small, yet to enlarge it would infringe vested rights, and disturb 
the graveyard, around which so many hallowed and endearing 
associations clung. The heritors had unanimously agreed at their 
meeting, in 1821, to build a new church at the Clachan, but that 
resolution had been overturned by a surprise vote at a subsequent 
meeting, on the motion of Mr Buchanan of Carbeth and Auchin- 
reoch. If a new church was to be erected, public opinion was 
now strongly in favour of abandoning the site at the Clachan, 
and selecting another in a more central situation. Miss Lennox 
of Woodhead wished the church retained in some site at the 
Clachan, and she strongly opposed the proposal to have it further 
eastward, when it was demonstrated that it was impossible to 
enlarge the old church. She then advocated erecting the new 
church in the centre of a large square which she would form. 
The Inn was to be in the line of the north side, and she caused a 
new building line to be laid down for the west side of the square. 
Her idea was that the Lennoxtown people, and the residents in 
the eastern and southern portions of the parish, if they grudged 
to walk to the Clachan, might have a new church, but it would 
have to be a quoad sacia one, and the sacred site of the edifices in 
which the parishioners had worshipped since the introduction of 



S3 

Christianity must still be preserved as a place of worshi|i. When 
the heritors resolved to abandon the original kirk and graveyard 
site, and build a new parish church with a graveyard around it at 
Lennoxtown, Miss Lennox's heart was like to break. She, 
however, acquiesced reluctantly in the decision, yielding to the 
numbers opposed to her views. Having done so, she put no 
factious obstruction in the way afterwards, but quietly resigned 
herself and fell in with the majority. This simplified matters. 
A careful consideration of the most suitable situation led to the 
selection of the Quarry Brae at Lennoxtown as in every way the 
most convenient and central. By skilful diplomacy Mr. Macleod 
at last oventame all scruples and prejudices, and the opposition 
of a few heritors and some other malcontents. ^* He's a pawkie, 
clever, cunuin' Hielan'man," was the verdict of one of his 
opponents on this question. Miss Lennox sold the site for a 
sum of £480, as fixed by arbiters. 

Mr. David Hamilton, architect, Glasgow, was called on 
to inspect the new site and submit a suitable plan. Mr. Hamil- 
ton in course submitted a plan, which met with general approval. 
It shewed a Gothic building, estimated to accommodate 1550 and to 
cost about £5000. The stone was specified to be freestone from the 
quarries at Fossil, which was to be conveyed by canal to Hillhead 
of Kirkintilloch and thence carted to Lennoxtown. Mr. Hamil- 
ton received instructions to issue specifications and invite offers 
for the execution of the work. The heritors met on the 10th 
April, 1827, to open the tenders and accept offers. 

The freestone from the quarries near Hishopbriggs is decaying 
under the exposure to the weather. The local sandstone, which 
was rejected for this, is a little coarser in the grain, yet exposure 
to the weather only makes it whiter and harder, as may be seen in 
the lower masonry courses of Lennox Castle. 

The architect's plan was to level the conical crest of the broom- 
covered knoll sufficiently to prepare the ground for the erection 
o^ the church there, and to place the church in such a position as 
that the door sill could be seen by a person standing on the 
turnpike road. The heritors employed a Mr. Scott, Strathblane^ 
to act as civil engineer ; to take the levels and give a section of 
the ground to the contractor — Mr. Alexander Stevenson of School- 
field, Bishopbriggs. Mr Scott will be remembered by many, as he 
had a wooden leg, and rode from Strathblane on a white horse. 
Mr. Stevenson accordingly met Mr. Scott on the ground to 
receive his plan and section, and obtain his instructions. But 
Mr. Scott had neither plan nor levelling instruments. He de- 
clared he did not need to have recourse to levels ; " he had a 
capital eye, and could depend on that." An eye-witness has 
described what then occurred. Mr. Scott proceeded to take the 
levels with his *' eye." He walked round and round. Joshua 
only marched seven times round Jericho, but at the seventh 
round Scoit was still ** eyeing " the knoll. After having been 



34 

round and round fully a dozen times he came to a halt Raising 
his wooden leg he brought it down with a thump — ** Put in a peg 
here. That's the leveL I think you should hae sax feet o' 
cutting at the top " As it was he had entirely miscalculated the 
level. Instead of taking six feet off the top he took off about 
fourteen, and thereby placed the foundation about six feet too 
low, thus doing much to spoil the site. This caused a portion 
of the ground behind to be higher than the church and greatly 
increased the expenses attendant on levelling, on building retaining 
walls, forming the graveyard, &c. These, mainly owing to this 
mistake, amounted to about £8000, a far larger sum than anyone 
had anticipated. Mr Scott about this time was consulted by the 
factor on the Woodhead estate, who wished to have some im- 
provement effected on the road leading to Woodhead. After 
examining the ground he had an interview with Miss Lennox at 
Woodhead. Disdaining the use of pen or paper, in order to 
explain his plan to Miss Lennox, he spat on the table, and with 
his finger and spittle drew a plan on the dining-room table ! 
Mr. Scott was never consulted by Miss Lennox after that 

The best way of getting access to the brae on which the church 
was to be built was keenly contested, but Mr. David Fleming, 
one of the elders, and father of Mr. John T. Fleming, soon solved 
the difficulty. Taking up his bellows one day he expounded his 
plan. Pointing to one of the handles, he said, there you have 
your church. Drawing his hands round both sides of the bellows, 
here you have two winding roadways leading from the church and 
uniting in one main way — the nozzle, which would join the public 
road. The hint was taken, the ground was laid out, and the 
roads formed after David Fleming's bellows. 

The Lennoxtown people and others throughout the parish hailed 
the project with enthusiasm, and arrangements were made for 
having a grand demonstration on the occasion of laying the 
foundation stone on the 21st June, 1827. The parish masonic 
lodges attended with a band of music. The minister and kirk- 
session, the heritors, schoolmasters, and gentlemen connected in 
various ways with the parish assembled, and walked in procession 
to the site of the proposed edifice, where they were saluted by 
thousands who had assembled to witness the ceremonies of the 
day. After the procession had taken the ground assigned to it 
the Rev. Norman Macleod, as minister of the parish, engaged in 
prayer, supplicating Almighty God in favour of the undertaking, 
'i'lien John Lennox Kincaid, younger of Kincaid, as Grand 
Master of the Lennox Kilwinning Lodge, deposited in the founda- 
tion stone a glass bottle, hermetically sealed, containing coins, 
medals, Edinburgh and Glasgow newspapers, an almanac, calen- 
dar, &c., and a list of the clergymen who had served the cure 
since 1581. John M'Farlan of Ballancleroch then read the in- 
scription plate laid on the foundation stone, after which Mr. J. L. 
Kincaid laid the stone with all the ceremonial usual on such occa- 



35 

sioDS, closing with the Masonic benediction: — ^'May the Grand 
Architect of the universe enable us successfully to carry on and 
finish the work of which we have now laid the foundation stone, 
and every other undertaking which may tend to the advantage of 
the parish of Campsie and its inhabitants, and may this Church 
be long preserved from peril and decay." The spectators then 
gave three cheers, after which Mr. Kincaid addressed the meeting. 
Sir Samuel Stirling of Glorat then made an excellent speech, 
dwelling on the lessons taught by the occasion, and thanked the 
Right Worshipful Grand Master, the other Worthy Masters, 
office-bearers, and brethren of the lodges present, the pastor for 
all his exertions, and concluded by requesting that Mr. Kincaid 
would convey to his most worthy relative, Miss Lennox of Wood- 
head, the obligation which they felt they had come under to her 
for her consent to remove the Parish Church to its present situa- 
tion. " If," he said, *' in yielding to the wishes of a numerous 
population she made a sacrifice of feeling, I trust that while she 
surveys a religious multitude enclosed within the walls of this 
building, the consciousness of having performed her duty will be 
its own reward, and that that reward will be in heaven." Up- 
wards of a hundred parishioners were entertained to dinner by the 
direction of Mr. Lennox Kincaid, some dining in the Clachan and 
some at Lennoxtown, and the evening was spent in harmony and 
real happiness. 

MR. DENNISTOUN PRESENTS COMMUNION PLATE. 

The church when erected was worthy of the parish. It was 
large and commodious, and although built nearly two miles away 
from the manse, still was where it should be, in the centre of the 
most populous portion of the parish, in the very midst of the 
people. Mr. Dennistoun of Golfhill, a native of the parish, who 
had become one of the leading merchants of Glasgow, took the 
opportunity of the erection of the church to present communion 
cups and flagon, thus following the excellent example of Mr. 
Graham of Gartmore, who, in 1790, presented two solid silver 
communion cups to the parish of Kippen, '•^ in testimony of his 
veneration for the religion of his country, of his respect for the 
present pastor, and of his regard for the inhabitants of the parish." 
I was in the church when the stained-glass windows behind the 
pulpit were inaugurated, when several members of Dr. Macleod's 
family were present. 

The custom of making gifts to churches, such as stained-glass 
memorial windows, harmoniums, organs, baptismal fonts, com- 
munion plate, &c., is an excellent one. Will some public-spirited 
parishioner defray the expense of having the church lighted 
^7 g^> so that evening services may be conducted when con- 
venient ? I remember when tallow candles, on the autumn 
communion Sabbath, made the darkness visible at the afternoon 

P 



36 

swHiOB, and I always considered it was not creditable to tkose 
concerned that a system of lightin<^ the church should have been 
so long in being introduced. However, this is a digression. We 
must return to the new church. 

THE FORMAL OPENING. 

The formal opening was looked upon as a great event, and it 
was proposed that some great gun should be asked to preach on 
the occasion, and as Principal Baird of Edinburgh University 
was known to be a great friend, it was suggested that he might 
be asked. Dr Macleod had the greatest respect for the worthy 
Principal, after whom he named one of his sons — George Husband 
Baird — but he demurred to the proposal. No one, he declared, 
would enter his new pulpit to preach in it before himself, and he 
carried his point. He preached the first sermon in it, and there 
are those who recollect the stillness that pervaded the crowded 
assembly as he rose to give out the opening psalm. He gave the 
84th, which he read out with feeling singularly appropriate to the 
new place of worship. 

" How lovely is thy dwelling place, 
O, Lord of Hosts, to me t 
The tabernacles of Thy grace 
How pleasant. Lord, they be! 

Within his new church the minister found himself addressing a 
larger and more enthusiastic congregation than had ever been 
known in Campsie. His elders were devoted to him, and his new 
people were soon as friendly and loyal as those he had left at 
Campbeltown. There are still many surviving who remember the 
great demonstration at laying the foundation stone, and the 
opening of the church in 1828. After an interval of sixty-three 
years, 1 am informed there are a few still worshipping in it who 
saw it opened — Messrs. Buchanan, Shields, Robert Buchanan, 
Lennoxtown ; Mrs. John Houston and her sister, Mrs. Blair, may 
be mentioned. There may be more of whose names I am not 
aware. 

CHOLERA— DR. MACLEOD PROTECTS A POOR STRANGER'S BODY. 

In this year (1827), the same year in which the new Parish 
Church was erected, the University of Edinburgh conferred on 
Mr. Macleod the degree of D.D., mainly in recognition of his 
services on behalf of education. While he was in Campsie the 
first outbreak of cholera which occured in this country made its 
appearance in the parish. It is as difficult now as it was to re- 
flective people then to comprehend the strange feelings which it 
excited among the more ignorant of the people. They became 
the slaves of what might be called hysterical delusions. A spirit 
of wild fear and unreasoning panic was abroad. In some 
places they even accused the physicians of poisoning the wells. 



37 

A death had oceurred in the parish, whereupon a croird of ignor- 
ant and excited people gathered and threatened to oppose the 
refuoval of the dead hodj. Dr. Macleod went to the scene of the 
disturbance, entered the house, assisted to get out the coffin, 
placed it in a cart, and when a formidable line was formed across 
the road to obstruct the funeral, and the rein of the horse was 
seized, he commanded silence, and addressed the people. He said 
that this was the body of a poor stranger, an Irishman ; that he 
himself, as a Highlander, was equally a stranger ; that as such 
he would protect his poor brother, and he warned them that if 
any man dared to hinder his burial^ he would give orders that the 
coffin should be left at that man's door. I need not add that the 
funeral was allowed to proceed, and that no mob ever afterwards 
assembled to interfere with the burial of the dead. 

NO. 1 LAIR PRESENTED TO DR. MACLEOD. 

A few years after the church had been opened it was resolved 
to have the ground that was to form the new graveyanl laid out 
in lots for sale. On 7th Nov., 1838, the following committee 
was appointed to have this carried out : — Mr. M'Farlan of Kirk- 
ton, Mr. Lennox of Woodhead, Mr. A. 6. Stirling of Craigbarnet, 
Mr. McLaren (factor for Sir Archd. Edmonstone), Dr. Macleod, 
Mr. William Buchanan (Crosshouse), Mr. John Buckie, and Mr. 
David Dunn. This committee resolved to allocate No. 1 lair to 
Dr. Macleod, who expressed his willingness to ,pay the regular 
price for it ; but it occurred to the committee that, considering 
Dr. Macleod's public services, especially in the matter of the new 
church and churchyard, it would not be becoming in the heritors 
to accept of any price from him. In accepting this gift from the 
heritors. Dr. Macleod promised to make it the burying-place of 
his family, and that his own remains should be brought back to 
Campsie. 

COLLAPSE OF "TENT." 

Mr. Stevenson of Beechmount occasionally accompanied the 
Maitlands of Balgrochan to the church at the Clachan. On 
sacramental occasions a ^* tent ^ was placed outside the church, 
usually just a little inside the entrance gate. It was here the 
ministers who were assisting preached. In the summer of 1826, 
the summer of the drought, Mr. Stevenson and the late Mr. 
James Maitland were both in the churchyard. It was a beautiful 
day, and the concourse of people was so large that Dr. Macleod 
came outside and preached the action sermon from the ** tent.*' 
He then engaged in prayer, during which he was quoting 
from the 189th Psalm— " Whither shall I go from Thy 
spirit, or whither shall I flee from Thy presence ? If I ascend up 
into heaven. Thou art there : if I make my bed in hell, behold"— 



38 

when 'he suddenly disappeared from sight, and there wae silence. 
The platform on which he had been standing had given way, and 
the minister was thrown down but not injured. It was speedily 
put right again, when the minister remounted it, and having said, 
with calm dignity, '* Let us solemnize our minds," he continued 
his sentence where it had been interrupted, and the service pro- 
ceeded. Both Mr. Stevenson and the late Laird Maitland were 
agreed that the incident happened to the Doctor himself, and 
Mr. Stevenson is positive that, as he was never inside the church 
at all, and yet heard Dr. Macleod preach, he cannot be mistaken. 
He thinks Mr. M*Naughton preached afterwards in the **tent."* 
Dr. Macleod's life in Campsie was a very busy one. A son of 
the manse, he had been accustomed in his native parish to familiar 
and hearty intercourse with all classes. When he came to 
Campsie he cultivated the acquaintance of his people, in whose 
personal and family concerns he took the liveliest interest. He 
was always ready to promote their prosperity, grudging neither time 
nor labour if .he could thereby advance their interests. Besides 
discharging all the ordinary parochial duties he worked hard at 
establishing and carrying on the new Educational Scheme of the 
Church of Scotland. During all the ten years he was in Campsie 
he was also steadily working on the Gaelic Dictionary which he 
published in conjunction with Dr. Dewar. For the instruction 
and amusement of his countrymen he edited a Gaelic monthly 
magazine, of which he was also chief contributor. The name of 
Campsie became endeared to Highlanders as the place from which 
emanated his contributions to the Teachdaire Gaelltachd and to the 
Cuartair nan Gleann, He was also deeply interested in the Celtic 
population of Ireland. He went to Ulster to lend his aid to the 
Presbyterian Church to form and extend churches in the synod 
of Ulster. At the request of the Synod of Ulster he made a 
metrical version of the Psalms in Irish Gaelic, for use in the Irish 
Presbyterian Church. Though Dr. Macleod was in a lowland 
parish, his heart was in the Highlands ; or, as Lord Cockburn 
once said of him, ** If his heart was seen, I am sure it would be 
dressed in a kilt ! " During Dr. Macleod's ministry in Campsie, 
Turkey-red dyeing and printing were carried on extensively in 

* Before putting this MS. into the printer's hands, I took the precaution 
to {tend it to a gentleman who, I was assured, knew more of Dr. Macleod's 
life in Campsie than anyone now living. He writes me in reply ; — ** I have 
perused with pleasure your account of Dr. Macleod's life in Campsie, and 
its people. Nothing can be related of that dear old parish and its inhabitants 
but is full of interest to me. I have carefully read your paper, and have 
found nothing worthy of correction. I never heard the anecdote of the 
Campbeltown recommendation. Old Craigbarnet was a bit of a * wag,' 
and probably the anecdote was improved on by * Craigie.' I quite 
remember the breakdown of the * tent,' but am not so sure of the quota- 
tion of the Psalm. It was, however, Mr. M*Naughton, afterwards Dr. 
M*Naughton, of Lesmahagow, who was in the tent, not Dr. Macleod, who, 
as the parish minister, was preaching in the old church, the tent outside 
being occupied by the ministers assisting. -However, that is a small matter.' 



3^ 

Lennox Mill. Those in charge of these departments— Mr. 
M'Bean in the Turkey-reds and Sandy M'Lean the dyer — em- 
ployed Highlanders by preference, and were instrumental in 
bringing many of these to Campsie, who were at first unable to 
speak English, but who quickly picked it up. Besides those em- 
ployed in the public works there were, at that time, many others 
in the parish following various occupations. In the Highlanders 
of Campsie and surrounding districts Dr. Maoleod took the 
•liveliest interest. On several occasions he arranged for special 
services in Gaelic on summer Sabbath afternoons. At these 
musterings of the clans he was always in his best form, while 
those for whom the services were intended felt it a great privilege 
to be present. 

Dr. Macleod's good humour and unfailing tact enabled him to 
overcome successfully many diihculties. There is an anecdote told 
of him before he came to Campsie how he managed to quiet the 
scruples of an old elder. This worthy felt aggrieved at the dial of 
jEi clock having been painted in the space reserved for a real one in 
the steeple of the Gaelic church. He expressed very great regret 
at his being compelled by his conscience to bring the matter before 
the kirk-session, on the ground that nothing false should ever be 
connected with a church. The minister made no objections to his 
proposed motion, but in the course of conversation which ensued 
took the opportunity of complimenting his old elder on the youth- 
fulness of his looks, especially on the fine dark head of hair which 
adorned his venerable head. *' Hoot, toot 1 " replied the elder, 
" you are going too far, sir, for you know it is a new wig." " A 
wig," exclaimed the minister, *' you, an elder, to wear a wig ! Is 
not false hair on the head of an elder of the church worse than a 
false clock on the steeple of a church?" " Aweel, aweel," said 
the old elder, ^' ye hae me there, minister, and I think we'll let 
baith alane ! " Although this story may be regarded as a '* ches- 
nut," yet it does duty yet, and a few years ago was told by 
Dr. Donald Macleod, of Park Church, Glasgow, at a soiree of 
St. George's-in-the-Fields, Glasgow. His point was the misnomer 
of a city church being called '^ In-the-Fields ; " and he narrated 
the story of his father and the old elder in the hearing of my old 
Campsie friend, Mr. Rowland Hill Eadie. 

It was during the ministry of Dr. Macleod that the worship of 
the Roman Catholic Church was revived in Campsie. The first 
Irishman who settled in Campsie, about the beginning of -this 
century, was named Felix M*Kewn, but he married a Haughhead 
woman and the family grew up Protestants. Shortly after the 
battle of Waterloo an Irishman, whose name was Loughrey, 
found employment about Torrance, where he took up his 
residence. In conjunction with a man named Hume he 
took some contracts connected with working minerals, and 
in course of time, as he required labourers, he brought them 
over ft*om his own county in Ireland. When he came 



40 

first to Torraoce he was an object of curiosity and some* 
thing like aversion. On Saturday or Sunday afternoons parties 
would be formed in the Newtown, as Lennoxtown was then called, 
to walk down and stare at this stranger and hear him speak in his 
native brogue. Year after year the number of Irish immigrants 
steadily increased. About 1830 they sent a petition to Dr. Pa- 
terson, the Vicar Apostolic of this district, representing that they 
were entirely without any spiritual provision, and praying for the 
appointment of a resident priejst. Dr. M'Pherson was selected to 
visit the district, make enquiry, and report, and it was while he 
was carrying out this mission that he had the Irish residents in 
and around Torrance collected in a private house, where, on the 
23rd January, 1831, he celebrated Mass in the parish for the first 
time since the Reformation. At the same time he baptized three 
children. On the 1 0th September of that year the late Monsignor 
M'Lachlan, of Stirling, was sent to take permanent charge of the 
Roman Catholics in Campsie and a wide district around it, em- 
bracing Milngavie, Strathblane, Balfron, Kilsyth, and Kirkintil- 
loch. On his arrival in Campsie Dr. M^Lachlan found religious 
prejudices so strong against a Papist priest that he was refused a 
night*s lodgings in the inn. It is said that in the district specified 
he had about a thousand souls under his pastoral care. 

The subsequent history of the Roman Catholic Church may be 
here briefly summarized. Dr. M^Lachlan, appointed priest in 
1831, was replaced in 1840 by Father Green, who was promoted 
in 1844. It is said, as illustrative of the strong animus against 
Roman Catholic priests, that a prominent man in the parish, on 
meeting Father Green, called out — '* Oh ! thou deceiver of souls." 
Rev. John Gilloo was appointed in 1845, and was transferred in 
1866. Died at Falkirk in 1871. The late Rev. John H. 
Magini was appointed in 1866. Provost M^It^ell is now in 
charge* The Roman Catholic Chapel was built by Dr. Carruthers, 
Vicar Apostolic of the Eastern Division, and was opened in 1846, 
io Father Gillon's time. It was originally named St Paul's, but 
when Father Magini beca,me acquainted with the early ecclesias- 
tical history of the parish he obtained the sanction of the late 
Archbishop Strain,- and had the name altered to St. Machan's, in 
honour of the old patron saint of the parish, after whom the old 
church at the Clachan had been named. 

In 1835 Dr. Macleod received the appointment to St. Columba's 
Church, in the City of Glasgow, and the same reasons which 
induced him to leave Campbeltown now led him to accept the 
city charge. When he was leaving for Glasgow, a subscription 
was got up to present him with a testimonial expressive of the 
respect and affection with which he was regarded in Campsie. 
He had maintained the traditional hospitality of the Scottish 
manse, while at the same time feeding, clothing, and educating a 
la^e family. His removal to the city entailed on him consider- 
able expense, especially in furnishing a larger house. The result 



of the appeal fw subscriptions was that a large sum was raised. 
I have beard the sum put as high as £1200. When this was 
presented to him he said he would at least leave his bones with 
them in Campsie. His testimony on leaving the parish was — 
^* That by one and all of the heritors both he and his family were 
ever treated with the greatest kindness." In 1837, shortly after 
leaving Campsie, he was Moderator of the General Assembly, and 
he afterwards went to England to collect funds for the distress 
then existing. As the result of his eloquent appeals the sum of 
£100,000 was raised. He was in this connection brought into 
contact with the prominent statesmen of the day. Sir Robert Peel 
had a great regard for Dr. Macleod, and showed it in a way that 
speaks volumes for his kindness of heart. One of the oldest 
members of Parliament was sitting beside Sir Robert on the 
opposition side of the house, when he turned round to him and 
said, ^* Your friend Dr. Macleod dines with me to-morrow ; will 
you come and meet him ? He is a noble character, and is in 
my opinion the very beau-ideal of what a clergyman ought to be." 
From a sketch of Dr. Macleod, privately printed as a small 
pamphlet, I have gleaned the following particulars of his life in 
Gla^ow : — With his transference to Glasgow his connection with 
the parish may be said to have ceased, and we cannot follow his sub- 
sequent history with the same detail we have given to his ministry 
in Campsie. But I may be allowed to add that his position in 
Glasgow became an unique one. Not only was he minister of St. 
Columba, Glasgow, but the whole Highlands seemed to daim him 
as their own. Every forenoon filled his lobby with innocent con- 
fiding souls from distant glens and islands, who seemed to think 
that he had only to ^' speak "and whatever they asked was done, 
more especially as they ^* had never asked a favour before " and 
had brought letters to him from laird, factor, schoolmaster, mini- 
ster, or old friend of his own. The requests made were as varied 
as their w^nts — strong men to get into the police ; infirm men or 
women to get into the hospital ; parents with their boy looking 
for a situation, or their daughter for service ; crofters or farmers 
evicted from their holdings, and wishing to emigrate, but wh9h 
and how ? seekers after relatives at home and abroad, lost in un- 
known recesses among the wynds of Glasgow or woods of Canada ; 
the poverty-stricken stranger, solitary as a stray sheep in the 
great city, and craving assistance to get back to the hills, or to 
obtain as his last resource legal charity and relief from the poor's 
boards, who had paid no heed to his complaints ; old soldiers and 
sailors anxious for an increase of their pensions ; hundreds seek- 
ing ^ Mines" to get work; eager hunters after fabulous legacies, 
whose heirs among McLeans, Camerons, or Campbells, &c., had, 
as they were told, been advertised for — all and sundry came to 
hkn to tell their long stories and obtain his aid. It was more 
than flesh and blood could stand ! It was enough to wear out the 
moat patient spirit, for it was itself a severe labour to convince 



42 

many that he had neither the time nor the power to help them ; 
while the niiraher that he did aid was verily not small ! It is such 
nameless and endless details as these that are never known and 
that leave no visible trace behind, which make the life of a city 
minister so distracting and wearying, especially one so well known 
as he was, and with his peculiar relationship to the Celtic popu- 
lation in Glasgow and in the Highlands. 

On one occasion a sick Highlander, who applied to him to pro- 
cure medical advice, was offered by him a bed in the hospital. 
The invalid refused, on the ground that the doctors would kill him 
for the sake of obtaining his body, make " saw " (salve) of his bones, 
&c. But his scruples were overcome by Dr. Macleod promising to 
visit him regularly. He at last brought the patient the good 
news of his being convalescent, and able to return home. The 
Highlander seemed much cast down by the intelligence, and tak- 
ing him aside, whispered to him that since he had got him 
in, he hoped he would be able to keep him in until the term day, 
as he had such good meat and drink and was so extraordinary 
comfortable. 

Dr. Macleod died at Glasgow on Tuesday, 25th Nov., 1862. 
A Highland woman one night came to the door of his house when 
he was lying in his cofRn. She implored the Highland servant 
who received her, with most earnest accent, to see him, and 
rapidly following her, she embraced his coffin, kissed his face, and 
disappeared. Who she was the family knew not. A correspon- 
dent writes : — 

" I can have no doubt whatever as to the identity of the Highland woman 
who 80 earnestly entreated to bo allowed a look at Dr. Macleod*s corpse, and 
who, when this was allowed, looked at him with love and reverence, passion- 
ately, kissed him, and, overcome with emotion, so abruptly rushed out. This 
would be Kate Macintyre, who lived at centre of the Doddle Row and was 
employed at sewing what was termed flowering webs. She was the most 
expert sewer I have ever seen. You are aware that I was an exceedingly 
delicate child and required at one time constant nursing. Kate was a kind- 
hearted woman, who many a time relieved my dear mother, and nursed me. 
Kate was passionately attached to Dr. Macleod, for whom she had a 
reverence akin to superstition. I remember Kate and her brother John — 
Sugar Jock as he was called — quite distinctly, both were blind fair. Kate 
had white eyelashes, white hair, and was very shortsighted. When Dr. 
Macleod removed to Glasgow, so strongly was she attached to him, she 
walked in to Glasgow on the Saturday evening. For her kindness to me 
my mother gave her a bed. She attended her dear Doctor wherever he was 
preaching, and then walked out to Campsie on the Sabbath evening. Hers 
was the most ardent case of hero-worship I ever knew." 

I give my friend's letter, but it could not possibly have been Kate, 
as she died in 1838. Her burying-place is quite near the 
Doctor's. She looked forward with pleasure to lying so near him, 
declaring it would be heartsome to be so near the Doctor. The 
road leading from Dr. Macleod's grave crosses the burial-place, 
and although the stone bears '^ This burial-place is ever to remain 
sacred to the memory of Colin Macintyre and Susan M*GregCMr, 



43 

his wife/' the heritors have encroached on it so far as Vb allow it 
to be nsed as a pathway. 

Dr. Macleod's funeral was a public one; but there was one feature 
in it which those who noticed wHl never forget — one which, 
to the members of his family, was more touching than even 
the long line of carriages in which leading citizens and men of 
every party kindly followed him to the grave — and that was the 
number of poor Highland men and women who accompanied 
the procession until it left the city, very many tottering in 
their weakness, helped along by those stronger than themselves, 
and weeping as they went for their pastor and their friend. 
He was buried in Campsie beside the new church, which he 
bad been the chief means of erecting, and beside more than 
one dear child and relative, and in ground which itself was a 
mark of love, because given by the heritors to himself and family. 
When the funeral reached Campsie the spectacle was remarkable. 
It was twenty-five years since he left the parish, and yet in a 
town of two thousand every shop was shut spontaneously. 
" There we laid him and returned to my beloved mother," is 
what his son Norman writes in his diary. His funeral sermon, in 
Gaelic, was preached by his old and valued friend. Dr. M*Farlan, 
of Arrochar; and in English by another highly-valued friend, 
the son of his most attached elder in Campsie, the Rev. Dr. 
Mathieson, of Montreal, and brother of Mrs. Tagg, for long 
postmistress in Campsie. 

In the north-east corner of the grave-yard, a tall, graceful 
Ionic cross has been erected to the memory of the two Doctor 
Norman Macleods, father and son, and their relatives. Archi- 
tecturally it is not well-suited to the position ; if it had a 
background of trees it would look better. It has the following 

inscription : — 

IN MEMORY OF 

NORMAN MACLEOD, D.D., 

ONE OF HER MAJESTY'S CHAPLAINS, 

DEAN OF THE CHAPEL-ROYAL ; 

BORN 2nd dec, 1783; DIED 25th NOV., 1862. 

AND OF HIS WIFE 

AGNES MAXWELL, 

BORN 5th AUG., 1785; DIED 6th APRIL, 1879. 

ALSO OF THEIR SON 

NORMAN MACLEOD, D.D., 

ONE OF HER MAJESTY'S CHAPLAINS, 

DEAN OF THE CHAP^-ROYAL, 

DEAN OF THE MOST ANCIENT AND NOBLE ORDER OF THE THISTLE 

BORN 3kd JUNE, 1812 ; DIED 16th JUNE, 1872. 

And on a recumbent stone there is inscribed — 

HERE LIES NORMAN MACLEOD, D.D., 
MINISTER OF ST. COLUMBA'S PARISH, GLASGOW ; 
BORN 2nd dec, 1783; DIED 25th NOV., 1862. 



44 

tt 18 not perhaps generfilly kDown that in Aug., 1872, the Queen 
intended to vit>it the grave of Dr. Macleod's more distinguieftied 
eon, and had ordered Mr. Walker to have a carriage on the 15th 
Aug. at Lenzie Junction, to convey Her Majesty to Lennoxtown. 
The visit was only prevented by the weather proving unfavourable. 



Since reading the paper I have learned that among the families 
who left the Relief and returned to the Parish Church when Dr. 
Macleod came were John Stevenson, farmer, Craigend, father of 
the late R. H. Stevenson, D.D., of St. George's, Edinburgh ; 
Robert Morrison, feuar, North Birbiston ; and James Goldie, 
Lennoxtown, &c. 



^""^^^^^^ 



ROBERT LEE, D.D., 

MINISTER OF CAMPS IE, 
A SKETCH OF HIS LIFE AND TIMES. 



The transference of Dr. Maeleod to St. Columba's, Glasgow, 
causing a vacancy in Carapsie, the usual course was followed, and 
a commitee was appointed to look out for a suitable minister. 
The late Kev. Dr. Stevenson, of Dairy, had preached for Dr. 
Maeleod shortly before this, when he made such a favourable 
impression on his hearers that, on the vacancy occurring, they 
turned at once to him. He, however, had a choice of parishes, 
and decb'ned Carapsie. The committee then had their attention 
directed to the Rev. Robert Lee, then minister of the chapel-of-ease 
of Inverbrothick. A deputation was sent to hear him preach, and 
ascertain in what estimation he was held among his own people. 
It is recorded in the " Life and Remains of Robert Lee, IXD.," by 
R. H. Story, D.D., that the deputation from Campsie *' was 
greatly influenced in his favour by the impressive manner and 
well-chosen language of his prayers." Their report was favourable, 
and it was adopted. In due course, on the petition of the parish- 
ioners, the advisers of the Crown issued a presentation to the 
benefice in his favour. 

Mr. Robert Lee, who had thus been so harmoniously appointed 
to Campsie parish, was born in Tweedmouth, in 1804. His par- 
ents gave him the best education they could afford, sending him 
to Berwick Grammar School. They lacked the means to send 
him to college, so he commenced work in a boat-building yard, 
where he remained employed till he was about 20 years of age. 
When he had determined to study for the ministry young Lee 
occupied his leisure time in building a boat. This he «old, and 
with the price of it in his pockets he set off to College in 1824. 
He selected St. Andrew's, where living was cheap, the fees small, 
and bursaries were within the reach of the clever student. His 
biographer tells us how the young Tweedmouth boatbuilder be- 
came an ardent and successful student. With many things 
against him and no exceptional circumstances in his favour we 
find that in classics he eclipsed all rivals, taking first prise in the 
Senior Greek class, while in Latin classes he was uniformly the 
first scholar. We learn the secret of his success <fi^m the pages 



46 

of his private journal. In his fourth year at college his time is 
planned methodically — the hours of rising, meals, exercise, college, 
study. He lays down that he is always to return home at eight 
o'clock, wherever he may be, " then study mathematics for two 
hours, till ten. Then the study of natural philosophy till twelve. 
After that, always read a chapter of the bible and pray, Deus 
adsity Through years of severe manual toil he had looked for- 
ward to the opportunities of study he now enjoyed, and he applied 
himself unremittingly to take advantage of them all. 

When he had completed his university curriculum Dr. Haldane, 
the principal of St. Mary's College, wrote concerning him — "This 
University has not for many years sent forth a more distinguished 
student. He has gained, during a succession of years, the high- 
cFt honours which the University can award." While at College 
he maintained himself by teaching, and during his later sessions 
he became tutor at Mount Melville, near St. Andrews, having 
under his care the well-known Mr. G. J. Whyte-Melville, the 
author of many society novels, "Kate Coventry," "The Gladia- 
tors," &c. 

Mr. Lee was licenscMl in 1882, and in the following year he was 
elected minister of the Inverbrothick Chapel. Here he worked 
hard for two years. As the results of his ministry were most 
successful, the managers of the Chapel shewed their appreciation 
of his labours by raising his stipend from £150 to £175. The 
young Tweedmouth boatbuilder, the St. Andrews student, and 
Arbroath minister had no personal influence or connections in 
the West, and he might have remained longer in the comparative 
obscurity of the Inverbrothick Chapel had he not gained the 
affections of a lady whose brother was rising into great influence 
in Glasgow. It was probably owing to the Rev. Robert 
Buchanan, then of the Tron Church, Glasgow, using his influence 
with Dr. Macleod, that the Campsie committee took his qualifica- 
tions into their consideration at all. But when they had done 
so they found his own merits to be such that they sent the 
deputation to his chapel, with the result which has been already 
mentioned. 

While near Arbroath he had for his neighbour the Rev. 
Thomas Guthrie, then minister of Arbirlot, afterwards the famous 
Dr. Guthrie of the Free Church. When Lee had decided to leave 
and go to Campsie, Guthrie wrote him the following characteristic 
letter : — 

*< Many thanks for all your kindness to me. I have enjoyed much pleasure 
in your friendship, and am sensible of no little profit from it, and you carry 
my respect, my affection, and my best wishes along with you. I could 
almost play the woman while I write this farewell note. Fare-thee-well, 
my good friend ; again I say, fare -thee- well. May the Lord bless you, and 
make you a blessing ; and 1 have now only to say, that at the very sight.of 
yon my door shall swing wide open on its hinges, and that I am, and ever 
wUl be, your most affectionate friend, " Thomas Guthrie. 

•* Mamsb of Abbirlot, April 18, iSSG," 



47 

The date of Mr Lee's presentation to Canipsie was 5th Feb., 
1836. His induction took place on the 5th May, and in the June 
following he was married to Miss Buchanan, a sister of the Rev. 
Dn Robert Buchanan, the historian of the "Ten Years' Conflict." 
His biographer says his marriage was a most happy one, and he 
delighted in his children. His heart rejoiced in his home, and his 
life at Campsie " was singularly active, bright and happy — shining 
with a clear light of heart and intellect — full of well-done work 
and of kindly affection and friendship, with the sacredness, then 
as ever, of a real and quiet piety pervading all." Mr. Lee com- 
menced his ministry in Campsie under favourable circumstances. 
He had always carefully thought out the subject matter of his 
prayers, and his preaching was both interesting and edifying. He 
carried on his studies with the ardour of a keen student, at the 
same time throwing himself heartily into his parochial work. 
This, by some considered a drudgery, to him was a labour of 
love, as he delighted in visiting and going among his people. 

Shortly after his honeymoon he commenced a thorough and 
systematic visitation, resolving to call on every family in the 
parish, irrespective of their church connections, or whether they 
belonged nominally to any church at all. Calling one day at a 
house on his rounds in Lennoxtown he found the wife at home^ 
Her husband was at his usual calling. What was that ? A nailer. 
That reminded him of his old boatbuilding days, and he told that, 
when a young man, he had worked both in wood and iron, had 
tried his hand at smith and joiner work, and other allied handi- 
crafts, but the most difficult thing he had ever attempted was to 
make a nail. Anything that recalled his Tweedmouth home was 
of interest. The sight of a toy boat sailing on the Whitefield 
pond stopped him one day as he was riding past. The boy owner 
was sheltering himself on the road from the strong north wind, 
but Lee accosted him and asked the details about his boat, and 
who had made it — he watched its progress for some time as it 
crossed the pond in the strong breeze, and then rode on, his 
thoughts away back to his own boyish days. When engaged in 
pastoral visitation he had a special aversion to married women 
standing in little knots idly talking on the pavement, and to their 
assembling in each other's houses, and passing the time in idleness 
or gossip. He entered a house one day, when he found a number 
of neighbours idly talking, when he thought they should have 
been attending to their household duties. He declined to sit down 
and " intrude " on them ; but, in going out, he turned and asked 
the assembled matrons if they knew what Abraham had replied 
when the Lord asked Jiina where Sarah was ? None of them knew, 
so he told them that Abraham said Sarah was in her tent, or own 
house, where every good wife should be. 

In conjunction with his assistant, Mr. Marshall, in 184^, he 
commenced a prayer meeting. Referring to one of these Campsie 
prayer meetings, he writes; — ** L had not time to compose the 



48 

second prayer, but I think the service was edif jing. It m useful 
to feel that prayer and praise are the main matters for which peo- 
ple assemble." In this sentence we have a key-note showing that 
even in his Campsie ministry, while according to the sermon its 
due place in the public service of the sanctuary, he was seeking 
even then to raise the services of praise and prayer to that import- 
ance in worship which he thought they deserved, restoring to the 
public services in church the character which our Saviour ascribed 
to His Father's house, as a house of prayer, and not of preaching. 

His reading of the scriptures was impressive, not from its mere 
elocution but from the impression he conveyed that he had a 
message to deliver, which it was important they should all hear 
and for which he claimed their closest attention. ^* I never heard 
the scriptures read with the same interest, I was young and his 
sermons were often above my comprehension, but I always enjoyed 
his reading," is the testimony of one of his hearers. 

When the fierce *' Ten Years' Conflict " was at its hottest, be 
kept nearly aloof from the strife. On the first page of his com- 
mon-place book, written shortly after he had been inducted to 
Campsie, he writes : — ^' Let this be my ambition, to be known in 
my parish, to be unknown out of it, i.e., to be known for use and 
edification, to be unknown to fame and men's speeches." 

The Non-Intrusion question was taken up in Campsie and dis- 
cussed, as it was then the burning question in Scotland. Lee's 
position was rather a peculiar one. A Liberal in politics, with 
strong popular sympathies, we learn from Dr. Cunningham's 
Lecture* that he appears to have sympathised with the Non- 
Intrusionists in their desire to give the people a voice in the 
choice of their minister, but he failed to see that patronage was 
anti-scriptural or sinful ; and he derided the idea that Church 
courts could override statute law, under the name of spiritual 
independence. Dr. Cunningham says: — ** He was not a great 
preacher : be was too cold, too purely intellectual for that He 
had no graphic power, little imagination, no passion, lacking the 
power either to melt his audience to tears or rouse enthusiasm. 
But he could state facts clearly, reasoning on them convincingly. 
He could interest, instruct, persuade." I have heard it remarked 
that Mr. Lee was never so popular with his female parishioners as 
his predecessor and successor. He was too coldly intellectual in 
preaching, appealing to the understanding and rarely touching 
the feelings. In this respect he was a great contrast to the fer- 
vid appeals of Dr. Macleod and the polished rhetoric of Dr. 
Monro. Notwithstanding this drawback, if it was one, he made 
his position not only perfectly clear to his people at Campsie, but 
he seems also to have been successful in persuading them to 
follow his example. In after years he did the same with his 
people in Old Greyfriar's. He made his views known to them, 

*Seotthh Divines, St. Giles^ Lectures. Third Series. 



49 

seeured their conenrrence in the changes he was ahout to intro- 
duce, and retained their individual support when assailed io the 
Church courts. He was k vigilant pastor, and looked sharply 
after tnemhers who were irregular in their attendance at church. 
He was ready also to visit any parishioner, whether a hearer or 
not. Asked if he would call and see a dying person, who, how- 
ever, had no connection with the church, he replied — " Willingly; 
that is all the more reason why I should go at once." 

Under Macleod and Lee there were two diets of worship, 
forenoon and afternoon. It was reserved to Mr. Munro to roll 
these into one. When Lee was returning from church one 
Sabbath afternoon he met John Brown and Robert Sloss, who 
had been taking a walk to the Clachan. Sloss was able to inform 
him he had attended church in the forenoon, so he turned to 
Brown, who was one of the Relief, and presumed he had been at 
]|is own church in the forenoon also. Brown was disposed to 
be argumentative. Which was the true church was a question. 
Whether was it the Moderates, Evangelicals, or Seceders. Brown 
would like to know from Mr. Lee which of them was the true 
Church of Scotland. Without attempting a reply, he said : — 
*•*' Well, its quite true, sir, these controversies are most lament- 
able in their effects," and walked away. On another Sabbath 
afternoon he saw Sandy I^ coming home tipsy. The public- 
houses were not then closed by a Forbes Mackenzie Act, 
and Sandy and his cronies had partaken rather freely of the 
refreshment which Johnnie Gray provided. Lee was vexed, 
but went up and spoke kindly. Sandy thanked him for his 
advice, but said he would be muckle more obliged if he would 
lend him a shilling. Lee was grieved, and walked sadly 
away. He had a quick eye in the pulpit. One day he saw a 
prominent member fast asleep in the front of the gallery. He 
paused, and, looking straight at the sleeper's pew, said — ^' I am 
now coming to an important point, so I hope those who are asleep 
will awake, and those who are awake will pay attention." There 
can be little doubt that he excelled in exposition of scriptural 
truth. I can recall how often Mr. James Gray used to quote his 
opinions, which he must have put always with clearness and 
precision, for his hearers were in no uncertainty as to his views. 

He did not confine his teaching to his pulpit appearances. He 
got up courses of lectures in his own church at a time when these 
were not so common. But he had to have his lectures in summer, 
as there was no provision for having the church lighted in winter. 
This defect has not been remedied yet. The minister of the 
parish of Campsie- is compelled, in the year 1891, to go to the 
Town Hall if he wishes to give a lecture on a Sabbath evening ! 
A parishioner, who greatly admired a course of his lectures, 
suggested to him that he should publish them. He was told they 
had never been written out, but preached from notes, and that he 
coiild ndt now re-write them, as he had forgotten much both of 



50 

the matter and sequence. '* Oh, Mr. Lee, that's a pity.; if you 

had published these lectures they would have immortaleezed ye." 

An old member of the Y.M. A. has written to me, as follows : ' 

" I have noted one or two incidents in connection with Dr. Lee's ministry 
in Campsie that may be of use to yon. In your lecture you referred to his 
methodical habits as a student. He was also a most punctual man. One 
evening as he entered he saw the meeting had evidently been waiting for 
him. He stated that by his watch it was just the hour, but he apologised if 
he had kept tliem waiting. It was afterwards found that the church 
clock had been wrong. He was also an early riser. I had occasion 
to be sent a message to the manse early one morning, and I reached it 
shortly after 6 o clock. I met him going out to the garden witti a book in 
his hand. He was in the habit of walking and reading aloud in the open 
air. Many years afterwards he was on a visit at Olorat House. I 
happened to lie taking a walk, and had turned up past Glorat, when I. heard 
t^e sound of a voice over by the waterfall, as you enter the garden. I 
listened and soon discovered an elderly, pale-faced, and grey-headed man, 
iti whom I at once recognised Dr. Lee, walking up and down, reading at 
the pitch of his voice, as if he were a student just going into training. 
Apparently he never thought he had arrived at such a state of perfection as. 
that he could dispense with careful preparation. 

The Chartist movement was at its greatest activity diiring his 
ministry. He had no sympathy with it or the Latter-Day-Saint 
movement which followed it. One of his people, Thomas Shields, 
joined the latter movement, and Dr. Story gives a letter addressed 
to '* Dear Thomas " on this subject by Mr. Lee. This letter had 
not the effect Mr. Lee intended. Thomas had a twisted foot, and 
the Apostles of the Latter-Day Saints led Tom to hope that if he 
had faith, their power of working nliracles or faith-healing might 
cure him of his lameness. In his expectation Tom was disap- 
pointed, owing, as the Latter-Day Saints alleged, to his want of 
faith. He determined to sever his connection, but did not like to 
return to the Parish Church, so when he got the appointment of 
precentor in the Relief he, with some of his relatives, joined it.. 
Thomas Shields was an enthusiastic musician and an accomplished, 
player on the flute. Tom had a kindly, genial nature, and • was 
always ready to assist a young musician in every way he could. 

Lee, as we have seen, was only licensed in 1882, yet eight years 
afterwards he boldly enrolled himself as a candidate for the Chair 
of Theology vacant in the Glasgow University in 1840. - This 
actioti' on his part shows that not only was he diligently labouring 
in his parish work, but he was also reading and thinking while his 
mind was maturing and developing and becoming fitted for exer- 
cising influence in a wider sphere of usefulness, such as in a chair 
of the University or in one of the city charges of Edinburgh. 
Two candidates for the Glasgow chair soon came to the front, 
and became the champions of their respective parties. The 
"Evangelicals" rallied in support of Dr. Chalmers, and the 
'* Moderates " threw all the influence of their party into the sup- 
port of Dr. Hill. Lee, who had sympathies with certain points 
on both sides, had never any chance of success. As it was point-: 
edly put, *^ The University which had refused the Chair of Logic 



51 
to Edmund Burke now refused that of theology to Dr. Chal- 



mers." 



The Disruption of the Church of Scotland occurred in May, 
1843. The Edinburgh city churches were then vacated by Chal- 
mers, Cunningham, Welsh, Gordon, Candlish, Guthrie, &c. It 
fell to the Edinburgh Town Council to fill these vacancies. 
Amongst their best selections was the minister of Campsie, and 
on the 29th Aug., 1843, they appointed Mr. Robert Leo to the 
church and parish of Old Grey friar's, vacant by the secession of 
the Rev. John Sym. On the 5th Nov., Lee preached his last 
sermon in Campsie from the text, " Work out your own salva- 
tion." In the course of it he tells his people, with a frank hon- 
esty, that one of his reasons for leaving them is that with his 
growing family he cannot afford to live among them as a min- 
ister should. Mr. Lee left Campsie amid many expressions of his 
pcurishioners' affection and respect, one of these taking the form of 
a cheque for £110, forwarded by Mr. J. L'. Kincaid Lennox, at 
the request of the subscribers, as a mark of their esteem and re- 
gard. Lee wrote the account of the parish in the New Statistical 
Account On special subjects he had the assistance of some of his 
parishioners. Mr. Galloway, for instance, wrote on Agriculture, 
and the note on Nisbet's Heraldry, &c. Mr. Clark, Alum Works, 
also took a section, and one or two others assisted. This account 
is meagre compared with Lapslie's in Sir John Sinclair's Account, 

There is a most interesting letter from the Rev. W. G. Smith, 
then of Ashkirk, but formerly minister of Fintry, given in his Life, 
from which I take the following : — " My intercourse with Dr. 
Lee began soon after my settlement at Fintry, in the end of 1840. 
He was then in the prime of life and full of vigour and activity. 
. . . I found him uniformly anxious, even then, to impress 
upon his younger brethren the necessity both of diligent study 
and of careful attention to all parish work. . . . He was at 
the same time very earnest in his searching after truth. With 
pains and prayers he strove to find it, and to hold it for himself. In 
his influence with his people there was something very striking. 
It was shewn very notably at the time of the Secession. . . . 
Every effort was of course made from Glasgow and elsewhere to 
persuade them to withdraw from the Church of their fathers, but 
in vain. In that large parish of some 6000 people, to the end of 
his incumbency, and for several years thereafter, there was not 
only no Free Church, but scarcely even a Free Churchman. I 
question much if such a case occurred throughout all Scotland, 
and the result was mainly due to the ability and honesty and the 
manliness with which our friend explained the points at issue. " 
It certainly was very remarkable, and formed one of the outstand- 
ing features of his ministry in Campsie that his large congree:a- 
tion should have so loyally supported him with unbroken ranks. 
Free Church people at the time considered that he was a good 
deal indebted to the friendly influence of his brother-in-law, Dr. 



52 

Robert Buchanan, who gently restrained all aggressive measures 
of Non-Intrusion propagandists, so far as Campsie was concerned.* 
Lee had the degree of D.D. conferred on him in 1844 by his Abna 
Mater, St. Andrews. On the 19th January, 1845, his church 
was burned down. The congregation was accommodated in the 
Assembly Hall till 1857, when Old Greyfriars was restored. In 
1847, Dr. Lee was appointed to the chair of Biblical Criticism in 
the University of Edinburgh. He was at the same time made 
Dean of the Chapel-Royal, and appointed one of Her Majesty's 
Chaplains. From an entry in his diary I observe that he re- 
visited Campsie on 3rd March, 1853. He says: — '* Having dined 
at the Manse, I lectured at Lennoxtown to the Mechanics' Insti- 
tute, and, having escaped suffocation, I slept in the room (in the 
Manse) where dear Jane was born and baptised." Regarding his 
lecture to the members of the Campsie Mechanics' Institution, 
Mr. John Young of the Hunterian Museum, Glasgow University, 
has kindly furnished the following memorandum. For a member 
to sit down, after an interval of 38 3rears, and give the substance 
of a lecture, is creditable both to the lecturer and his hearer. 
Mr. Young writes : — 

" I was present at the lecture by Dr. Lee to the Mechanics* Institution to 
which you make reference. He had a large audience, and the lecture inter- 
ested us all very much. He took for his subject, *The Good connected with 
the so-called Evil of the present world.' In the course of his remarks, he 
stated that the organisation of man clearly showed that his present body 
was never intendai by the Creator to live forever. Therefore death came 
in, through the operation of organic law, as a necessary evil, its function in 

* Although Mr. Lee succeeded in preventing the Free Church obtaining a 
sympathiser in Campsie prior to 1843, yet that denomination made a suc- 
cessful raid seventeen years afterwards. In 1860, when Mr. Monro was 
absent in South America, the Glasgow Wynd Church, under the Rev. Mr. 
M*Coll, was a centre of evangelistic work and aggressive denominationalism. 
Not content with the wide sphere afforded in Glasgow, this Church's band 
of Christian workers organized revival meetings in surrounding towns, 
notably in Busby and Campsie. These meetings were attended with a 
certain measure of success in Campsie, and resulted in the nucleus being 
formed of a Free Church Mission. I remember a newspaper controversy on 
the subject and an amusing leader in the Glasgow Bulletin newspaper 
headed ^ Who saved the Sinners in Campsie ? " This denied that the Re- 
vivalists were entitled to all the credit of the good work, which it was con- 
tended should be shared with the other Churches, the Parish and the U. P. 
Campsie was considered a promising field for a forward denominational move- 
ment, and it was decided to form a mission station in connection with 
the Free Church. The Rev. Archibald Henderson, the son of Dr. 
Henderson of Glasgow, and son-in-law of Dr. Candlish, was sent out by the 
Presbytery in 1861 as Missionary. The success which attended his efforts 
seemed to warrant recognition, and he was ordained in 1862. The following 
year he was translated to Crieff. He was succeeded, in 1864, by the Rev. 
Wm. Scott, who was translated in 1867 to Queen's Park, Glasgow. From 
1867 till 1872 the Rev. D. Macleod was minister. In the latter year Mr. 
Macleod went to America. Mr. Dewar was then appointed as a Student 
Missionary. He was ordained in 1874, and translated to Aberdeen in 1879, 
In 1879 the Rev. John Duke was translated from Wellgate Free Church, 
Dundee. Mr. Duke is the present incumbent. 



68 

Nfttare being to remove the aged and infirm from the goene ; the further 
life of the world, as it rolled od through the centuries, being carried on by 
the young and active races. In further illustration of his views he clearly 
pointed oat that all the so-called evils that arise through the operation of 
natural laws, exist for good in the long run, although in their operation they 
often bring afflictions and dire calamities on mankind throughout the world. 
It was a lecture based very much on the same kind of reasoning and illus • 
trating the same principles as Combe's ' Constitution of Man,' and upon much 
the same lines of thought as that which the late Lord Gififord has indicated 
in his will, that he wishes the Courses of Lectures on Natural Theology that 
he has founded should be conducted. I had been reading Combe previously 
and Dr. Lee*s lecture impressed me very much as advancing the same 
views. There were, however, some present who considered that since he 
went to Edinburgh, Dr. Lee had become less orthodox than he was when 
in Campsie. These shook their heads at his setting aside many of those 
evils, which they considered had been brought on all races, through the 
temptation and fall of man.** 

Mr John Cowan, Wycliffe House, Anlaby Road, Hull, also 
favours me with some reminiscences. He writes : — 

'* Mr. Lee once delivered a lecture to young men which pleased me very 
much at the time, and I have always remembered what he said about 
exercising the body to promote health — ** To walk for exercise is good, but 
to dig for the same is better." On another occasion, when on a visit from 
Edinburgh, he delivered a lecture in the School-house, Milton, on * Eating, 
Drinking, &c.,'* and the point that struck me most was this. Over-eating and 
drinking were far worse for us than hunger. Gluttony brought about 
diseases which all the skill of man could not cure, whereas one pennyworth 
of bread could cure the pangs of hunger." 

There were many causes which kept him from throwing himself 
with all his heart into the controversies which ended in the 
Disruption of 1843. He was a loyal son of the Church, and he 
was willing to devote his talents in any field of usefulness for 
which it appeared he was best adapted. Mrs. Oliphant says of 
him, in her introductory chapter to Dr. Story's life : — " He was 
not a missionary. His talents were administrative and con- 
structive. When he turned his quick eye within the Church to 
mark what most wanted doing inside, instead of without, his gaze 
lighted on the weakest point of Scotch religion, its worship. 
Nowhere is there more true piety, nowhere more scripture 
knowledge ; hut Scotland still says her prayers as she was 
compelled to do when she said them on the hill-sides, with the 
Covenanter sentinel ready to warn her of the approach of the red 
coats. John Knox's severe and solemn order had been cast aside 
in the hurry of flight and extremity of danger. It was too new to 
be carried in the bosom of the hunted minister, whose Bible was 
enough for him to carry, and with an incredible fond faithfulness 
the whole country has clung to the sketch of ex tempore^ hurried, 
irregular worship, of which Claverhouse's troopers were the grand 
promoters." Jn a chapter on Innovations (1859), it is stated that 
Dr. Lee considered that of all the evils afflicting the Church an 
unimpressive and ill -ordered worship was the worst — that an ill- 
ordered, slovenly, uncertain service either blunted all reverential 
feeling, or drove devotion and cultui^ from the sanctuary. The 



54 

following description is given of the manner in which an average 
country congregation assembles : — '^ Coming into church with 
hardly any show of reverence for the sacred place, and sitting 
down without any sign of prayer or blessing asked. The minister 
enters the too often ugly and ungainly pulpit .... the 
singing led by some discordant or bull-throated precentor. A 
long, often doctrinal and historical and undevotional prayer is 
uttered by the minister, the people standing listlessly the while, 
most of them staring at the minister or their neighbours, and a 
benediction, during which the men get their hats ready, and the 
women gather up their bibles, and draw their shawls and cloaks 
into most becoming drape, and as soon as the last word is uttered 
they are all charging out of the kirk as if for their dear lives." 
This picture is no exaggeration : you and I have seen it a hundred 
times. Now, a service of such a nature as this is very remote 
from the ideal of true Christian worship. George Herbert, in his 
poem, *' The Church Porch," refers to an unedifying service, in 
which case he says — 

" God takes a text and preaches patience. 
He that gets patience and the blessing which 
Preachers conclude with hath not lost his pains.** 

He attached importance to a reverent reception of the closing 
*' blessing which preachers conclude with," as though it were truly 
the blessing of the Lord, and not a mere license to quit the place 
of worship. He admitted that the Presbyterian service was 
impressive when reverently performed by a clergyman of piety 
and eloquence, but was apt under some to be irksome when these 
were wanting. What Dr. Lee considered a faulty church service 
was, in his opinion, year after year sending people, especially 
among the aristocracy and educated classes, away from the Pres- 
byterian churches to Episcopal chapels. Such secessions were 
especially active among the young. He desired to stop the pro- 
cess of depletion, and in the interest of the Church and for the 
glory of God he set himself to the task of reforming the Church's 
worship. His own people were ready to adopt the changes he 
suggested and to support him in carrying them out. In June, 
1857, he took the opportunity of the re-opening of his church 
after restoration to introduce his earliest innovations. A large 
sum had been raised by the congregation in order that a restora- 
tion might be effected in a style worthy of the historical renown 
of the church. All the windows were filled with stained glass ; 
some of them presented as memorials of departed friends, then 
quite a novelty in Scotch churches. At the opening service, in 
June, 1857, he requested his people to kneel at prayer and stand 
up to sing. He read his prayers from a book, which was printed 
and in the hands of the congregation, that they might be enabled 
to take a part in the service and join audibly in the responses and 
the Amens. He altered the first act of the worship, beginning 
with prayer instead of the psalm, as enjoined by the Directory, 



55 

which states, '' The congregatioD being assembled, the minister is 
to begin with prayer." He sought by his printed prayers to give 
the blessing of common prayer to his own congregation in their 
common worship. He had restored the order of deacons which 
had been maintained in his church till 1834, when it was discon- 
tinued. These changes were fiercely denounced as '* innovations." 
He was able to point out that such a term was a misnomer for 
resuming disused practices which had been in some cases recom- 
mended in the Directory of Public Worship, that the prayers of 
Knox's Liturgy had been read, and that it had been customary to 
render the responses in the Reformed Scottish Churches. In 
1863 instrumental music was introduced, and a harmonium was 
used till 1865, when he had it replaced by an organ. The 
Directory enjoins regarding '^ The Solemnization of Matrimony " 
that the minister is '* publicly to solemnise it in the place 
appointed by authority for public worship, before a competent 
number of credible witnesses," &c. On the 6th Dec, 1865, 
Lee was the first to revert to the ancient usage, when he cele- 
brated a marriage in the church of Old Greyfriars, using the 
marriage service as printed in his book. 

This reform of the Church's worship was only one of the sub- 
jects which engaged his thoughts, as he mused on what abuses to 
select for his pruning knife or the axe. Dr. Cunningham tells us 
how he saw with concern that while the effect of the abolition of 
the Corn Laws was to cheapen bread and greatly benefit the general 
community, yet, as the parochial clergy were paid stipends calcu- 
lated on the price of grain, their incomes were being reduced. It 
did not affect himself, but he started a scheme for the augmentation 
of the smaller livings, and advocated pew rents as a source of 
revenue. He asked why a full church should only bring in- 
creased toil, anxiety, and outlay to the minister, and no increase 
of stipend. He thought that where his labours were successful he 
should have a right to participate in material benefits. Lee gave 
a great impulse to the movement for the abolition of patronage, 
although he did not live to see it abolished. He took the deepest 
interest in a reform of the Church's faith. He considered that in 
too many cases the ministers were only serving up theological 
husks. He gave utterance to the striking thought,* that while it 
was well that individuals, in matters of morality, should walk in 
the narrow and not in the broad way. Churches, in matters of 
faith, must walk in the broad and not in the narrow way, if they 
would not go to destruction. All his lectures and sermons were 
therefore cast in the Broad Church mould. The drift of his 
Edinburgh sermons was to show that the laws of nature are uni- 
form and irreversible, that the age of miracles is past, and that it 
was our duty to study and obey these laws, as in this way only 
can we escape the punishment of disobedience. When he 

*St, Gilen' L€cture8f p. 416 



66 

preached before the QueeD, he took for his text, " Glorify Qod in 
your body," 1 Cor. vi. 20. These are what he taught in Gamp* 
sie, as the interesting reminiscences of Messrs. Young and Cowan 
show to us. In his college lectures, by enlightened and liberal 
teaching, he attracted thoughtful students to himself, and reared a 
race of ministers who are now the light of the Church. We 
have not only got familiar with, but have practically accepted 
many of the views which he was among the first to enunciate, 
and which caused himself and those who agreed with him to be 
regarded with horror, as revolutionists and rationalists, by sincere 
but mistaken people. 

Lee was denounced as a latitudinarian, and even suspected to 
be a heretic. Dr. Cunningham summarises his life work thus— *• 
*' He deserves to be ranked among the reformers of the Church, 
and no doubt in time he will. What a prodigious improvement 
has taken place in our Church services during the last twenty 
years. It is Kobert Lee that is doing it, for all the evil passion 
was buried in his grave, and his influence is present and powerful 
everywhere, like an all-pervading spirit." 

Lee was an occasional contributor to the Scotsman newspaper. 
Here he manifested his sharp incisive style, his love of liberty 
and detestation of bigotry. In his comments on Essays and Re* 
views and on Bishop Colenso's wntings, he wrote that — *^ While 
he admired the comprehensiveness of the English Church, he 
pointed out that it was owing in a large measure to the impartial 
judgments given by the lay judges who had jurisdiction in ecclesi- 
astical affairs, and who were able to deal with theological 
questions unbiassed by polemical feeling. He recognised the fact, 
almost lost sight of in Scotland, that justice is justice, and truth 
is truth, from whatever quarter, lay or clerical, it comes." 

Another matter in which he took great interest was the move- 
ment for relaxation of the formulas of her faith which the Church 
required her office-bearers to sign. As a result of his bold and 
independent course of action, he felt himself almost entirely 
isolated from the most of his clerical brethren in Edinbui^h. 
They considered him rash, and had no sympathy for his objects, 
which they never clearly understood. 

His procedure in Old Greyfriars caused him to be engaged in 
frequent controversies in the Church Courts. Anyone reading 
the reports in the Scotsman of the debates, say on " Innovations," 
and then perusing the entries in his private journal, would hardly 
think it was the same individual. Dr. Story, in his Life, 
quotes a remark regarding him — " How little did those who 
called him cynical and bitter, who knew nothing more of him 
than what they saw and read, as disclosed in passages of arms 
on the floor of an angry Presbytery or hostile Assembly, under- 
stand what a fire of passionate affection was kindled under 
that calm exterior, what love and sorrow lay concealed beneath 
the cold, pale countenance." 



5? 

We cannot enter on the conflict in the Church Courts regard- 
ing his innovations. The case was decided against him, in 1867, 
by the Presbytery of Edinburgh. He appealed to the Synod, who 
affirmed the decision of the lower Court. He appealed to the 
Assembly ; but before it met he was seized with palsy, when 
riding one day in Princes Street, Edinburgh, and on account of 
the condition in which he then lay the case was not called in the 
Assembly. There is little doubt that had it been taken up the 
decision would have gone against him. 

He died at Torquay in the following spring, 14th March, 1868, 
in the 64th year of his age and 35th of his ministry. The cause 
which he had so much at heart, when apparently on the eve of 
being stamped out, in reality became triumphant by his death. 
A reaction in his favour followed. Some who had been most 
bitterly opposed to him were now seen to be trimming their sails to 
the changing wind. The innovations which he introduced are now 
the usage of the churches, and standing at singing and kneeling 
at prayer have long since been introduced into his old church at 
Campsle. But when Lee asked his people to kneel he did not 
mean them to ** hunker " and remain seated while bowing the 
head. Harmoniums have been introduced in both the Parish and 
U. P. Churches in Campsie, and the solemnization of matrimony 
in church will likely soon follow. 

In the good old times Campsie ministers were sometimes taken 
to fill Edinburgh pulpits. The parish gave Edinburgh a Law in 
1687, a Warden in 1755, and a Lee in 1843. Thinga are all 
changed now, when both Established and U. P. Churches have 
ministers taken from Edinburgh charges. 

Lee's acceptance of the Edinburgh charge caused the parish 
of Campsie to be again vacant. Lee himself said he should like 
very much if he could " pawn " a minister upon, the parish in the 
person of the Rev. Mr. Paisley, whom he strongly recommended. 
A congregational meeting was held in the church, over which Mr. 
J. L. K. Lennox was called to preside. Two names were pro- 
posed — the Rev. Norman Macleod, minister of the parish of 
Loudob, and the Rev. Mr. Paisley, Mr. Lee's nominee. After 
debate the chairman proposed they should take the sense of the 
meeting by dividing, Mr. Macleod's supporters going to one side 
and Mr. Paisley's to the other. All went to Macleod's side except 
three, namely, Mr. Macfarlan of Ballancleroch, Mr. M*Kinlay, 
Glenmill; and Mr. Thomas Stark, Keirhill. Mr. Macfarlan was so 
much disappointed at this result that he walked out of the church. 
In his Life, by his brother, Norman writes : — ** Since the Disruption 
I have been offered the first charge of Cupar, Fife ; Maybole ; 
Campsie, by all the male communicants ; St. John's, Edinburgh ; 
St. Ninian's, Stirlingshire ; Tolbooth, Edinburgh ; and the elders 
and others in West Church, Greenock, have petitioned for me. 
When I nearly accepted Campsie I found many whom I had 
thought rocks sending forth tears, and gathered fruit from what 



5d 

appeared stony ground. God has, I believe, blessed my ministry. 
Now, all this and ten times more than I can mention, occnrred 
just as I had made up my mind not to go to Campsie." Some of 
Norman's supporters had been confident that he would have 
accepted Campsie, and were deeply disappointed. On Norman's 
refusal, the public sentiment turned towards a Mr. Johnston, then 
in Fifeshire, who had at that time proposals from several parishes. 
He seemed to have a preference for Campsie, if he should like the 
locality when he saw it. He came privately and inspected the 
land, but did not like the manse. He wrote that he had made up 
his mind to accept Logic, where there was a nice one. 

When Norman Macleod was inducted to Dalkeith parish, on loth 
Dec, 1843, in the usual rotation the duty of presiding and preach- 
ing fell on that occasion to the Rev. Thos. Monro, minister of Fala. 
Mr. Macleod's father (Dr. Macleod of St Columba's) and Dr. 
Black of the Barony were attracted to Dalkeith by their personal 
interest in the oewly-ordained minister. They were seated to- 
gether, and at the conclusion of the sermon. Dr. Black remarked 
of Mr. Monro, the preacher, " That's the man for St. John's." 
" No," said Dr. Macleod, " that's the man for Campsie." When 
Dr. Macleod came home he told some of the Campsie people how 
highly he and Dr. Black had been pleased, and in consequence of 
his recommendation it was arranged to send a deputation to have 
an interview with him and hear him preach, the members being — 
for the Kirk-Session, Mr. James Horn, New Mill ; for the heritors, 
Mr. Alexander Galloway ; and for the male communicants, Mr. 
Robert Clark, manager. Alum Works. Instead of going to Fala 
it had been arranged that the deputation should hear Mr. Monro 
in the neighbourhood of Dunfermline. In the same train 
travelled Mr. Gordon Wilson and Mr. Ebenezer Brown, who 
were also bound for Dunfermline. Mr. Wilson was naturally 
curious to learn what impression had been produced, and called 
at the hotel in the evening where the deputation was staying 
overnight. The result had been highly satisfactory, and the 
members were prepared to give a favourable report. Dr. Black 
of the Barony Church, Glasgow, was Mr Horn's cousin, and it 
was arranged that Mr. Monro should preach in the Barony, where 
a number went and heard him. Mr. Monro was now asked to 
preach in Campsie, which he did on two Sabbaths. The people 
were unanimously in his favour, and the presentation came in due 
time. The election was a harmonious one, not a voice being 
raised against it. Mr. Monro had been a student in the univer- 
sities of Aberdeen and Edinburgh. He was five years Governor 
of Watson's Hospital, Edinburgh, when he was presented by the 
Town Council of Edinburgh to the parish of Fala. With Mr. 
Monro's induction I draw my lecture to a close. 

Erratum. — On page 43, for ** north-east corner" read "north- 
west corner." 



THE 



CLACHAN OF CAMPSIE 



AND DISTRICT. 



Lecture delivered on \^th November ^ 1891) to Campsie Youiig MetCa 

Association, 






' 



THE GLACHAN OF CAMPSIE. 



In a lecture delivered by me in 1885, uuder the auspices of the 
Campsie Mechanics' Institution, I gave an account of the 
lEcclesiastical history of the parish. I do not intend to repeat 
to-night what I then stated regarding the introduction of 
Christianity by St. Machan, suffice it to say, that to a native born 
Scotchman called Machan belongs the credit of having been the 
first evangelist who proclaimed here the tidings of the gospel. He 
took up his abode at the foot of the glen, and erected there a little 
oratory, cill, or chapel as we would now call it This building, 
rudely constructed of turf and wattles, and covered with brackens 
and branches of trees, was the first place of Christian worship in 
the parish. When Machan died, according to the custom of the 
ninth century, he would be buried within his little church. In 
the troubled times which followed, Scotland lost much of the 
Christianity taught by its earliest apostles ; but the memory of 
Machan was never forgotten, When more settled times came 
round and Scotland was being divided into parishes, in which 
churches were everywhere being built and endowed, it was found 
that in selecting the sites for these churches a preference was 
given to the grave of a martyr, or venerated saint. No place in 
Campsie seemed more suitable for the erection of its first parish 
church than over the grave of its earliest missionary. In Forbes* 
Calendar there is mentioned St. Adamnan's Acre in Campsie, but 
the Campsie referred to by Bishop Forbes is in Perthshire, 
where there was a croft called St. Adamnan's Acre. Accord- 
ingly, in the latter half of the twelfth century the church was 
built over the grave in which Machan's remains had been buried. 
The building was small and of the simplest construction, being 
oblong in form, with the nave running east and west Near the 
eastern or innermost end were cancelli^ or lattices, railing this 
part off from the rest of the nave, which was assigned to the 
faithful worshippers, while from the remaining space thus railed 
off the laity were strictly excluded. From the cancelli, this was 
ultimately called the chancel. It contained the altar at the 
eastern end, and the altar made it to be regarded as sanctum^ 
sacrannm^ or place of sanctuary, from the h(^iness supposed to be 
conferred upon it by the altar. There would be near this end a 
Kttle recess for vestments — a vestry, and an entrance for the 
cknrgy and choir. The main entrance was from the west end, 
wh«ite there would be a little portico. Here, iieiu* thfe entraBce^ 



62 

stood the baptismal font, its sitaation necur the door being 
sjmbolical of the admission of the newly-baptized children into 
the Church Catholic We find that this position of the font came 
to be regarded with disfavour, and at the Westminster Assembly 
of Divines, in 1643, the six Scotch members pleaded hard to have 
the font removed from the church door or portico, and to have it 
placed beside the pulpit On a vote, the Scotch members or 
delegated carried their point, and the meeting decided ** that the 
superstitious place of the font should be altered/' 

When the church had been erected, it would then be solemnly 
consecrated. In ancient times churches were dedicated to God 
and not to saints. They came in later times to be distinguished 
by the names of holy men and women, as memorials of them. 
The founders of the Campsie church desired to preserve the 
memory of Machan in the scene of his labours, so when this 
church was consecrated the dedication was to Saint Machan, who 
became the patron saint of the parish. His festival was on the 
28th Sept. Presbyterians recognise neither the consecration of 
churches nor the building of their churches east and west, in 
order that the worshippers should always be looking towards the 
east ; nor do they consider one part more sacred than another, and 
know nothing of their altars being sanctuaries or places of refuge. 
I mention these details, as we are apt to forget that the worship 
was conducted from 1175 till 1560, a long period of 385 years, 
according to the ritual of the Roman Catholic Church. 

All remains of the original church of the twelfth century have 
disappeared long ago, in the re-buildings and repairs that time 
has rendered necessary. The last time the church was re-built, 
it seems to have been badly proportioned, being far too long 
for the width. The west gable was therefore taken down 
and rebuilt. The body of the church was thus shortened, but 
in order to maintain the same space for accommodating wor- 
shippers, it was at the same time resolved to form a transept 
to the north. Transepts thrown out at right angles from the 
nave give a church a cruciform arrangement, such as we see 
in the Parish Church of Kirkintilloch. In Campsie church 
only a north transept was formed. The position of the pulpit 
was also altered, and it was placed at the centre of the south 
wall, facing the north transept The west gable just referred to, 
which is therefore the portion of least antiquity, and a portion of 
the north wall adjoining it are all that remain of the old 
structure. My earliest recollections of it recall more masonry 
than is now to be seen ; indeed, in my boyhood the west gable, I 
think, was entire, with the belfry and bell. There were also 
standing considerable portions of the north and south walls and 
of the east gable. In my own recollection, therefore, many 
square yards of masonry of the side walls and east gable have 
tumbled down and been carried away. The old stones of the 
church have been taken to build the dyke round the kirk-yard, 



63 

and they may be seen in the boundary walls and the dykes enclos- 
ing policies and fields of adjoining proprietors. The old church 
building seems to have been regarded as a free quarry, where 
anyone could take away what they wanted. The stones have 
been used freely in the erection of houses, in which they can be 
easily identified as having been at one time parts of an ecclesias- 
tical building. The church bell was used not only on Sundays to 
summon to public worship, but was tolled for all funerals. This 
custom of tolling the bell on the occasion of funerals was con- 
tinued long after the church had been abandoned. It was discon- 
tinued ostensibly as a matter of precaution when the gable was 
alleged to be insecure. There were those who wished to have the 
old practice continued, and they retorted that the gable had been 
perfectly safe until Dr. Monro wished the bell to be removed to 
Oswald School, Lennoxtown. There were those who thought 
that this was something like sacrilege — taking a ** consecrated " 
bell and using it for a purely secular purpose, and that it rung 
the Oswald School empty! It is a step in the right direction 
placing it again in a church, to which we hope it will bring good 
luck. 

Formerly there used to be what seemed a pillar, just outside 
the wall, to the right, at the gate, as you enter the church-yard. 
Some considered it to have been the shaft of the old baptismal 
font removed outside, and through ignorance or inadvertence 
turned upside down. Others have thought it was intended for 
a gargoyle, but the shaft of the font is the more plausible con- 
jecture. At all events, it has been removed to the vestibule 
of the Parish Church, in order to be preserved from injury or 
being broken up and carried away to mend a dyke or cover 
a drain. 

In Lapslie's and Macleod's times the elm trees, which rather 
overshadowed the church to the eastward, on a windy day ^' rattled 
their branches against the east winnock." I examined the walls 
one day this summer, and was pleased to see that the joints were 
carefully pointed with cement, and that they appeared to be now 
well cared for by the heritors. I measured the thickness of the 
latest erected west gable, and found it to be 8 feet 9 inches at 
bottom, and 3 feet 6 inches above the plinth. A little attention 
from time to time by the heritors should preserve what remains of 
this old sacred edifice. The gable, overshadowed by trees, and 
covered with ivy, looks beautiful in its ruin. It is melancholy, 
however, to see the state of neglect which has befallen the interior 
(with the exception of the Craigbarnet tomb, which is beautifully 
kept). The Auchinreoch tomb is dismal ; an elm tree has grown 
up from it, and its brushwood renders close access almost im- 
possible. The north-west corner of the interior should be cleared 
of rubbish and everything out of keeping with so sacred an 
edifice. Something more might be done for the churchyard. 
Two old burying-grounds in Kirkintilloch have quite recently 



64 

been greatly improved — ^the ground levelled, the tombstones 
relaid, and the amenity much enhanced. The rank growth of 
nettles and general state of neglect and disorder give the Clachan 
kirkyard an uncared-for look. There are many Camp.sonians, 
whose relatives have been inteiTed here, who might be willing to 
take measures for improving the graveyard, repairing or re-erecting 
some of the stones, and having the inscriptions cleared of the moss, 
&c., which makes maoy of them illegible. Verb, sap. 

The late Mr. Alex. Galloway, in a letter to Mr. Wm. Brown, 
Johnstone, says — ^* 1 have examined more than once every tomb 
and gravestone in the old kirk-yard that appeared to bear a date 
prior to the present century. I offered the heritors to make an 
exact drawing of everything within the boundary walls of this 
graveyard, giving each stone its proper place and size on ground 
plan, and writing on it its full inscription, for £10, which would 
have been needed to cover the expense of assistants. Sec. Find- 
ing them hesitate, I backed out, and would not renew my offer.'* 
It is a great pity that such an offer as Mr. Galloway's was not 
accepted at onoe. Those who were formerly intimately acquainted 
with the graveyard — Donald Blair's family and the M^Lennans, 
father and son — are no longer in the Clachan, and there is hardly 
one to be seen who knows anything of the old families who used 
to reside in the parish, or can direct a stranger to where their 
tombstones are to be found in the graveyard. In this connection 
I must observe that I have always found Mr. Robert Blair, the 
Session-Clerk, most obliging and willing to afford every informa- 
tion in his power. 

As early as the fourth century the enclosures round churches 
were used as cemeteries— sleeping grounds for the Christian dead. 
A century or two later they were consecrated, and in the ninth 
century we find burials taking place within churches. After the 
Reformation public opinion changed on this question, for on 24th 
Oct., 1576, the General Assembly had the question propounded 
to them, ^* Qwither if burialls sould be in the kirk or not? 
Ansueritnot: and that the contra veiners be suspendid from ye 
benefites of the kirk, quhill they make public repentance." The 
question Was again raised in 1588. The Assembly re-affirmed 
the decision of 1576, and ordained, *^ The minister that gives his 
consent to burials in his church and discharges not his conscience 
in opposing them thereto sal be suspended from his function of the 
ministrie." Notwithstanding this decision of the highest ecclesi- 
astical court we find that exceptions were made in favour of 
families of local influence who desired sepulture within the church 
walls. In siich cases the coiiips of the deceased were not placed 
in this church in vaults under the church, but were merely put 
into the ground, generally just beneath the pew occupied by the 
surviving members of the family, who thus worshipped on the 
graves of their ancestors. Three landed families had burying- 
places within Clachan church — the Stirlings of Craigbarnet and 



65 

Glorat, and the lairds <^ Auchioreoch. Within jm ehcloBiire of 
dwarf wall, surmounted by a cast-iron railing, a^out 5 ft. 6^ ins. 
high, stands. within the old church a monument to the memory 
of the late Mr. and Mrs. Gartshore Stirling. Strange to say, 
there are no other tombstones belonging to this family to be seen 
at first, but on carefully examining the inside of the enclosure an 
old thruch stone can be made out in front, between the stone ark 
and dwarf wall. On further inyestigation, the existence of 
another thruch stone is discovered to the right, in great part 
covered with the stone ark which rests on it There used to be 
a third one here, but it was removed in 1852, withoi^ permission 
being asked or obtained, and placed over the graves of a family 
named Allan, who had long been in the service of the Craigbarnet 
family. This stone may be seen ; it is situated ni^ar the entrance to 
the right, quite close to the tombstone of.the Buchanans of Cross- 
house. It may be identified by the Craigbarnet armorial bearings, 
the crest of which is a demi-angel couped, ensignedon the head 
with a cross proper, and the motto is ^* Semper fiidi8^\ While the 
bearings on the shields differ, the Glorai motto ib eXiof'y Semper 
fidelia " ; but the Glorat crest is a lion passant gules* The angel 
indicates the Craigbarnet family and is easily- remembered. 

Immediately behind the Craigbarnet tomb is the Glorat one. 
Like the other, it is enclosed by a dwarf wall and high railing, 
the upper portion of which somewhat resembles the battle axe^ 
which is held in the right hand of one of the *^ heroes in armour *>^ 
which support the Glorat arms. This tomb has rather a gloomy 
appearance, being thrown into the shade by the tomb in front 
and having a northern aspect. When looking at it lately, it was 
just after the fall of the leaf, and the recently fallen leaves lay 
thickly within the enclosure and completely covered the stones. 
Had the leaves been swept away some stones would have l)een 
discovered, but the moss would have to be cleared from the' in<^ 
soriptions before these could have been legible. 

The lands of Auchinreoch formed at one time a part ^ of ' th^ 
barony of Antermony, and thereafter were part of the Earldom 
of Wigton and lordship and barony of Cumbernauld. The rights 
of superiority passed from the Earl of Wigton to the M^Dowals^ 
Castle Semple and Garthland; thence to Robert Duumore of 
Ballindalloch, who, in 1788, disposed of them to John Lennox of 
Antermony. The lands themselves belonged at one time to the 
Kincaids, and passed from them by marriage, as I understand, to 
the Buchanans of Carbeth, who in respect of this call themselvi>s 
Buchanan Kincaid. The old mansion house of Auchinreoch is 
beautifully situated, but in the early part of this century it was 
allowed to fall into decay, and it also got the character of 
being ** haunted." It is called yet " the haunted house." The 
last Laird Buchanan who inhabited it had Woodbum House 
built for himself, when Auchinreoch was abandoned as a 
residence. The old laird, who died about 1B23, was, I think,- 



66 

buried at Killearti, and the old family bnrying-plaee at Clachan 
has been utterly forgotten and neglected. Auchinreoch was sold 
by a later laird to a Mr. James M'Innes, whose daughter, Lady 
Gordon, is the present proprietrix. When we get outside the 
church the Lennox mausoleum is the most striking object in the 
church-yard. This is a square two-storied building, with dome- 
shaped slated roof. No way of access to the upper storey is 
visible till you get to the boundary wall, when you see a little 
iron gate, and outside the wall, in the inn garden, there is an out- 
side stair. When first built, in 1715, the building was only of 
one storey, but during Miss Lennox's ownership of the estate she 
caused a second storey to be added to it. This room she used as 
a place of retreat when attending the church. Miss Lennox set 
an excellent example, and attended church with great regularity. 
She used to drive from Woodhead by the old road, over the 
Laird's Brig and the Haughhead. She had her horses put into 
the inn stables. She then walked through the inn garden to the 
stairs which gave access to the upper room in the mausoleum, 
where she had a fire. in winter. In this room she removed any 
wraps, or adjusted her dress before she proceeded to her seat in 
the ** Woodhead Loft," where the pew formerly was. In those 
days there were both forenoon and afternoon diets, and Miss Len- 
nox generally passed the interval between these in this room, 
either reading a religious book or chatting with friendSi I be- 
lieve that the earlier interments of the Lennox family were made 
in the ground now covered by the mausoleum. After 1715 the 
coffins were laid on stone shelves, crypt-wise. This practice was, 
however, discontinued, and I have it from eye-witnesses that the 
coffins containing the remains of both Mr. and Mrs. Kincaid 
Lennox were lowered into the ground. Within the building the 
soil is so fine and so dry that it was necessary to shore up the 
grave with wood to prevent the sides falling in at the last two 
interments. Wood was sent down from the saw mill at the 
Netherton for this purpose, and in 1859 the late Mr. John Pren- 
tice had charge of carrying out the arrangements at the grave for 
Mr. Kincaid Lennox's funeral. ^ I understand that all the stone 
shelves have now been removed and all the coffins that had rested 
on them have been buried. The crypt interior was entirely cleared 
out when the mausoleum was opened to receive the remains of 
Mrs. Kincaid Lennox, who was buried there on Friday, 15th 
September, 1876. I shall quote three of the inscriptions set into 
walls in the upper room. On a white marble tablet we find it 
stated that — *^ This marble is raised in deep love and affection by 
Frances Maxwell Kincaid Lennox, widow of John Lennox Kin- 
caid Lennox, and their three daughters, Margaret Cunninghame 
Bateman-H anbury Kincaid-Lennox, Cecilia Peareth, Frances 
Oakes, in memory of John Lennox Kincaid Lennox, laird of 
Woodhead, Antermony, and Kincaid ; born 8th Oct., 1802 ; died 
6th March, 1859 ; and of John Kincaid Lennox, captain in the 



67 

12th Lancers; borir 14th Oct, 1830; died 28th Feb., 1857; 
buried at Thebes, in Upper Egypt ; only son of John Lennox 
Kincaid Lennox and Frances Maxwell Kincaid Lennox, his wife. 

" Let us praise and join the chorus 

Of the saints enthroned on high ; 
Here they trusted God before us, 

Now their praises fill the sky. 
Thou hast washed us with Thy blood, 
Thou art worthy, Lamb of God." 

That in memory of Mrs. Lennox has the following: — "This 
tablet is placed here by her three daughters, in loving memory of 
Frances Maxwell Cunninghame ; born 28th April, 1807 ; died 
10th Sept., 1876 ; third daughter of John Cunninghame, Esq., of 
Craigends, Renfrewshire, and widow of John Lennox Kincaid 
Lennox, Esq. ^ Her children arise up and call her blessed.' — 
Proverbs xxxi. 28. * And shall be Mine, said the Lord of Hosts, 
in that day when I make up my jewels.' — Mai. iii. 17. * Blessed 
are the dead which die in the Lord.' — Rey. xiv. 13." On a black 
marble tablet there is a memonal of Mrs. Oakes' baby, with this 
inscribed on it — *' In the bright hope of a glorious resurrection 
are laid the mortal remains of Rosa Oakes ; born 2nd August, 
1865; died 24th Nov., 1866; the beloved child of Col. Oakes, 
C.B., 1 2th Royal Lancers, and Frances Kincaid Lennox, his wife." 
The graveyard has long been so fully occupied that interments 
could hardly be made without disturbing the coffins and remains 
of the departed. Sometimes the quantity of old coffins and human 
remains that were taken out and laid aside was so large as to be 
a shocking sight. In the interests of decency, the expediency of 
having this put a stop to and the graveyard declared closed, has 
been frequently mooted. A report was got one year but no for- 
mal proceedings have ever been taken, by which all future inter- 
ments can be legally prevented, except, perhaps, exceptions in 
favour of particular survivors, where the other members of the 
family have all been buried here. Burials are now limited as 
much as possible to surviving members of families, but this year 
there have been about a dozen interments, while for some years 
back they have averaged from twelve to fifteen. In order to set 
a good example the Lennox mausoleum was finally closed in 1884, 
and I understand a vault was built in the ground in front of the 
church at Lennoxtown, where it is intended that all future inter- 
ments of the Lennox family shall be made. The method 
adopted of closing the mausoleum was rather unusual. The 
obvious way would have been to have merely built up the door- 
way, but, instead of doing it in this fashion, two tombstones of 
the Kincaids of that Ilk, that had rested on dwarf -stone pillars 
for upwards of two hundred years, were lifted, and, being set 
closely together, were found to completely fill up the doorway. 
They were therefore built in, and so carefully have they been 
placed together and cemented that they appear at first to be one 

F 



6.S 

stone. The removal has depriyed their record of strict accuracy; 
when they testify that ^^ Heir lyis," &c. The inscriptions and the; 
Kincaid armorial bearings are quite legible, as follows :— " Heir 
lyis ane Honorabil man James Kinkaid of that Ilk quha desisit 
ye 13 of Febrovar Anno 1604." The other stone is almost 
identical, differing only in the name and date ; the name being 
" John quha decisit ye 9 of Janvar Anno 1606 " ; and lower down 
are the initials or one who '^desisit 18 Jan. 1645." These two 
tombstones are all that now can be seen here, in memoriam of a 
family who have been landowners in the parish since 1280. It 
does seem strange that there should be no other tombstone records 
here of the long line of lairds who have lived and died on their 
ancestral lands of Kincaid. The Lennoxes and Kincaids had their 
rivalries and bickerings in the old times, but all these were healed 
when the two families were united by the Laird of Kincaid marry- 
ing a Lennox of Woodhead and their son succeeding to both the 
united estates. 

On another occasion I have told the story, so far as it is 
known, of William Boick, whose tombstone here is popularly 
styled " The Martyr's Stone." The inscription is — ** Erected in 
memory of William Boick, who suffered at Glasgow, June XIV., 
MDCLXXIII, for his adherence to the Word of God and Scot- 
land's Covenanted Work of Reformation. 

" Underneath this stone doth lie 
Dust sacrificed to tyrannic, 
Yet precious in Immanuers sight 
Shines, martyered for His Kingly right.*' 

There is a tradition in the parish that this stone has received the 
personal attentions of Richard Paterson, the prototype of Sir 
Walter Scott's *'01d Mortality," who, as is well known, occupied 
himself in caring for the tombstones of the Covenanters, renewing 
the letterings, and clearing these of moss, so that the inscriptions 
should remain legible. Immediately adjacent to the stone of 
William Boick, the martyr, and to the north, there are two stones, 
with the letters " E. B." inscribed on them, and a symbol which 
to some appears to be a cross, while others regard it as a sword. 
Just beyond these with this symbol there are other three flat stones, 
alike in shape and lettering, evidently marking the last resting- 
place of family connections of the Boicks. No trace of such a 
family can now be found in the parish. 

The stone erected to commemorate the late Mr. John M' Far- 
Ian of Ballancleroch is evidently well cared for ; it looks as if 
new, and the inscription is perfectly distinct. This inscription is 
said to have been either written or revised by one or other of his 
distinguished friends. Lord Brougham or Lord Cockburn. It is 
-—"In memory of John M'Farlan, Esq., Ballenglerach ; born 
12th Jan., 1767 ; died 18th Dec, 1846. The prime of his life waa 
spent in the practice of the law and in the ardent promotion of the 
cause of civil and religious liberty. In his later years, but in the 



69 

Vigour of his intellectual power, he retired from the bar, without 
wealth or worldly advancement, to spend his life in doing good by 
his writings, his counsel, and his example. He loved roercj and 
walked humbly with his God. Finally, possessing the esteem of 
all who knew him, the love of his neighbours, the affection and 
veneration of his numerous descendants, he passed from this 
world, rejoicing in the blessed hope of everlasting life, through 
our Lord Jesus Christ" All Campsonians are under obligation 
to Mr. M^Farlan, who so long ago as 1785 generously threw open 
to the public his side of the glen, in which he formed walks. He 
made no charge for admission, and his successors have continued 
this boon. It was with deep regret I saw in the Glasgow Herald, 
June, 1890, that Col. M^Farlan had occasion to complain of the 
injury to his fences and the damage done to his property by 
thoughtless excursionists, one of whom demanded of the policeman 
who was endeavouring to keep order and maintain the peace, why 
any restrictions should be put there when the glen was public prO' 
petty/ Conduct like that of this senseless excursionist has caused 
owners to exclude the public from their picture galleries, gardens, 
and pleasure grounds, but Col. M^Farlan has never thought of 
closing the Glen. Mr. John M'Farlan passed as advocate in 
1787, and he attended the Western Circuit with his friend, Thos. 
Muir, of Huntershill. The following lines, written by him, were 
posted for many a day on the old gates of Huntershill :— - 

" Doomed from this mansion and his native land 
To spend the days of gay and sprightly yoath, 
And aU for sowing, with a liberal hand, 
The seeds of that seditious libel, Truth.'' 

When it was not only unpopular but almost amounted to being 
professionally ostracised Mr. M^Farlan was a strong and advanced 
Liberal. When his party came into power on the passing of the Re- 
form Bill, there was an expectation in some quarters that the Gov- 
ernment of Earl Grey would have acknowledged his long and con<-« 
sistent services, in the times of adversity, and have raised him to 
the bench, under the title of Lord Campsie. He was silently 
passed over ; it may be, because he had retired by that time from 
the active duties of his profession, and was too retiring to press 
any claims he might have had on the Liberal party. It is said of 
him, that at a certain hour, on stated days of the week, he took 
his seat on the balcony of Ballanderoch, to give the benefit of 
his legal lore, gratuitously, to all who chose to consult him, and 
he was never better pleased than when as a peacemaker he was 
successful in adjusting disputes without recourse to litigation. 
All honour to his memory ; the natives of Campsie should never 
forget him, when they think of their Glen. Had he been illiberal 
in his views he could have excluded them from his lands and 
made the Glen a sealed book. 

Alongside the southern boundary wall is the walled-in burial 
place of the Bells of Auchtermony or Antermony. Patrick Bell 



70 

was minister of Port-of-Menteith. He married Annabel, daugh- 
ter of John, the IX. of Craigbarnet, and their son John became 
the distinofuished traveller. Patrick acquired Antermony from the 
Earl of Wigton, soon after 1700. A tablet on the wall, with a 
perfectly legible inscription, commemorates Mary Peters, the wife 
of the great traveller, of whom it says : — " She was a faithful 
wife, an affectionate sister, and a kind friend ; she was beloved 
while she lived, and died lamented." 

On another marble tablet an inscription commemorates Mrs. 
Bell's half-sister, Jane Vigors, Countess of Hyndford, who died 
at Antermony, 13th May, 1802, aged 86 years. Two flat tomb- 
stones, with the armorial bearings of the Bell family, have 
inscriptions which cannot be well read by anyone outside the railings, 
I understand that the one is in memory of John Bell, the cele- 
brated traveller, and author of ** Travels from St. Petersburg to 
various parts of Asia," and the other is for the traveller's father, 
Rev. Patrick Bell. 

Before passing from the old ruins of the church I should have 
mentioned that there were a number of marble memorial tablets 
in it. It is not easy now to ascertain exactly what these were, or 
what has become of them, but one of them, of beautiful white 
marble, was to Jean Maria, second daughter of Sir John Stirling, 
fifth baronet, born 7th January, 1773; married John Mackenzie 
of Garnkirk; and died 30th October, 1797, in her twenty-fifth 
year. When the old church was abandoned, the proprietor of 
Glorat was non-resident, but in order to preserve it, Andrew 
Motherwell, farmer, Baldorran, and acting factor on the estate, 
had this tablet taken to Baldorran Farm, and set up in the 
milkhouse there. It fell one day against a souring boat, and two 
pieces were broken off. These his son, James Motherwell, gave 
to a little girl who came then every day to Baldorran for milk. 
Her father had them ground, one round and the other oval, and 
they have served two generations as " peevers " or " peeveralls," 
and are still carefully preserved in the Mount of Glorat by Mrs. 
James Buchanan. Another tablet was in memory of some one 
residing about Balmore, who had left some money to the parish. 

T have already incidentally mentioned that the tombstone to the 
memory of Mr. and Mrs. Gartshore-Stirling is beautifully kept, 
but I omitted to mention that her husband's grave was periodically 
visited by the late Mrs. Gartshore-Stirling. Latterly she became 
stone blind, but once a year at least she went to the grave. I 
have been informed that among the last times she went her 
coachman took her arm and led her to the grave, while her maid 
accompanied her. The sight of the venerable and blind lady in 
her pious pilgrimage awed even the children, who hushed their 
sports till her carriage had driven off. 

To the north of the Lennox mausoleum there is a flat tombstone 
with armorial bearings and a marginal inscription, which is in 
some places quite illegible. What can be made out is, " Ane 



n 

fionorabil Ladie Hainan, who was both good and virtuous, who 
deces:)ed at Craigbamet." No one now can obtain any infor- 
mation regarding this " Honorabil Ladie." 

The following ministers have died and been buried in the 
Clachan :— Stoddart, 1580; Stewart, 1622; Collins, 1648; 
Deunistoun, 1679; Govan, 1729; Forrester, 1731 ; Bell, 1783; 
Lapslie, 1824. In the gloomy and dilapidated enclosure known 
as the " Ministers' Tomb," only Messrs. Govan and Forrester are 
interred. This structure was rebuilt by the late Miss Lennox 
in 1818, and stands greatly in need of repair now. Two stones 
had originally been placed on dwarf pillars, to commemorate the 
two ministers, but these flat tombstones have now been set verti- 
cally against the western wall, and the pillars have been carefully 
lifted and set in the corners. When I was there lately the iron 
gate was open, and I went inside the enclosure, where there was a 
rank growth of nettles. Owing to the stones being covered with 
moss and lichens the armorial bearings only could be made out. 
The lettering was quite illegible, but I am indebted to the kind- 
ness of Mr Blair, Session-Clerk of the parish, who has furnished 
me with copies. The inscriptions are both in Latin, but I give 
you a free translation, as follows : — " This is the tomb of Mr. 
John Govean, for upwards of — — years a Herald of the Divine 
Word, viz., from 5th December, 1688, to 19th September, 1729; 
aged 79 years." On the other stone the inscription is — " In this 
Tomb is deposited the body of the Rev. John Forrester, bom 
14th December, 1705 ; ordained pastor of this parish 23rd Sep- 
tember, 1730; died 15th August, 1731, aged 26 years." This 
Mr^ Forrester was a nephew of the Eev. Mr. Govean. 

Nearer the glen than the old church there is a tombstone 
erected to the memory of a man, who, for many years, as super- 
intendent of an unsectarian Sabbath school, carried on with great 
success a good work in Lennoxtown. There are many old 
Campsonians who will recall now, with mingled feelings, the great 
demonstrations that attended Jamie Gray's May-milk, which used 
to be held on the third Saturday in June, the Saturday after the 
Summer Sacrament His stone, near the north-east corner, re- 
cords that James Gray died 20th Aug., 1871, aged 61. I cannot 
pass his tombstone without expressing the respect I felt for him, 
and my appreciation of his abundant labours in the Sabbath 
School, in his visitation of the sick and dying, and his eagerness 
to point out the way of salvation to those who were asking, 
'* What must I do to be saved ? " 

In walking through the kirkyard I read many of the inscrip- 
tions with great interest, and can recall memories of great num- 
bers who are silently resting in it. Here is the stone of the Rev. 
William James, who died 2nd April, 1867, aged 31 years, a man 
whom I remember well. Before studying for the ministry, he 
had served an apprenticeship in Lennoxmill as a block-cutter. 
He belonged to a pious family of Methodists, but studied fo 



72 

the ministry of the U.P. Church, and was pastor of a chapel in 
-Leeds when he died, in early manhood, full of enthusiasm and 
successful in his work. I was present at his marriage, and at a 
few minutes' notice had to act as his groomsman, owing to the 
>' best man" having been unable to be present. 

There is a stone erected by friends and admirers of Wm. Muir, 
the Birdston poet, who was born in 1766 and died in 1817. His 
poems on various subjects were published in 1818, and are now 
known to very few, either in Campsie or Kirkintilloch. It is 
strange the associations of ideas. Mr. William Craig told me he 
had been employed to cart the stones from the sculptors in Glas- 
gow. The funds subscribed were rather short and Willie was 
never paid. He said he would not have minded that so much, 
but not even to get his outlays on tolls, &c., was too bad. 

There are few quaint or striking epitaphs to be seen here. 
There is one on W. Brown's grave, in these words — 

*< Eternity is a wheel that tarns, 
A wheel that tometh ever ; 
A wheel that turns 
And will leave taming never." 

There are seven stones beside one another, very much alike, and 
without inscription of any kind. They are popularly known as 
** The seven brothers." These *' brothers " seem to have been 
Highlanders who either had fled from their home in the North, or 
had strayed into the parish after the '45 and remained here. The 
traditions concerning them are vague and contradictory. Before 
the erection of the Muckcroft bridge over the Glazert there were 
large stepping stones at the ford there. Tradition associates the 
placing of these stepping stones with the seven brothers, who were 
very strong men. The seven unlettered stones commemorate 
these brethren. 

Near them is a curious stone, resembling a boat turned keel 
uppermost^ Though there is neither emblem nor inscription of 
any kind, the local tradition has it that it is the grave of a 
saUor. A gentleman, who has seen this stone in the Clachan, 
was one day in Abercorn graveyard, when he saw an almost exact 
foe-simile^ but twice the size. There was the keel of the boat, the 
bow, and the stern. Upon asking the sexton, he was told nothing 
more was known about it except that it was said to cover the 
remains of a sailor, and that strangers visiting the churchyard 
asked to see this stone. 

I have been informed that out of some of the graves two cart- 
loads of stones have had to be taken before another interment 
could be made. There is reason to believe that this portion of 
the graveyard formed at one time part of the old channel of the 
Glen Burn — Whence the quantity of large, gravelly stones. While 
digging graves these were carefully collected and replaced over 
the coffin. The stones were put there to ensure the graves 
being left inviolate in the resurrectionist times. Those who 



w 

enclosed their graves with wall or iron railings little dreamt that 
the body-snatchers did not go down vertically but obliquely, and 
they often got the body without disturbing the surface of that 
grave at all. 

Between the Lennox mausoleum and the boundary wall, just 
behind the Crown Inn, there is a horizontal stone, which formerly 
was quite close to the Kincaid stones, before they were removed 
to close the Lennox tomb. It is in memory of Miss Christina 
Dow, who died, Nov., 1880 ; aged 52 years. Miss Dow was 
housekeeper at Kincaid House, and in her lifetime was much 
attached to the family. Like the old domestic mentioned by 
Dean Ramsay, whose last request was, '^ Laird, will ye tell them 
to bury me whaur I'll be at your feet," Miss Dow wished to be 
laid beside the Kincaid family burying-place, so that her body 
would lie across the feet of the Laird. With the exception of 
some charitable bequests she bequeathed all her effects to Mr 
Kincaid. She had some fine rings, which she greatly valued, and 
which she had requested should remain on her fingers after death, 
and be buried with her. All her wishes were complied with, but 
her body was lifted the very night of her burial. Mr. Kincaid 
had the grave opened, to ascertain whether this was actually the 
case, when it was found that not only had the body been taken 
away but the coffin had disappeared likewise. 

Anatomy and physiology have been called the basis on which 
rests the science of medicine. From the first we learn the struc- 
ture of the human body, and from the latter the functions of the 
various organs. These require to be studied both in health and 
disease, and, in order to effect this, our great medical schools re- 
quire a supply of dead bodies. They formerly obtained their 
supply of these in the shape of bodies of criminals or unclaimed 
paupers, granted for this purpose by the authorities of jails. See 
Between 1820 and 1832, owing to the greater attention being 
given to the study of anatomy, the supply of dead bodies to the 
medical schools, for the purpose of dissection, fell far short of the 
demand. What could not be obtained in a legitimate way was 
accomplished by unscrupulous people in an illegal way. Students 
and medical apprentices went out at night to the sepulchres of the 
dead in large cities and rifled them of their contents. Dr. Knox 
of Edinburgh was paying sums of from £8 to £14 for dead bodies, 
which Burke and Hare made it for a time their business to supply. 
The graveyards of Ireland were plundered, and a cargo actually 
arrived at Glasgow, consisting of human bodies, concealed in 
what appeared to be bales or bundles of some soft stuff. The 
freight and charges were made payable by the consignee, whose 
letter of advice not having arrived in time, he declined to pay the 
freight and charges. The bales lay meantime on the whaif till 
the stench drew attention and caused the discovery of what the 
consignment really consisted of. In Scotland respect, almost 
amoantii^ to sopentitioiis feding, is paid to the deiid* Bolwrt 



74 

the Bracers request that his heart should be taken out of his body, 

and taken to Jerusalem by his friend the good Sir James Douglas, 

appeared to the Pope such a shocking request that it called for his 

malediction. The inscription on Shakespere's tomb may be taken 

as illustrating the feeling that generally prevailed — 

" Good friends for Jesus' sake forbear 
To dig the dust enclosed here ; 
Blest be the man that spares these stones, 
And curst be he that moves my bones." 

Few criminal trials have excited such deep and widespread in- 
terest as the Burke and Hare trial. Hare turned King's evi- 
dence ; Burke was convicted and hanged 29th Jan., 1829. In 
consequence of the shocking revelations at this trial, Parliament 
passed an Act in 1832 making legal provision for the supply of 
bodies for scientific purposes. This made the violation of graves 
not only unnecessary but quite inexcusable ; and, as connected 
with the kirk and kirkyard, we shall now recall the period of the 

RESURRECTIONISTS IN CAMPSIE. 

" Be honours which to kings we give 
To doctors also paid. 
We're the king's subjects while we live, 
The doctors when we're dead." 

When body-lifting became dangerous in university cities, then 
country graveyards were resorted to, and there are many stories 
of the exciting adventures of those engaged in this unlawful 
quest. People became at length alarmed, and sought to prevent 
the violation of their burying-places by the erection of those huge, 
unsightly iron cages or high railings, to be seen both in the 
Clachan and Auld Aisle graveyards. Beside these, householders 
were detailed to watch in turn. This custom obtained in Camp- 
sie. List« of watchers who took their turn in the Clachan 
churchyard were regularly made up. The list began at the one 
end of Lennoxtown and came on to the other, making no excep- 
tions, all householders having to take their turn. Three neigh- 
bours were on the roll for each night to watch the graveyard. 
Fire-arms were kept at the guard-house at the Clachan, for use 
by the watch, if required. It was customary to lay in a stock of 
refreshments, especially whisky, to keep up their courage and dis- 
pel the eerie feeling that crept over many of them as they sat 
thinking of ghosts, wandering spirits, and reckless resurrectionists. 
Some householders pled guilty to being great cowards and to be 
frightened, and pled for exemption on this score, but they had to 
take their turn with the rest or pay for a substitute. 

There was a man, a poacher and a hanger-on about the Clachan, 
by name Robert Brown, or " Scuffy " as he was called. " Scuffy " 
made it his business to know the names and characters for vigil- 
ance of those forming the watch. He favoured them with his 
company to keep them from wearying, and of course partook of any 



75 

refreshiDg that was needed. In this way it could be known by 
the resurrectionists whether the watch was only nominal or real, 
and measures could be taken accordingly, if they wished to make 
a raid on a fresh ** corpse." There can be little doubt that graves 
were frequently rifled, both in Campsie and in Kirkintilloch. 

There was another man, named Robin M*H , who was 

occasionally employed in the parish to kill a pig or a calf. He 
kept an old horse and a conveyance, and was considered a useless 
body, who managed somehow or other to earn money very easily ; 
by body-lifting, it was ffenerally supposed. He was driving one 
dark night with a companion, who was wrapped up in a large 
greatcoat, seated alongside of him. Robin stopped at Strathblane 
toll for a dram, which when handed to him he tossed off without 
a remark. As he returned the glass, the toll-keeper said — '* Man, 
are ye no' gaun to gie a drink to your neebor ? " " Oh," replied 
he, ^^ this man drinks nane," and then he applied the whip to the 
old horse. 

There is another story that Robin and another had lifted a 
body in the Clachan and gone to Torrance to meet the buyers 
there, and hand over their bargain. To their disgust they were 
only offered £3, instead of the current rate of from £7 to £10 for 
a good subject. ** Hout, fie ! " said his companion, *^ £3 only for 
a big, strong, fresh Irishman. What do you say to this, Robin ? " 
" Oh," replied Robin, " it'll no' dae ava ; a big man like this for 
£3 ! Before I'd sell him for that, I'll tak' him back and bury him 
in the Clachan mools." 

In the Orchard graveyard, attached to the old Marshall Church, 
Kirkintilloch, similar scenes were enacted. Here a Campsie man 
came to grief. Will Monach was at one time tenant of Easter 
Crosshouse Farm, now standing in ruins, having been joined to 
Balcorrach. Will in his young days had been a handsome man, 
although he was a '^ coorse beggar " in his later days. He was 
married to one of the handsomest women in the parish, 
on whose family he latterly sponged. He kept a public- 
house near Lockhart's Loan, now occupied by Mr. M^Cahill. 
Will did a little in the resurrectionist line. Learning that a Mrs. 
Dickson in Kirkintilloch had died, he made arrangements to lift 
the body a night or two after her burial. Her son was Bailie 
Dickson, a ilesher in Kirkintilloch, and her friends, as was then 
customary, watched the grave and kept a vigilant look out that 
no one disturbed it. Those on watch heard the resurrectionist 
operations commence, and at once rushed out One of the watch, 
lifting a hook with which he had been cutting a hedge, came 
upon an intruder in the act of leaping the wall. Grasping his 
hedgebill with both his hands, he struck out with all his might, and 
he knew he had hit the body-lifter, but the man rolled over the 
wall and disappeared. The watchers then returned to examine 
the grave and were pleased to find they had been in time to 
preserve it inviolate. After a period of seclusion, Will Monach 



76 

teappeared in Campsie, having mysteriously lost a leg, aad now 
wearing a wooden one. At the sale of his effects after his 
death, Henry Daisley, a cobbler in Lennoxtown, bought Will's 
pin leg. When asked what use he could have for a wooden leg, 
he replied that it made a *^ capital heel stock," and as Henry 
Daisley's heel stock the wooden leg was used for many years. 
Henry was well known in Lennoxtown thirty years ago. 

What happened occasionally at the Clachan prevailed all 
around. Parishioners at Torrance, who buried in Cadder, being 
nearer to Glasgow, had even greater risks. One case I have 
authentic information about. There were two brothers, Duncan 

and Daniel C , who were well known at Torrance fifty or more 

years ago. The wife of one of the brothers died and was buried in 
Cadder Churchyard. As usual the grave was watched as long as 
there was any danger of it being violated. This churchyard was 
quiet and sequestered, yet near a good Toad, and was a most likely 
spot for the resurrectionist. The body snatchers actually lifted 
the body while the watch were supposed to be guarding the 
churchyard. The guard had been caught napping, but they were 
not altogether careless, so when they discovered what had been 
done, they set off in hot pursuit. They got on the scent and 
overtook the resurrectionists near Glasgow, but they had got rid 
of the corpse, which was found next day roughly concealed in a 
stable dungstead and covered with straw. The body was taken 
back and decently reinterred. 

There was a great turnout in Kirkintilloch on the Queen's 
Jubilee, a neighbour then told me he had only once seen a crowd 
like it in Kirkintilloch, that was when Janet Scobbie was lifted 
at the Auld Aisle, and one of the three men was caught. 

The late Mr. Alexander Galloway, in his lecture, entitled, 
" Historical notes regarding Campsie, Part 11.," delivered to the 
Campsie Mechanics' Institution, on 9th March, 1864, stated that 
the parish school of Campsie was erected in 1661 by John, Arch- 
bishop of Glasgow. The salary of the teacher was to be £100 
Scots. The deed of erection contains an express clause declaring 
that the schoolmaster shall in all times coming teach Latin, and 
that the school shall be constantly held at the Clachan of Camp- 
sie. The population of the parish at this time was estimated at 
1500. It is to be hoped that none of the Haughhead ratepayers 
will heckle the candidates for the School Board on this point at 
the next election. For a long succession of years the Parochial 
schoolmasters have had the reputation of being excellen^ teachers 
and good Latin and Greek scholars. In my young days, Mr. 
Gilchrist, a native of Carluke, Lanarkshire, was Parochial school- 
master and session-clerk. As a teacher, he had the reputation 
of being one of the best of his day, and was said to be an excellent 
classical scholar. He took an interest in his old pupils and did 
all he could to assist them in preparing for college. He was old 
when I recollect him, and was indisposed for any exertion or being 



77 

put off his usual routine. I remember he used to come into 
church very late, having waited to count the collection. His 
sister, who was quite a character in her way, kept his house. 
When she came to church she had on her best dress, but this 
was taken off the moment she got home, and a shortgown and 
petticoat resumed, which she always wore, even when the nn'nister 
or a laird was calling. The brother and sister lived aflFectionately 
together. At twelve o'clock, when the country scholars swarmed 
into her kitchen for the "pieces" they had brought from home, 
her first care in her affectionate solicitude was to have her brother 
Willie's pipe ready. She was herself very fond of tobacco, and as 
smoking by a female was a thing almost unheard of then, it caused 
her to be regarded as peculiar. She was a great believer in 
buttermilk, especially the **gran* sour milk frae Crosshouse," 
and attributed the good health enjoyed by her brother and herself 
to the copious potations they both heartily relished. 

Robert Lindsay of Pitscottie, in his " History of Scotland from 
1436 to 1604," mentions that in the year 1489 a great host of 
Highlanders raided the district between Lochlomond and Stirling, 
8wept the Lennox hills and Strathblane, Campsie, and Kilsyth of 
nearly all the cattle, and committed many most cruel murders. 
Campsie kirk and its clachan village and many of its people were 
sufferers by this incursion. 

The hamlet of the Clachan of Campsie, as it existed during the 
first quarter of the present century, has now almost entirely passed 
away. The meal mill and kiln of the olden times gave place to 
the blcachfield of modern days, but a few roofless walls are all 
that • remain of this once thriving field. Frintfields, smithy, 
cottages, and loomshops are now all things of the past, only one 
of the old houses remains standing, and in this the pedestrian may 
obtain lemonade or a cup of tea. The ruins of the houses below 
the ** Kirkstyle " are almost all that remain of a once thriving 
little village, that seventy years ago was full of life. It had been 
the religious centre of the parish for hundreds of years. Hither 
all classes had come in joy and sorrow. The removal of the 
church to Lennoxtown was the first deadly blow to its importance. 
The opening of the new graveyard soon followed. Since that 
time the place decayed, even after a weaving factory had beeii 
successfully commenced at Haughbead, which might have given 
employment to its inhabitants and been the precursor of other 
factories on the Finglen bum. Unfortunately, the sight of it 
being disagreeable to the land owner, the mill owner has had to be- 
take himself and his enterprise elsewhere. There used to be about 
100 people employed at Mr Gardiner's, afterwards Mr Cunning- 
ham's bleachfield. A smithy stood to the east of the Crown Inn, in 
which a blacksmith named Cassells hammered away cheerfully. 
Houses and loomshops extended from the smithy down the eastern 
side of the road and right round for some distance into the old 
road to the east by Cumroch Brae. At one time 50 looms were 



78 

actively employed here. The most of the weavers worked to 
Glasgow manufacturers. A Haughhead weaver, working for a 
Glasgow house, Gibson <& AJacnee, took in some work, which 
was said to be defective, and five per cent, was deducted on this 
account. Charlie expected a sum which he did not get. ^' Gie 
me the price o' my web," said he. *'Ye've got it there, less five 
percent." " Gie me the price o' my web." **Ye have it less 
the per centage." " Hang your per cent. ; gie me the siller for 
my web." Charlie declared he could never in his life understand 
" these confounded per cents." Others, such as Brown, whose loom- 
shop was at the upper corner of the old road, did what was called a 
** customer trade," weaving the materials which were brought to 
him for this purpose. At the opposite corner, where there is 
now a two-storey villa, formerly stood a four-loom shop, while 
** Deacon " Gilchrist's loomshop occupied the site of Mrs. Jamie- 
son Provan's cottage. The Clachan folks of these days were 
intelligent, simple-minded, and of rather primitive habits and 
customs. Many of them were better known by nicknames than 
by their own bapti^smal names. They affected styl^ in these 
names, and it happened that quite a lot of titled personages were 
living here whose names were not to be found in Peerage or 
Baronetage. As specimens of these names I may mention 
"Prince Charlie," ** Royal Stewart," "Whistle WuU," "The 
Old Shirra " and " The Young Shirra." All these were Stewarts. 
The best known was David Ferguson, " the Earl," as he was 
always called. There was " Lord John," " Lady Marget," " Sir 
Donald Grant," " The Deacon," " Cooper John," " Snip Wull," 
" Bauchle Jock," " Beagle Rab," and " Scuffy Brown." Saunders 
Norie, the Relief precentor, resided here, and to him the com- 
munity were greatly indebted for any musical training they re- 
ceived ; and there was also a weaver named James Morrison, with 
the reputation of dabbling in poetry. Concerning " Bauchle 
Jock," it is said he never made any profession of religion When 
very ill the parish minister called on him, and after some conver- 
sation the minister offered to engage in prayer with him. " Na, 
na," replied Jock ; I'll never get tae heaven wi' borrowed wings." 
Poor man, he had come to this conclusion when it was too late to 
" tak' a thocht an' men'." 

The Inn used to be as you enter the glen. Here, in the early 
years of the present century, came William Muir, w^ho, for some 
time, worked at his trade of block printer in Lennoxmill, while 
his wife attended to the business. Muir was bom and brought 
up in the farm adjoining Mossgiel, where the Burnses were tenants. 
He remembered seeing the poet at work in the fields, and has been 
in his company at festive gatherings in the farm barns in the 
winter evenings. Muir became rather a favourite with Miss 
Lennox, and as his house, with 1661 cut on the linlel, and still to 
be seen as you approach the glen, was too small, she built larger 
premises for him in 1818, with greater accommodation for stabling. 



79 

As the public worship was then conducted in the old church, 
Sunday was a busy day in the Clnchan. Those who came long 
distances required some refreshment. Friends and acquaintances, 
who rarely met except at church, had to enquire about one 
another's welfare, and adjourned to the inn for a "crack." 
Forbes Mackenzie's Act, closing public houses on Sundays, was 
not passed till long afterwards. But the greatest event in the 
Clachan was the Sacramental occasions, when great numbers 
used to attend from neighbouring parishes, and provision had to 
be made for giving the visitors food and liquor. To hit the 
happy medium of what quantity of refreshments to have ready 
was a matter of deep concern to all who provided entertainment 
for man and beast in the Clachan and Haughhead. If the 
weather proved fine large crowds might be expected ; if unpropi- 
tious, the attendance of strangers might be very small. On one 
occasion, on the Saturday preceding the communion Sabbath, the 
clouds were dark and lowering, and rain was expected. That 
Saturday afternoon and evening Mallie was frequently coming 
out and intently scanning the clouds for some signs of clearing ; 
but the outlook got worse and worse, and, realising this, and 
despairing of the good harvest on the morrow, she had prepared 
for and expected, she turned sadly to re-enter, muttering to her- 
self, ** 1 think the morn'H no be worth a snuflF." The Muirs 
conducted their business in the new inn with great enterprise, and 
the public soon found out that they could get better accommoda- 
tion and service in the Clachan for dinners, suppers, balls, or public 
meetings than anywhere else in the parish. I'his branch devel- 
oped, for on great occasions they arranged to obtain the use of a 
large apartment in the Bleach Field, which was capable of holding 
more people than any other hall then to be had. The yeomanry 
ball was perhaps the greatest festive event of the year. The " Field " 
was obtained for dancing and supper, and the rooms were gaily 
decorated with evergreens and draperies. The Stirlingshire Yeo- 
manry Cavalry consisted of five troops — (1) Stirling, (2) Falkirk, 
(3) Strathendrick, (4) Kilsyth and eastwards, and (5) Campsie, 
Strathblane, and Baldernock. The lairds, principal farmers, or 
their sons, the doctors, a few shopkeepers, &c,, formed the Camp- 
sie troop. The regiment met at Stirling annually for eight days' 
training and rode home through Campsie Muir, by the Craw 
Road, and down the Ward Brae to the Clachan Inn, at which 
they halted and partook of a parting cup before separating for 
their homes, i have become acquainted with an incident that 
happened at a Yeomanry ball in 1836, which I shall narrate. Of 
the many handsome young ladies present three by common con- 
sent were pre-eminently beautiful, and who was the belle of the 
ball was being keenly discussed by several groups. It had 
narrowed down to three — a farmer's daughter from the eastern 
end and two sisters from Lennoxtown. Mr. Robert Dalglish, 
afterwai*ds M.P., was present, and was appealed to to give his verdict 



80 

as referee. After consideration, his award was in favour of the 
two sisters dressed in blue. These young ladies, then the Misses 
Brown, still survive, and as Mrs. Walker and Mrs. Archibald are 
known to me. Mrs. Walker still retains many of the good looks 
which made her the belle of the Clachan ball in 1886. The 
other young lady was Miss Jane Buchanan of the Shields. In 
the opinion of others she was undoubtedly the belle. This was 
certainly the opinion of Mr. Brown, the parochial schoolmaster, 
for he came up to the late Mr. Alexander Galloway, then a 
sprightly young bachelor who had recently become factor on the 
Woodhead estate. Addressing Mr. Galloway, Mr. Brown pointed 
out Miss Jane Buchanan to him, declaring that he considered her 
the prettiest girl in the parish. Not only was she pretty, he added, 
she was good and clever withal, and would be sure to make him an 
excellent wife if he were contemplating matrimony. Mr. Gallo- 
way jocularly declared he was not thinking of matrimony, but 
was obliged to Mr. Brown all the same. The famous Tibby 
Fowler o' the Glen was not in it with Miss Buchanan of Shields. 
In Tibby's case, 

" Ten cam' east and ten cam' west, 
Ten cam' rowin' o'er the water, 
Twa cam' doon the lang dyke side : 
There's twa-and-thirty wuoin' at her." 



But then 



" it was for her pelf 
That a' the lads were wooin' at her." 



Local gossip in the Milton reckoned the number of Miss Buchanan's 
admirers at 42. She became the wife of Mr. James Bowman, 
farmer and miller at Cadder. In these times it was a common 
practice for farmers to ride to church, carrying their wives or 
daughters on a pillion behind. For their convenience there was 
a loupin'-on stone almost opposite the old inn, and near the 
comer of the School-house garden, where it may still be seen, 
being used to guard the wall at the corner as you turn into the 
glen. It is about 2^ feet high, rounded at top, and has been 
used as a seat by the younger generation, who never saw it put to 
its original use. It was also very common for females to walk 
barefooted to the church. Young women who did not do this 
were considered by their neighbours as ^^wasterfu', extravagant 
jades." Some of the householders at the Clachan used to set out 
in their gardens a boyne filled with water for the convenience of 
their friends and acquaintances. There was then a little burn 
which used to flow past the School-house and past the " Dean's 
House," where two stone steps gave access to the old Shirra's. 
It flowed into the glen burn just below Ballancleroch. The little 
burnie was the favourite resort of these thrifty females. Here they 
bathed their feet before putting on shoes and stockings, here curl 
papers would be taken out and the finishing touches given to toilets 
that had not been quite completed before leaving home. The shoes 



81 

and stockings were taken off when they came oat of church, and 
the honiewfud joamey was made barefoot. The house commonly 
called the Dean's House has dow been entirely removed. It stood 
below the School- house. It was probably erected as a manse or 
parsonage for the incumbent. In after time.s this house being 
too small, a larger one was built, which now forms part of the 
offices of the existing manse. It is the two-storey building on 
the north side of the court. 

Localities were clearly defined. On the old road from the 
ruined farmhouse of £aster Crosshouse to the end of the road at 
the green was the Ha'-end. From the green to the Haughhead 
bridge was the Howe Loan. Clashmore was in the Ballancler- 
och grounds. Near the foot of the glen the little streamlet 
formed the Heron's Glen. Just above this the brae was called 
*^ The Dinnins," where a little higher still was " Maggie Lapslie's 
Knowe." Maggie had no connection with the parish minister of 
that name, but at one time occupied a little cottage here. She 
came to a tragic end. She was in the act of stealing a sheep, 
and had tied its feet and swung the animal on to her back, and 
was in this way carrying it home. Getting over a dyke quite 
close to her house she seems to have lost her hold of the animal, 
and when she got down on one side the sheep remained on the 
other, and its feet being round her neck, she died by stran- 
gulation almost at her own door. Mr John M'Farlane had made 
a new plantation up the glen. Addressing Felix M'Kewn, who 
had been engaged in planting it he said, ^' Well, Felix, what shall 
we call this plantation ? " " Well, sir, to-morrow is St. Patrick's 
day ; won't you just call it St. Patrick's plantin' ? " ** St. Patrick's 
be it, Felix," and so in the Clachan it came to be called. Donald 
Levenax, the son of Duncan, Earl of Lennox, had his house of 
Ballecorrach, north of the old road and almost opposite Mrs. 
Pro van's cottage. The trees on the slope of the hill would be 
part of the ornamental grounds above his mansion house. 

In Sketches of Manners, Customs, and Scenery of Scotland, 
published in 1811, we find Miss Spence the authoress, who was 
on a visit at Craigbarnet in 1810, mentioning that when going 
to the Church at the Clachan, she observed the door of the house 
covered with large spots of white paint. Asking the meaning of 
this she was informed that the head of the house had died recently 
and that these white spots symbolised the tears shed by the be- 
reaved family. Referring to the superstitious observance of freits 
and omens as affecting luck. Miss Spence mentions that even the 
Laird of Craigbarnet gave heed to them. For having been warned 
by the fairies to the effect that having commenced a journey he was 
on no account to turn back. One day the Laird was thrown from 
his horse into a burn after he had set out. He would not return 
himself for dry clothes, but waited till his servant returned with 
them. One day James Provan galloped from Craigbarnet to the 
Smiddy at the Clachan and called for Cassels the Smith to *' ge^ 



82 

his fleams and come awa' this minit" The Smith complied, 
got the instrument he used for bleeding a horse and was well 
down the Howe Loan when Provan began to explain that his 
callant had tried to execute himself on the tree in " Murray's 
grove," close by the inarch between Craigbarnet and Crosshouse 
lands. " It's no a beast, it's a bodie, then ?" *' Aye, my callant." 
" I must go back for a lancet, then ; these won't do to bleed a 
laddie." The boy had been enjoined by his mother to " mind the 
wean." Rather than obey, in a tit of passion the boy got a rope 
and attempted to hang himself on the tree. He was seen and cut 
down before he had effected his purpose. In the excitement of 
the moment old James Provan could think of nothing else than 
getting the smith to restore him to animation but by bleeding him, 
and bled he was, and survived, notwithstanding this ti^eatment. 
Old Provan used to go down to the Court Hill and look around 
" just to hae a look at the world." This is the old servant of whom 
it is said that having exasperated the Laird of Craigbarnet he 
said, " Well, James, we must part." ** Where are you gaun. 
Laird ? " When he was told he must go away he refused. " If 
the Laird didna ken a guid servant, he kent a guid master." 
James Rankin in the Haughhead was one of the most superstitious 
of men. If he had started to go anywhere, and met or saw any- 
thing that he considered of evil omen or unlucky, he would turn 
at once ; of course he had a horse shoe nailed outside his door, 
and rowan tree and red thread hung up inside, these being con- 
sidered as specifics against witchcraft. 

** Rowan tree and red thread 
Put the witches to their speed." 

The rowan tree was frequently fixed above the byre door to pre- 
vent mischief from witchcraft. In Norse mythology, the rowan 
was associated with stealing fire from heaven, the rowan having 
sprung from a feather of the bird that stole the fire. According 
to ancient custom, the people wore on the eve of May-day a slip of 
rowan tree tied with red thread, the red berries and thread being 
typical of fire, and they were considered a charm against ill luck, 
with the power of averting evil from their cattle. It used to be 
told of a prominent man on the Woodhead property, a most 
estimable individual in every respect, that when going about on 
the Lennox estates, if a hare happened to cross his path he at 
once turned back to the Netherton and did not go on his journey 
that day. The brother of the James Rankin just referred to, John 
Rankin, was a mill-wright in Lennoxmill at one time, but he 
retired when his wife succeeded to her fortune, and he lived 
quietly at the Clachan. He was considered to be a great author- 
ity on cattle and their diseases, more especially where these were 
supposed to be affected by witchcraft, &c. He was often called 
upon to advise farmers and others, not only in Campsie but also 
in the neighbouring parishes of Fintry, Kippen, and Buchlyvie, 



83 

He was sent for by a Fintry farmer to see his cowSj as something 
had gone wrong with the milk. The farmer's household had 
great faith in his skill, but a maid servant was sceptical and 
rather jeered at his methods. He stopped at otice, declared he 
•saw a woman here in whose presence he could not proceed. 
She must be put out of the way. She was thereupon put into 
a box-bed, the doors were tied and chairs put up in front to 
make sure. Rankin then went to the byre, had all the cows' 
tails tied to a rope, and then he belaboured the poor frightened 
animals with a stick to exorcise the evil spirit. In departing,^ 
he left instructions that they were not to be released till he was 
round the Craw Road on his way home, when the cure would 
have been effected. The minister of Fintry on another occasion 
called in his services for some cow that was ill. The minister 
expected he was calling in a vet., who would ascertain by examina-" 
tion what was the matter and prescribe accordingly. Rankin-,, 
however, declared it was witchcraft, and commenced his usual for- 
mula. The minister could not stand that. " Here's a half-crown 
and take the road, my man." Rankin expressed his great regret' 
at the result as, he said, " when ye had the minister ye got the 
whole parish," and this unceremonious dismissal meant a loss to 
him of prestige in that district. Robert Mitchell, Balgrochan, 
had great faith in Rankin and consulted him often. On one 
occasion he declared somebody had ** cuissen an ill e'e on the 
kye," and enquired whether Mitchell had not seen anyone keek- 
ing about ? He said he had seen a farmer prowling about one 
night, but as Rabbie's failing was the lasses he never thought of 
any harm to the kye. " That's the man," said Rankin, " that has 
cast the bad e'e." Mr. William Craig, now of Crossbill, LennoX- 
town, but whose family were long tenants of Balglass farm, has 
many stories of Rankin's experiences in curing witchcraft. Dr. 
Robertson, who was Rankin's brother-in-law, and knew all his 
cattle-curing and milk-healing tricks, was on one occasion pro- 
fessionally visiting at the Mains WtafnT He opened the milk- 
house door by mistake, and was surprised to see on the floor a 
row of milk dishes, each one almost filled with fresh earth, and a 
branch of newly-pulled broom laid across each dish. He retired 
and entered by the kitchen door, and addressed the farmer's wife 
thus : — " I see ye've been consulting Johnnie Rankin." " W-heest ! 
Wheest ! " says she, speaking low ; " dinna mention it. Our milk 
has been gaun a' wrang for some time past, and yon's what we 
are recommended to try to cure it." The fresh earth was for the 
purpose of seasoning and afterwards scouring the wood of the 
milk dishes, and the branch of broom had some supposed charm. 

I remember Mr. Samson, who, when I was a boy, was proprietor 
and occupier of Wetshod. He very much astonished and amused 
a visitor one day by informing him that one of his horses had 
died that morning, notwithstanding his utmost care during its 
illness, and his use of a specific cure which he had been taught to 



84 

regiMrd aa infallible, which he had neyer known to fail before 
Thb care was the taking an old hone-shoe off another horse, 
boiling it for several hours in water, and then making the ailing 
horse drink of this horse-shoe tea or bree. 

A Hanghhead woman, in a court of justice, was called upon to 
take an oath. This she did, and then gave evidence. A neighbour 
knew her witness was false, and asked her how she could say that 
on oath. *'0h, woman," she replied, '^did ye no' see I kept my 
hand below my breath," referring to some superstitious belief that 
if the right hand was not held above the mouth when taking the 
oath, it was not binding. 

In the year 1804, a young woman named Bennie, residing 
either at the Netherton, or at Calside, or at Cloch Core, I am 
not certain which, became unwelL She had previously enjoyed 
robust health, but now was evidently drooping ; her appetite was 
gone, and her spirits were depressed. The cause of her illness 
could not at first bo discovered by the collective wisdom of the 
wise-women of the Netherton and Cloch Core. Not to be baffled, 
they agreed to lay aside their own theories in favour of one who 
was inclined to believe that the girl had been bewitched by some 
evil-disposed person, perhaps a neighbour! This seemed the 
likeliest cause. So the people living in the hamlet agreed to 
assemble in one of the houses and have a witch-finder called in to 
see what he would recommend, after hearing all the circumstances. 
One of the women who assembled at this strange gathering was 
the mother of the late John Brown, Crossbill Street. Another 
has her great-grandson still living in Lennoxtown. A third was 
a woman whose maiden name was Martha Cassels and whose 
married name was Mrs. Baird. The witchcraft expert was brought 
from Kilmaronock, and his arrival being notified, he was intro- 
duced to the meeting and solemnly proceeded with his inves- 
tigation. He called on each person present to repeat the 
Lord's Prayer. This had been successfully accomplished by one 
or two, when it came to Mrs. Baird's turn. She, it would appear, 
had rather a peculiar expression or pronunciation. She com- 
menced briskly, and was understood to say — ** Our Father which 
wert in heaven." '* Stop I ' which wert in heaven.' Ah ! who 
was in heaven at one time and was put out ? " '* Why, the 
Devil ll** "Why," said the witchfinder, "the woman's saying 
the prayer to the Evil Ane I " On this ground alone he declared 
this woman was the cause of the girl's ill health. This strange 
award, which had no bearing or effect on the invalid, on her 
relations, or on her neighbours, was declared in all seriousness to 
a number of married women, by a so-called man of skill, in the 
parish of Campsie, within the present century. 

The minister's man, church beadle, and gravedigger is an 
important personage in a dachan. The beadle was for the first 
quarter of the century Nicol Hunter, who must have succeeded 
well, for he built the public-house at the Haughhead bridge. 1\ 



85 

waB.then customary for large towns to board out their poor waifs 
and orphans in country hamlets and villages, and some of them 
were boarded in the Clachan. Nicol had two, and when his 
daughters married one of them kept his house. She identified 
herself with his interests, and expressed her regret at the 
healthiness of the parish, as ^'no' a rib had crossed the kirk-style 
for a month." 

About the time that Dr. Norman Macleod came to Campsie 
Nicol was succeeded in his post by Donald Blair. Many queer 
stories were long current about Donald's sayings and doings, but 
they have now nearly all passed into* oblivion, and the number of 
persons who recollect having seen Donald are very few now. 
Like his predecessor, Donald complained of the healthiness of the 
parish. In reply to an enquiry how he was getting on, he 
declared he was na getting on at all. He had not buried a leevin' 
soul for sax weeks. Donald had not the consideration of a 
Dunfermline beadle, who, when he was among his cronies, used 
to say—" 'Deed, man, I'm feared to speir at onybody how they 
are, in case they micht think I was wearyin' on them." For the 
some reason, when he was taking a dram, he never dared say — 
*' My services tae you." To a young man, evidently dying, who, 
although very weak and feeble, was occasionally taking a walk to 
the church-yard, Donald volunteered the comforting assurance, 
that he would gie him a nice place in the graveyard, a canny 
place near the yett, where he widna be jostled and hurt by the 
rush of the outeoming crowd at the Last Day ! It was complained 
that the scale of charges for grave-digging was very elastic with 
Donald. There was no fixed tariff, but the price depended on the 
ability of the customer to pay. Strange to say, he had often 
diificulty in obtaining payment of his fees for opening the graves, 
and he complained most of the Irish in this respect. Being 
irritated one day at not being paid for his work, he declared that 
he *' would never bury another leevin' soul o' an Irishman." He 
wes fussy and oificious when lowering the coffin, and having it 
laid straight and solid. On one occasion, when he had been 
showing off, making his assistants move it an " aught" east or west, 
a relative of deceased, getting exasperated, exclaimed, '< Ye auld 
Hielan' reiver, what do ye ken about an aught part." He was 
always made very angry when the boys got into the churchyard 
and commenced ringing the bell. This ringing of the kirk bell, 
from the danger and excitement attendant upon it, became a great 
sport for the wilder spirits amongst the Clachan youths. There 
is a song to be found amongst Sir Walter Scott's miscellaneous 
poems, entitled, "Donald Caird's come again." This song 
was parodied by a local poet named Morrison, and sung at 
Clachan concerts by one Livingstone, then a very popular comic 
singer, who came from Glasgow. Livingstone became a great 
favourite in Campsie. When disabled by rheumatism from going 
oot to concerts, he lay in a bed in the Bush Tavern, Glasgow, 



86 

where he was always glad to see and sing to his old patrons, and 
was a source of attracting guests to the tavern to see and hear 
him. Donald and his family always resented the singing of the 
song, and this led occasionally to quarrels. It was sung well by 
old Jock Shand, who went to Glasgow to sing it at one of the 
earlier Campsie re-unions. Shand sang it with all the spoken 
asides and local hits. I give a few quotations from this once 
well-known song :— 

Whiles he's glooming, whiles he's ci?il, 
Whiles he's raging like a deyil; 
Gin you want to please him, tryst a lair. 
That's the nick for Donald Blair. 

Donald Blair's come again, 

Donald Blair's come again ; 

Tell the news in Campsie Glen, 

Donald Blair*s come again. 

Donald Blair can ring the bell 

Maist as weel's the ^rl himsel'; 

Bat the body canna gie't the richt girt jow, 
(Imitation of the bell ringing.) 

To Niool's notes of lint and tow. Tint and tow. 

Yet the body fain would bring 

Notes out o' the auld cracked thing ; 

But instead o' its auld ancient air. 
(Imitation of bell.) 
Spoken. — As true as I'm standing here, if he's no learning the bell to sing 
•* Donald Blair." 

Donald cries when nane are deein', 
** Save us, mnn, it's a trade no worth ha'en. 

There's naething made o't noo at a'," 

But faith he winna fling't awa. 
Spoken. — ^There was ae day there was a neibonr speer'd at Donald how 
business was getting on wi' him. Business ! quo' he, to tell you the truth, 
I haena buried a living soul this sax week. 

So kintra folks be good to Donald, 

For he's come aff the great clan Ronald 

Hell watch your kirkyards after ten. 
Spoken. — Aye, and when the sorrows of Resurrection men that come about 
the kirkyaird at night, ye ken, Donald can slip in ahint a tombstone gey an 
cannie, wi' a spade shaft in his han', till anoe he sees the fallows beginning 
to their work, then Donald slips out an' says : — I'm saying, callans, what's 
t'at you're about ; it's a confounded thing that the dead canna get leave to 
lie for a set o' scoundrels. I suppose you wasna expecting— (striking at the 
Resurrection men)— 

That Donald Blair's come again. 

Tell the Resurrection men, 

Donald Blair's come back again. 

* 

There was a family named Ferguson who used to live at the 
Glachan, all of whom were silly and in receipt of parochial relief. 
There were Sandy, John, David, Meg, and Janet. Their father 

had been a cousin or other relation of D of G , who was 

exceedingly kind to them, to David especially. John was quiet 
and attended church, and it was no unusual thing for him to ex- 
press his satisfaction when the minister had been in his best form — 
« Man, ye preached prime the day, Lapslie." John was said to 



I 



87 

have had a most retentive memory. After the tent preaching in 
the Glen he could get up among his cronies and reproduce the 
sermon, imitating hoth manner and speech of the preacher. I do 
not recollect having ever seen him. I have heard he was in the 
habit of wearing a petticoat. I only recollect David, " the Earl," 
who was a regular attender at the parish church in my boyish days. 
David entered the church from the vestry door, and took his seat 
in the front pew of the area. In those days Mr. Monro had a 
lecture and a sermon at the one diet of worship. David generally 
sat out the lecture patiently, but soon became tired with the 
sermon. He wore a toy penny watch and when he first began to 
weary this was pulled out with increasing frequency ; then he 
would stand up, and, looking long at his watch, endeavoured to 
catch the minister's eye, in a mute appeal. Sometimes he re- 
mained till the last psalm ; or if he got too wearied he walked 
out by the vestry door, no one taking any notice of him. His 
movements, yawning, nose-blowing, and watch-pulling were taken 
as matters of course, and did not cause any distraction. Mr. 

D is said to have provided him with a suit of clothes every 

year. This was of dark moleskin, with brass buttons. 

I have already mentioned that the old church bell was tolled 
for all funerals. In Davie's time this was his special duty. As 
soon as the funeral procession entered the Howe Loan he com- 
menced, and continued tolling until it arrived at the churchyard. 
For this he always expected a little remuneration or a dram, 
which was seldom refused. David Wilkie was the best fisher in 
this part of the country, and Wilkie was kind to the Earl, who, 
unable to make him any other return, prayed for Wilkie. The 
late Robert S. Muir of the Clachan has informed me that he had 
heard the Earl praying in all seriousness for Wilkie in these 

terms: — "Lord, hae mercy on that poor d d thief Wilkie." 

This was said without any idea of incongruity or irreverence in 
the expression. Indeed, in all Davie's prayers there was always 
an oath or two. Donald Blair's wife Bell had also been kind to 
the Earl. When she died, a few neighbours came into the house 
to the cofiining of Bell. Davie felt solemnized, and was greatly 
touched in his feelings. There was no minister or elder present, 
reading and prayer being quite unknown then and there as a 
service at cofiining. The body of Bell having been cofiined, and 
those present were rising to depart, when Davie, seeking relief to 
his feelings in a religious rite, suddenly exclaimed— ->*< Stay, 
bodies, bide a wee; we micht hae a word." Then reverently 
folding his hands and closing his eyes he exclaimed — ^^God bless 
puir auld Bell. May the Lord receive her." The devoutness, 
the pathos of poor Davie, whose mind was so clouded, brought 
tears to the eyes of one who was present on this occasion, and 
who herself told me she could never forget the incident, or the 
lesson it was calculated to teach. The Earl was attacked with 
cholera in 1854, and died after eight hours' illness. Before he 



8S 

died he turned to Donald Blair^s daughter, then the wife of Alex. 
McLennan, and exclaimed-—'* Lord hae mercy on me, Marget" 
He was buried in the churchyard at Lennoxtown in the part 
where all cholera victims were interred. 

My recollections extend over a pretty long period. It is only 
according to nature that a generation should have now almost 
passed away since I knew it first, but the striking feature to me 
is that so many families of tenant farmers, for instance, after 
sojourning for longer or shorter periods, should have passed away, 
and so few have left any descendants who are now either resident 
or connected otherwise with the parish. I can recollect Dunns in 
BaUagan ; Cowans and Coubroughs in Blairtummach ; Meikle, 
Craigend; Buchanan, Crosshouse; Muirs and Hamiltons in 
Lukeston ; M'Kinlays and, later, Reid and M'Neilage in Glen- 
mill ; Galbraiths and Stevensond in Kilwinnet ; Foyer of Knowe- 
head ; Jacks and Slimmons in Balcorrach ; Robin Alexander, 
in The Hole ; Simpsons in Capieston ; Cunningham in Hole and 
Capieston conjoined; Mitchell and Black in Balgrochan; and so on, 
over almost all the parish. The only exceptions that occur to me 
are the Homes in New Mill and Buchanans io Shields. Not only 
has the old clachan passed away, but the name will now likely fall 
into disuse. The postal district is now Campsie Glen ; aU the 
associations connected with the term " clachan," the kirk, and 
kirkyard are now disappearing. The manse alone remains — ^the 
last link. I have before me an extract of a letter dated March, 
1877. The writer mentions there had been at the clachan that 
day a great Masonic demonstration, with bands and flags. The 
occasion of it was, he says, the laying of the foundation stone of 
a house for the stationmaster at the Glen station. What gave 
importance to this event was the expectation that this was the 
first of a large number of villas which, it was expected, would 
be erected there according to a feuing plan, and which would in 
time entirely replace the old clachan cottages by the modern villa, 
and convert the locality into a residential suburb of Glasgow ! 

As the large landed proprietors held their lands on condition of 
rendering feudal service when called up to muster with their re- 
tainers for the purposes of war, or a peaceful demonstration in 
honour of a royal wedding, they were compelled to attend the call 
under pain of forfeiture of their estates. In their turn they called 
on the farmers, cottars, and retainers to accompany them under 
pain of the gallows, so that there was a fair turnout from Camp- 
sie. at times. At the Battle of Flodden the Campsie men were 
on the right wing, under the Earl of Lennox, and on other occa- 
sions they did their duty to their king and country. They were 
not as well drilled and equipped as our modem volunteers, but 
they were animated by the same spirit of loyalty and patriotism. 

The great natural beauties of Campsie Glen have been a source 
of pleasure and enjoyment to the natives of the parish, who have 
been wont, especially since the beginning of the century, to make 



it a faTOtirite resort every day of the week, but particularly on 
Sundays. Numbers of the worshippers in the old Parish Church 
went into the Glen between the forenoon and afternoon serrices, 
but on the Sabbath evenings it was a favourite walk from all 
quarters. Mr. John M^Farlan, of Ballancleroch, said he had three 
courses open to him in connection with these trespasses on his 
lands — (1) To wink at the trespass, as he did for a number of 
years ; (2) to prevent it by the arm of the law ; and (8) to give 
his consent in express terms. This last he resolved to do, and he 
published a notice making all the world welcome every day of the 
week, except daring the hours of divine service on Sundays. His 
reason for this limitation was that people could not pass and re- 
pass from the Glen without in some measure disturbing the con- 
gregation in the old church. In acknowledgment of the privilege 
conceded to them in common with others, a handsome piece of 
silver-plate was subscribed for, and Mr. Robert Barclay was com- 
missioned to present it It bore the following inscription:—- 
" Presented by the operatives of Lennoxmill Printfield, in testi- 
mony of their gratitude for the privilege of having access to the 
romantic Glen of Kirktoun. 1825." This expression of feeling, 
Mr. M^Farlan declared, made him very proud. Mr. John Brown, 
Whitefield, Lenuoxtown, was present at the public meeting at 
which it was decided to get up this presentation. He is perhaps 
now the only survivor. This privilege was regarded with mixed 
feelings, for, in 1833, a petition was presented to the proprietors 
of the Glen — Mr. M'Farlan and Mr. J. L. K. Lennox — in which 
the petitioners begged " leave to bring before your notice the ad- 
vantage which is taken by many, and particularly by persons from 
Glasgow and other places at a distance, of resorting to your 
glens on Sabbath for purposes of mere amusement, by which your 
petitioners conceive that the holy day is profaned, and an exam- 
ple highly prejudicial to the morals of the young and inconsiderate 
of their neighbourhood, is held out But your petitioners would 
more especially beg leave to advert to a circumstance resulting 
from the advantage so taken by some of resorting to the glens on 
Sabbath, which is that such persons are seen, in very many in- 
stances, returning to their places of abode in a state of intoxica- 
tion ; that rioting and quarrelling frequently take place between 
them on the roads; that fields are trampled down, cattle dis- 
turbed, and the inhabitants of farm-houses and cottages on the 
road firequently annoyed.** The petitioners submit that ^* by pro- 
hibiting all access to the glens on that day there would be less 
resort to their neighbourhood by strangers from a distance, and 
that the parish would be spared in a great degree the contagious 
influence of a profane and licentious example so injurious to the 
morals of all, particularly of the young, on that holy day, whilst 
the inhabitants at large would be rid of what they cannot but feel 
as a constant grievance and an annoyance." The signatures 
attached were those of well-known parishioners:-— Malcolm Brown, 



90 

John Alexander, Robt. Ferrie, Wm. Simpson, John M'Pherson. 
John M^Adam, Robt Fergus, John Buojde, John Angus, Ebenr. 
Brown, Andw. Brown, Geo. Brown, Alex. Fergus, Archd. Craig, 
John Milne, Alex. Swing, Jas. Maitland, John M^Kellar, John 
Service, Robt. Brown, Jas. Maitland, Andw. Motherwell, Wm, 
Stevenson, sen., Wm. Stevenson, jun., Wm. Stevenson (elder), 
Wm. Brown, Wm. Reid, Thomson M*Naught, Adam M*Luckie, 
Geo. Matthison (elder), John Menzies, Jas. Brown (minister), 
Robt. Barclay, John Brown, Norman Macleod (minister), John 
Turnbull, Jas. Ferrie, Robt. Towers, Matthew M'CuUoch, Peter 
Stirling, Robert. Clarke, Alexander Fraser, Wm. Buchanan, 
Jas. M*Kinlay, Wm. Gardiner, John McLean, Wm. Malcolm. 
. Messrs. Robert Clarke, Alexander Fraser, and James M'Kinlay 
were appointed on behalf of the subscribers to present the petition. 
They waited, in the first instance, on Mr. Lennox, by whom they 
reported they were politely and courteously received. He declared 
himself willing to have the glen shut on Sabbath, provided Mr. 
M'Farlan would co-operate with him in any measure that might 
be deemed effectual for the purpose. They then waited on Mr. 
M*Farlan. They reported — *' Here their reception was not such 
as they considered themselves, either individually or as the repre- 
sentatives of a respectable class of persons in the parish, entitled 
to expect, and their communication was cut short by Mr. M^Farlan 
turning on his heel, and in affected obeisance taking leave of 
them." Some definite answer, however, being requested to the 
petition, he promised this should be sent to one of the party in the 
course of two days after ; but instead of this, a placard was ob- 
served on the following day (being Sabbath) to have been posted 
on the gate of the parish church and other public places, a copy 
of which is as follows : — "Mr. M*Farlan has received a petition, 
craving that all access to the glens may be prohibited on Sundays. 
Sq far as he is acquainted with the signatures, it contains but five . 
tradesmen. The host of worthy men in that predicament who 
have refused to join in it may rest assured that Mr M'Farlan will 
never dishonour himself nor the religion to which he belongs by 
interfering with their enjoyments. Ballancleroch, 15th June." 
In a letter afterwards, Mr. M*Farlan said, *' You go into particu- 
lars and complain of intemperate and licentious behaviour, of 
practices improper and reprehensible, of pedestrians and noisy 
vehicles. I am sometimes in the glen on Sunday evening. I see 
a happy world. I meet good humour and good manners, and I 
think unaffected good will. Drunkenness I never saw, nor levity 
of any description. I have again and again seen company taking 
their carriages at the lun, and I never saw one drunken or noisy 
scene. I wish I could say as much of the funerals I have seen 
there, or of communion days, or of pay-nights in Lennoxtown^ 
Surely you do not mean to abolish all these institutions." He 
mentions that the most of the signatures are landed proprietors or 
farmers, in (;)ie open air all week ; but that . all men were not so 



91 

blest Ad angry correspondence ensued, into which the Rev. Mr 
Maeleod was ultimately dragged, and the whole controversy got 
into print. A statement of proceedings relative to the Petition 
for shutting the Campsie Glen on Sabbath was published by a 
committee of the petitioners. This was an octavo pamphlet of 21 
pages. Although I had- heard of the controversy I had never seen 
the pamphlet till last week, when Mr. Malcolm Baird kindly 
posted it to me. I take this opportunity of thanking Mr. Baird 
for this and for having on many other occasions given me great 
assistance in ascertaining historical facts about parish matters. 

THE RIGHT-OP-WAY CASE. 

The road from the eastern parts of the parish to the western, 
and especially to the Parish Church, had been via Crossbill and 
an old road passing over the Cumroch Brae. This road had 
been in use from the erection of the church in the twelfth century 
until it was finally closed, as a result of an action of declarator in 
the Court of Session, by the late Mr. J. L. K. Lennox. When 
the new road past the Whitefield was constructed, the Road Trus- 
tees gave over to the Woodhead estate the ground occupied by the 
Cumroch Brae Road, in lieu of the land required for the broader 
and more level road then formed. While the wheel traffic, in 
course of time, preferred this new road, the conservative instincts 
of the people long preferred to use the old one, and for many, 
years after the new road had been opened all funerals passed 
along the old Cumroch Brae Road. But this old road fell gra- 
dually into disuse, the traffic taking the better and more level 
road. About 1837 Mr. Lennox was led to understand that the 
people of the village of Lennoxtown were using this old clachan 
road for the purpose of poaching, and were setting snares for his 
game. It was considered a short cut to the clachap, where the 
parish registrar was then resident, where all the ^* cries " had to be 
put in, and births and deaths recorded. Lads and lasses strolled 
along the old highway in the summer evenings, and some people 
represented to the Laird of Woodhead that, under pretence of 
walking for pleasure or of a short cut to the clachan, the road was 
used, especially after dark, for worse purposes; so he willingly 
availed himself of these excuses as a reason for having it shut up 
altogether. Accordingly, availing himself of the grant of the 
solum by the Road Trustees, Mr. J. L. K. Lennox, acting under 
the advice of his factor, Mr. Alex. Galloway, had a fence drawn 
across the Crossbill end of the road and a notice put up, warning 
trespassers of the terrors of the law. This was found quite in- 
sufficient The people continued to use the old road, and disre- 
garded the notices to trespassers. Mr. Galloway, the factor, 
having once entered on the prohibition path, was determined not 
to be beaten. He therefore built a strong stone and lime dyke, 
forming at the entrance a recess for breaHng road metal This, 



I 

howeVef, was still insufficient. A deep ditch Was thea cut in 
front of the dyke. This led to an adjoining part of the field fence 
being broken for a passage. This persistence on the part of the 
people seems to have thoroughly riled the factor, who now had 
men employed at 2s 6d per day and 28 6d per night to watch and i 

take the names of persons insisting on using the old road. Fro- * 

secutioiis were raised against individuals in the Sheriff Courts. 
The people of Lennoxtown, who had no idea that the Road 
Trustees had given over the land of the old road in exchange for 
the new road, rose up in defence of what they considered their 
rights — for rights to a highway that the parishioners had used to 
go to the kirk, and by which all funerate had gone to the grave- 
yard, from time immemorial. Meetings were held. to protest 
against the supposed arbitrary proceedings. At the public meet- 
ing called to consider what steps should be taken to maintain the 
right-of-way, a prudent counsellor suggested that eveiy effort 
should be exhausted before going to law. This was not in unison 
with the' feeling of the meeting. One man brought down the 
house by calling out, **No moUigrants, but Dbmakd our 
RiGtiTs'^ The meeting resolved to defend what they believed 
their rights in a court of law. It was a matter to be deeply re- 
gretted that they did not send a deputation to Mr. Lennox and 
endeavour to settle the matter amicably. Printed statements were 
now circulated and appeals made for funds. The case was called, 
and Mr. Lennox established his rights to the satisfaction of the 
Court of Session, who thereupon gave judgment in his favour, 
with expenses against the opponents. The champions of the 
public rights were now saddled with the expenses in the court, and 
they appealed to the public of Campsie to come forward and 
relieve them of the personal liabilities they had incurred. Thomas 

Davidson, now of Busby, William Craighead, and Lochead, 

were perhaps the leading spirits in this case. When gathering 
the material for this lecture I wrote to Mr. Davidson, telling him 
I intended to refer to the case to-night, and he replied to me :— • 

"Jambs Place, 
" BusBT, 7th Nov.f 1891. 

*< Dear Sib, — It is now forty years since interdict was granted to shut up 
the old road to the Clachan. I was one of the parties to a long and troobl^ 
some battle to maintain the Bight-of-Waj. We had to raise the funds to 
carry on the law -suit. For a number of years in succession we got up 
concerts, lectures, and subscriptions, but the people got tired and left us in 
the lurch, with a heavy balance to pay to the law -agents. At the time, I 
told all my household effects to prerent them coming down on mvself 
personallj. I left Campsie in 1882, and since then hare been very seldom 
back to talk oyer early days and old times, and the incidents of our fight. 
But I believed then, and my conriction is still unshaken, that the law- 
agents sold the case in favour of the Lennox claims. William Craighead 
and I went several times to Edinburgh, and with difficulty got our traveUiog 
expenses paid. I hope you will be able to eondemn strongly the actum of 
Mr. Lennox in shutting up the old road to the Auld Clachan Kirk, aad his 
entering into a law-suit against the inhabitants of Lennoxtown and the 
ditttict.— I am, yours sincerely, Thos. DAnoBOV," 



As popular opiDion had been in favour of a legal defence a fair 
response was made to appeals for money; public subscriptions 
were opened; concerts to raise funds were organized and well 
patronized; and in course of time the more pressing liabilities 
were liquidated. Mr. Lennox must have spent a lot of money 
on the case, besides incurring a good deal of unpopularity in 
Lennoxtown, which was also extended to his factor, Mr. 
Galloway, who was generally regarded as the prime mover in the 
whole affair. 

OLD PARISH ROADS. 

There is reason to believe that the mansion house of Craig-^ 
bamet, which King James the IV. visited in 1508, stood nearly 
on the site of the present house, and the public road then would 
pass behind Wellbank, by Lukeston, Crosshouse, Craigbamet 
House and out by the West Lodge. A new mansion house was 
built in 1660, leaving the public road undisturbed. When this 
house was abandoned and the present Craigbarnet built, in order 
to give greater privacy, the Laird, " Old Burry," had the road 
altered* A new road was made through the soft, boggy land to 
the south of the house, and this was very imperfectly bottomed, 
so much so that a loaded cart would sink deep in the ruts, some- 
times even up to the nave of the wheels. People disliked it there- 
fore, and persisted in taking the old road past his new mansion, 
which greatly annoyed Old Burry, who was then old and easily 
irritat^ Burry caught the late Jamieson Provan's father on 
the forbidden ground and on being challenged for trespassing and 
threatened with a stick which the Laird held in his hand. Pro van 
manfully retorted, '* Well, Laird, if you are to stop this road ye 
must make a better one than the road down bye, where the loaded 
cart'll sink to the naves." The last laird found parties using the 
old road to pass from Blairtummach to Crosshouse, but he had this 
stopped by a high fence and a notice to beware of mantraps* 
The centre of the new road is now fairly bottomed, but the sides 
have room for improvement. A good many years ago a boiler 
was being brought from Blanefleld. Near Craigbamet it was 
taken to one side to allow something to pass, and the wheels sunk 
at once in the soft ground. 

DIVSBSION OF BOAD BETWEEN WHITEFIELD AND HAUOHHEAB. 

It is not perhaps generally known that when the Blane Valley 
Railway was proposed the original plan of the railway was to 
have level crossings on the road I have been referring to, which 
superseded the old road to the Clachan. They were to have been 
just beyond Whitefield, and again near Balcorrach Farm, where 
the line passed under the Woodhead. This was the cheaper route 
for the railway company, and they secured the support of Mr. 
Hanbiity Lennox to their scheme. It was neceissary, however, to 



94 

obtain the sanction of the Road Trustees, and a meeting of that 

body was called to consider the question. The case for the 

railway company was put, the question of expense to the 

promoters was enlarged upon, and the Road Trustees were asked 

by the railway company to concede level crossings between 

Whitefield and Haughhead. The late Sir Archibald Edmonstone 

led the opposition to this proposal. He had carefully considered 

the matter and had come to the conclusion that two level 

crossings on this road would involve risk to the public. He 

feared lest some one would be injured by a train, and the safety 

of the people, in his estimation, was not to be placed for a single 

instant in jeopardy, to save a little expense to the railway 

company, even when they had the assent of the landed proprietor, 

as the Blane Valley company had in that of Mr. Hanbory 

Lennox. He declared against a level crossing therefore, and 

carried a majority of the Road Trustees with him, with the result 

that the level crossing was refused, and the railway company had 

accordingly to make an expensive alteration of the road from a 

little beyond Whitefield to Campsie Glen station, whereby 

crossing the road was altogether avoided, but at great expense to 

the railway company. Everyone will admit that his counsel was 

the wiser, and perhaps few people are aware to whom they owe 

the result. 

HAUGHHEAD. 

The hamlet of Haughhead is not a very old one. The feus 
for the buildings in that village began to be taken off about 1735, 
and were continued till about 1785 or 1795. In an advertisement 
of a house for sale in 1818 it is stated that the lease was for 99 
years from Whitsunday 1735, that on the ground then leased 
there had been erected two substantial tenements, also a four-loom 
shop, cellars, <&c. The tack duty was trifling, and the setter was 
bound by the terms of the original tack to renew the same at the 
end of the 99 years, or to pay the value of all buildings erected or 
to be erected on the ground. All the building leases in Lennox- 
town contained such a clause ; but when Mr. Galloway became 
factor of the Lennox estate, in 1836, he refused to insert a clause 
of that kind in the new tacks. He very much surprised the 
owners of the existing buildings, who were relying on this clause 
to have their tacks renewed, or that their value should be paid by 
the proprietor, by informing them that such a clause was ineffec- 
tual and worthless to them, for it was only personal, not heritable, 
and that they would find it useless at the end of 99 years to call 
upon a proprietor of an entailed estate for fulfilment. 

SERMONS TO PEOPLE IN WORKING CLOTHES. 

There were a number of the residenters in Haughhead who 
dropped away from church attendance altogether when the new 
church was built at Lennoxtown. When the Rev. Robert Lee 



95 

became minister, his visitiog at every house in the parish soon 
revealed the stat« of matters to him. Despite his entreaties and 
expostulations he could not get these, people to -go to church. 
They " hadna claes to gang to tlie kirk ; " they *' were tired and 
it was far awa'." So Lee arranged to get the use of the largest 
room in Ferguson's public-house. He had service there on the 
Sabbath evenings and invited them to come in their working 
clothes. Mr. Lee's determined importunity carried the day, and 
he had a great measure of success in these meetings, at which the 
gospel was preached for the first time in the Haughhead. Mr. 
Lee was not content till he had got his Sabbath evening flock to 
resume attendance at the parish church, for he found that when 
once they began to attend his evening services a Sunday suit of 
clothes soon followed, and they found their way then to the parish 
church. 

LAIRD BUCHANAN AND THE GORSHOUSE EIRN. 

The late William Buchanan of Crosshouse was a well-known 
man in Campsie. He was a quiet, unassuming, sober, industrious, 
well-living, respectable man, a good specimen of the Presbyterian 
elder and small laird. He was content to occupy all his life the 
house, steading, and farm which he owned. Taking rank as a 
farmer-laird, he made himself very useful as an heritor, convener 
of parish committees, secretary of Farmers' Society, and for two 
or three years after the passing of the Poor Law Act he was the 
Parochial Board's Inspector. The laird was sometimes prevailed 
upon to recite a metrical description of a Scottish harvest home 
festival, entitled, " The Laird of Corshouse's Kirn, on Friday, 
15th Oct., 1790." The poem, if I may call it so, is too long for 
insertion here, but it truly describes a festive gathering at a 
harvest home in 1790. This annual kirn came to have quite a 
local celebrity. It was frequently attended by the minister, the 
lairds of Craigbamet and Ballancleroch, their families, and 
visitors. The narrator has ridden out from Glasgow to be 
present, and describes his ride and his call at Downie's in the 
Newtown, where he *^ primed himself well before joining the 
ball." Having reached the Corshouse, as Crosshouse was then 
called, 

. " On our arrival did meet with dames plenty, 

All decked for the ploy — I am sure more than twenty. 
In the house, 'mongst the gentry, I sat down to tea, 
Where a throng of braw damsels ranged round in full glee ; 
' Whilst the clowns and their lasses made the bam joyfully ring. 
WeU pleased, undismayed, to begin the said kirn. 
Where whooping and capering to fiddle and pipe, 
And whirling their partners in frenzied delight 
Soon brought ben the gentry, to join in the whoop. 
Which caused fur a time each rustic to droop ; 
Till, warme<l by the dance, no distinction was seen— 
Man, mistress, and maid mingling in the blyth scene. 



96 

Tliera were reels, Highland flings, and other soeli capers— 
All danced in the bam, both the clowns and their betten. 
Taking turns at the jig, the Ureliesi of all, 
And bab-at-the-bowster, wliich ended the ball. 

m 

How griered when we*re ordered to the house all to run, 
Being warmed up by the dancing we wanted more fun. 
But th* orders of Corshouse we had to obey. 
For the pies and the milk were set out for the fray. 
And now to have seen us all placed round the table, 
Some lads to their sweethearts love stories did gabble ; 
While others plyed keenly at pies and sweet cream, 
And some ben the kitchen with songs made a din. 
This pleased rural medlay would have yielded rare sport 
To those who bad nerer been absent from court. 
For what doth the prince or the statesman ere know 
Of the harmless glad mirth that a kirn doth bestow. 
Worn out with this harvest home's annual diversion 
Each to their respective homes took their direction. 
And I with Miss Brown, a fair damsel, went home. 
About three in the morning we trudged along. 

But when to her dad's dwelling safely we came, 
In boldly I entered to yield up my dame. 
And down near a clear blazing fireside did sit.*' 

Aft^r bolting a bumper of spirit of malt, our Glajsgow yiBitor 
took his leave. He started up next morning, after having slept 
at Corshouse, moralising — 

*< How oft, in blythe moments, are some called from earth 
To appear before God, who at firet gave them birth. 
Then* thanks to Him who presides o'er each ploy. 
For the health I was blessed with, the kirn to enjoy." 

What strikes one here is, while there was an abundant tea, 
dancing, and fun, and plenty of pies, sweet cream, &c., to supper, 
there is no indication of drinking to excess at the kirn. The visi- 
tor ** primes himself " by a dram in passing through the Newton, 
and the lady he has taken home gives him a ^* nightcap." The 
festive gatherings of the yeomanry were accompanied with more 
conviviality. Returning from one of these the tenant of Kil- 
wiimet saw the sign of a. highlander in full dress above Roger 
Sinclair's public in the Haughhead. This dress was associated 
in his mind with Mr. Leckie £wing, of Stirling, Gordon, & Co., 
Glasgow, who was a very frequent visitor at Ballancleroch, and 
who, on the 28th June, 1826, married Eleanora, the eldest 
daughter of John M^Farlan, advocate, to whom I have already 
referreld in the course of this lecture. Mr. Leckie Ewing was a 
handsome man, and the kilt, which he frequently wore, showed 
his well-proportioned figure to advantage. On his way home 
from the yeomanry ball in rather an elevated condition, the 
Kilwinnet farmer, at the sight of Roger Sinclair's sign, called 
out, *' Set to l/cckie Ewing, Jenny," and proceeded to set and go 



97 

tbroqgh the ^figure of a Scotch reel on the road, winding up with 
a TigoroDB^' Hooch ! ". 

• • ' ' ' ■ ■ r 

PARISH MILLa 

The feudal charters gave other privileges, jurisdictions, akid 
rights hesides the land. Mills were a part of nearly every grant 
The feudal haron had power to compel all the inhabitants of the 
barony to grind all their grain at the barony mill, and he could 
exact certain dues from his tenants who were thirled to his mill, 
This is not the place to describe the multures, knaveships, lock, 
and gowpen, &c., as these dues were called. Brisbane of Bishop- 
ton was proprietor of the lands of *^ Balnacleroch " (Ballancleroch 
is the modern name) before these were acquired by Patrick 
M'Farlan of Keithtoun, in 1642. In 1637, in an old charter, I 
find these lands referred to as the " said lands of Balnacleroch, 
with miln, miln lands, and pertinents." Balnacleroch Miln was 
formerly at the foot of the glen. It wajs in later times converted 
into a bleachfield. To this mill the tenants oh the Balnacleroch 
lands were bound to send their grain. Glenmiln was the mill to 
which the Craigbarnet tenants were thirled and bound to send 
their grain. The Antermony estate had Lochmill. Bendoich 
had The Mill or Bencloich Mill. Glorat had its own mill, so had 
Kincaid at French Mill ; while that for the Woodhead estate was 
the Lennox Mill, which before the calico printwork was 
commenced, stood in what is now the garden of ** The Cottage.** 

Dpugal Graham, the author of many Scottish chap books, and 
also of the metrical account of the rebellion of 1745, and who, 
about 1770, became skellat bellman of the city of Glasgow, was 
born at Raploch, near Stirling. When about three years of a^e 
he came to reside with an uncle in Campsie parish. Miss Spence, 
in the ** Sketches " I have already quoted, writing in 1811, says : — 
*' It is said that on the side of the hill above the old village of 
Campsie (the clachan) are to be seen traces of a turf cottage, the 
early residence of Dougal Graham." 

James Bell, bom in 1769, in Jedburgh, where his father was 
Belief minister, the author of *^ A System of Geography " and 
other works, came to live at Lukeston about 1821. He spent the 
last twelve years of his life in domestic comfort and tranquility, 
and died Srd May, 1833, in his sixty-fourth year. He was buried 
in the Clachan churchyard. 



Since this was read, I have learned that the late Mr. John 
Barclay, a son of Mr. Robert Barclay, whose name is mentioned 
in this paper, visited Thebes, and paid a visit to the little British 



98 

cemetery where Capt. Lennox was buried. He found everything 
about it in very nice condition. The air is so pure that stone- 
work retains its new look for ages. He found, for instance, the 
ancient stone columns at Thebes looking as if they had just left 
the hands of the masons. In this little cemetery there were only 
two graves when Captain Lennox's remains were interred there. 
In 1889 there were then six in all, and all about it was in perfect 
order. A plain granite slab marks his resting-place. On this is 
inscribed : — 

HERE LIES 

TILL THE RETURN OF 

OUR LORD 

THE BELOVED REMAINS 

OP 

JOHN KINCAID LENNOX, 

YOUNGER, OF 

LENNOX CASTLE, SCOTLAND, 

WHO DIED AT THEBES, 

FEB. 28th, 1857; 
AGED 26 YEARS. 

*^ Blessed are the dead which die in the Lord.** — Ret. zir., 13. 

I have also learned that the proprietor of Ballancleroch is said 
to have had and still claims to retain the right of sepulture within 
the Clachan Kirk. 

It would further appear that Keith toun was the name which 
the M^Farlan who married a Keith wished to give his seat of 
Balnacleroch, as it used to be spelt in old documents. 



♦--^^^' 



JOTTINGS ABOUT 



LENNOXTOWN and DISTRICT. 



707577 



LENNOXTOWN and DISTRICT. 



In the lecture on **The Clachan and District" I dealt almost 
exclusively with the western portion of the parish. In the 
present paper the village of Lennoxtown will be the centre with 
which my notes will be chiefly concerned, but when referring to 
matters of a more general character I shall have to include 
the whole parish. I propose to narrate some of the village annals, 
in so far as these may be of interest to the natives of the parish, 
not merely to those now resident within its bounds, but to the 
many who are scattered over all the world. It was very 
interesting to observe from a letter published in the Kirkintillock 
Herald of 2drd September, 1891, that Mr. Gordon Wilson, jun., 
found a small colony of Gampsonians in Salt Lake City. He 
was introduced to an old worker in the field as the son of Mr. 
Gordon Wilson of Lennoxmill. Old Campbell said, with pleased 
astonishment, " You are not a son of Gordon Wilson I Well, 
well ! and from Campsie too 1 " When he heard the name of his 
native village mentioned, he actually broke down, tears filling his 
eyes. The last time the late Mr. John Macleod was in Kirkintil- 
loch, very shortly before his death, meeting him by chance, 1 
asked him how my old schoolmates the Maclays were getting 
on in Australia. He told me how a wayfarer turned aside one 
day to a comfortable homestead, and asked for a drink. The 
lady of the house was a hospitable Scotchwoman. The traveller 
noticed something which, he said, reminded him of Campsie. 
Campsie ! " said the lady, '^ what do you know about Campsie ? " 
Oh ! " replied the traveller, ^^ I was born and brought up there." 
*' So was I,** remarked the lady ; my maiden name was Maclay, 
and we lived at Bowantreefauld." James M'Gilchrist, while 
travelling on the top of an omnibus in a town in Portugal, one 

day heard, ^< Hilloa, breeks ! '' This salutation, he thought, 

must be from some Campsie person, so he came off and looked 
about, to find he had been recognised by another native, a 
sojourner in Lusitania. The lecture on "Calico Printing in 
Campsie," published last year, has been scattered all over the 
globe, and in foreign lands has been passed from hand to hand, 
as recalling associations of the old homes. Like auld Scotia's 
sangs, reminiscences are more highly valued the further we get 
away from our native land. 

** They're twined wi' mony lorely thochts, wi' niony lonesome themes, 
They gar the gktM o' memorie gHnt back wi* brichter shine 
On far off toenes and far off friends— and Anld Lang Syne." 






102 

FREEMASONRY. 

Freemasonry early obtained an introduction to the parish. 
The charter of "Lennox (Kilwinning)" Lodge, No. 74, is dated 
24th June, 1772, and "St. John's Caledonian R.A." No. 195, 
commenced about 1796. ^* Lennox .(Kilwinning)" had its head 
quarters in the Clachan ; indeed it used to be called " The 
Clachan Lodge." It was originated by the farming class, and 
was the lodge of the rural community, just as the *'St. John's 
R.A." drew its membership mainly from the printfields. The 
" Lennox (Kilwinning)" Lodge is now defunct but the " St. John's " 
still exists. Its membership at present is not numerous, but the 
brethren are enthusiastic, and the good time coming may see 
their numbers largely reinforced. The charter of No. 74 is as 
follQws : — 

"Lennox (Kilwinning) Lodge, No. 74. 

" Kilwinning, 24<A June, 1772. 

** Which day a petition of sandiy Masons from Campsie, county of Lennox 
or Dumbarton, craving a decree of constitution by the name and title of 
Lennox (Kilwinning) Lodge having been presented to the Mother 
Lodge, the Brethren, after due consideration, unanimously grant the 
request thereof. 
<* We, Robert Beid, Deputy Grand Master of the Mother Lodge of Kil- 
winning, having taken into consideration the request of certain Masons at 
Campsie, praying our authority to be formed into a regular Lodge or Society ; 
being well assur^ of their moral character and of their inclination to pro- 
mote the good of masonry, we, with the consent of our Wardens and other 
Brethren, do constitute and erect them into a regular Lodge, by the name 
of Lennox (Kilwinningj Lodge, and we grant them all powers and privileges 
which now are, or for any time past may have been, legally enjoyed by any 
other Lodge of our creating. The same to be always holden of the Worship- 
ful Grand Master of the Mother Lodge of Kilwinning, and his successors in 
office, upon the yearly payment of one Merk Scots money, at the anniversary 
meeting of the Mother Lodge, in December, and upon attendance of one of 
their members, if required, at said meetings. Given at Kilwinning, 24th 
Jane, 1772.? 

A young man named William Morrison, a son of the tenant 
of Shields Farm, went to London, to learn the trade of coach 
building. Having done so, Morrison resolved to go abroad to 
push his fortune. He sailed for India, but the vessel had the 
misfortune to be captured by pirates, and all on board were 
taken into captivity. Of the passengers and crew, Morrison 
alone got away, not only with the whole of his own effects, but it 
was said, also with money that had belonged to others of the same 
ill-fated vessel, who either perished when captured or had died in 
slavery. He was a member of the Campsie *' Lennox Kilwin- 
ning " Lodge No. 74, and it was reported that he had saved his 
life by making some Masonic Signs, which his captors understood. 
They acknowledged a principle of brotherhood, and in consequence 
preserved his life and assisted him to get on board a British ship 
outward bound for the Indies. He succeeded in business in 
Calcutta^ and on his return found his parents had left the Shields 



103 

and that they were then residing in a thatched cottage, with a 
byre at the end of it, on Balgrochan Farm, about one hundred 
yards from the road to the west of Meadowbank. This was 
called the Damhead. Wishing to settle in Campsie, he intended 
to erect a suitable residence, and he had planned to have 
Meadowbank built for his own occupation. He fell one morning 
at his own door in Campsie, having slipped on a frozen step. A 
few days afterwards he had occasion to return to London; on 
business, and while there he died suddenly, on 22nd July, 1818. 
The immediate cause of death was the rupture of a blood vessel, 
and it is considered this was the result of. the injuries received 
when he fell on the doorstep in Campsie. Meadowbank was 
built afterwards and occupied by his parents and his sisters. In 
his will Mr. William Morrison bequeathed £100 to his native 
parish. 

HAND-LOOM WEAVING. CARRIERS. 

• The Newton of Campsie, as Lenooxtown was at first called, 
owed its being mainly to Lennoxmill. Besides the employment 
afforded at the printfields and secret works, at the commence- 
ment of the present century, there was a good deal of handloom 
weaving carried on, for when Lennoxmill was stopped, owing to 
the failure of Lindsay, Smith, & Co., the inhabitants had recourse 
to handloom weaving for employment. This was followed in two 
branches, viz., the customer trade (weaving the wool which had 
been spun on the spinning-wheel at home into blankets and cloth, 
a variety of which was known in the district as " Campsie grey "), 
and working to manufacturers in Glasgow, who supplied materials 
and paid for the workmanship. ** The swish of the shuttle and 
the monotonous thud of the lay" are sounds which have long 
ceased to be heard in our streets. At the end of the first decade 
of this century there were four hundred weavers in Campsie, the 
great bulk of whom wrought to Glasgow houses. In those days 
Auld Jamie Maitland was carter in the village, and on Wednes- 
days and Saturdays he went to Glasgow as carrier. He took in 
the finished webs and brought out the money paid for the labour, 
and also the warp, wheep, coops, &c., the materials to be worked 
into the new web. Maitlaud was succeeded by Jamie Adams, 
who besides being carrier filled other important offices. He was 
precentor in the Parish Church at the Clacban and also acted as 
an auctioneer. Mr. James Millar has told me that he once heard 
Adams officiating at a sale of furniture in Lockhart's Loan. He 
could get no bid for a spinning-wheel, which he declared was 200 
years old. In despair, he said, " Will ye no gie me a bid just for 
the iniquity of the thing ? " It was a common occurrence for those 
weavers awaiting money or work to gather at Luckie Callender's 
public, a one-storeyed house, still standing opposite the Alum 
Work road. Here they awaited the arrival of each successive 
carrier. When the worthy had handed over his money, and de- 



104 

livered hia mesBages coneeniing w<n*k, a dram was not uncoramon ; 
but there was no drinking to eitoees on the part of the weavers, 
similar to what obtained at the west end of the Tillage, when the 
block printers had a spree. Hand-loom weaving died a natural 
death, owing to the more remunerative employment to be had in 
LennoxmilL John Jack and Daniel M^Kenzie were probably the 
last of the old Gampsie weavers. The former, died in 1875, 
and the latter in 1883. Bennie succeeded Maitland as Glasgow 
carrier, and was in turn succeeded by Andrew M^Farlane, who 
had a sort of earavan, where he could give passengers " a lift.** 
There vma also a carrier, John M^Farlan, who came from the 
Haughhead. Andrew M^Farlane's sons were at Mr. Taylor's 
school with me. The whole family went to Canada. Robert 
Younger was next carrier, in succession to Andrew M^Farlane. 

JAMIE FOTEB. 

All natives of Carapsie have heard of young Jamie Foyer. 
Jamie's father had been employed at SculHongour limeworks. 
He was bellman in Campsie when public intimations were made 
hi that primitive fashion, and I have heard of some very amusing 
intimations of his. He was also a barber. Jamie became a 
weaver, was drawn for the militia, and, being unable to pay for a 
substitute, had no alternative but serve his time. From the 
militia he volunteered into the 42nd regiment, always a popular 
one with Campsie recruits. In 1812 this fine regiment was sent 
to Portugal, where, on 22nd July, it took part in the battle of 
Salamanca. On 19th September it took part in the assault and 
capture of Fort St. Michael, Burgos, where its loss was 228 
officers and men. When stoirming this fort, Foyer had ascended 
to the top of a scaling ladder, when he received a bullet in his 
breast, and fell off the ladder mortally wounded. When dying, 
he wished for a drink of water from a well-known well in 
Campsie. This incident was referred to in a song, of which I 
quote the foUowing stanzas : — 

** Ob ! ill had a drink of Baker Brown^s well, 
My thirst it would q^uench, and my fever would quell ; " 
But life's purple current was ebbing so fast 
That young Jamie Foyer soon breathed his last. 

They took for a winding sheet his tartan plaid, 
And in the cold grave his body was laid ; 
With hearts full of sorrow, thev coyered his clay, 
And, muttering " Poor Foyer," marched slowly away. 

This song used to be sung frequently in the streets of Campsie, 
and especially in front of the shop of Mr. James Jack, who could 
never hear it without rewarding the singer. The authorship of 
the song seems to be unknown. Jamie Foyer's wish for the drink 
from Baker Brown's well is not yet forgotten. Mr. James Jack 
has mentioned to me that in the summer of 18d7 two strangers 



105 

called on bim to ascertain whei*e this well was. They wished to 
fill two bottles of water from it, as they were about to start for 
Spain, and intended to drink the water as near the spot at Burgos 
where poor Jamie fell as it was possible now to ascertain it. 
They had come out to Lennoxtown that day for the express 
purpose of procuring the water, in order to carry out their strange 
whim. 

DISTILLERIES. 

During the first quarter of the present century there was a 
number of distilleries in Campsie and Kirkintilloch. These have 
now all been given up, owing to the impossibility of small con- 
cerns competing with distilleries as carried on nowadays. At 
Milton Mr. John Forrest had a distillery on the Glazert, near the 
railway station. Some of the building may still be seen in ruins. 
Lillyburn was a distillery till about 1831. Mr. George Brown 
had a distillery at the Mains of Bencloich. A Campsie man who 
worked here told my informant that, while he was employed there, 
he was drunk every day for two years (Sundays excepted.) In 
Kirkintilloch there were distilleries at the Loch (Alexander's), at 
Duntiblae, at the Holm, at Habbie's How, on Luggie (opposite 
the Old Foundry); and there was Freeland's (near Oswald 
School), besides two breweries, Jaffrey's and Wood's. In connec- 
tion with this, the supervisors and other Excise officers were nearly 
all Englishmen, and their graves are to be seen in a portion of 
the old burying-ground at the Auld Aisle, Kirkintilloch. This 
comer pathetically records the last resting-places of these strangers 
and sojourners in the service of the Excise, nearly all of whom 
hailed from the South of England. 

SMUGGLING. 

It is said that a good deal of smuggling used to be carried on 
at Campsie, as indeed it extensively prevailed all over the country. 
Previous to 1823 the duty on spirits was 6s 2d per gallon. It 
was reduced to 2s 4|d, with the rather surprising result that, 
whereas only 2,225,124 gallons were charged duty for home 
consumption in 1822, the quantity in 1825 was 5,981,549 gallons. 
The consumption had not increased much, but with the reduction 
of duty the smuggling had diminished. While smuggling was 
illegal, few had scruples in buying smuggled goods, the smuggler 
regarding his calling as innocent, and defending, even with 
violence, what he considered his own. The people were in 
sympathy, and espoused his cause to the extent that no informa- 
tion was given that would betray him into the hands of the 
Excise. The knowledge that it had been smuggled imparted an 
additional recommendation to the mountain dew, over and above 
that which bad the legal '* permit" Finglen was a great resort 
of smugglers. It is reported that at one time there could be 



106 

^elected by the smoke seven illicit stills working there at the 
sanie time. ' Smuggling was carried on also up the Back Bum, 
the bum which rises behind the Fells and comes down at Alnwick 
bridge. There is a plantation below the Ferrets, called Iq my 
young days " The Smugglers' Plantin'." Their materials were 
conveyed to these places on horseback. Smuggling was also 
carried on at Mount of Glorat. Within the last 25 years one 
iugenious individual is said to have carried on a brisk trade at 
the Mount, having erected a regular still in a dwelling-house 
there. When the Macgregors, under their assumed name of 
Colquhouns, were on one occasion harrying the Gampsie valley, 
and driving off the cattle, they discovered a smugglers' still on 
the hill. When they had got the ''lifted" cattle secured in the 
level field between Easter Muckcroft and New Mill of Glorat, 
they brought down the whisky they had unexpectedly discovered, 
and went in for a regular jollification. The Campsie farmers, 
who had been spoiled of their cattle, had watched the marauders 
carrying these off, but owing to the number of the raiders, the 
farmers' households, including shepherds and men and maid 
servants, could not offer effective resistance. But when they saw 
the whisky being taken to the encampment, their hopes rose. 
They were advised to wait, and when the reivers were asleep, 
many of them drunk, then to attack them. There was no watch, 
and the Campsie fanners made '^ siccar " and spared not, and the 
cattle were back at their own pastures in course of the following 
day. The field is now marked on the Ordnance Survey map as 
" The Field of Blood." 

Some Milton smugglers used to have a still on the hill above 
Eeirhill. When they were afraid of any ganger they brought 
their utensils down to Keirhill Farm, where Mr. Gray was then 
tenant, and they concealed them carefully in the heart of a hay- 
stack. In this way a copper worm was left, and long lay in Mr. 
Gray's steading. It was probably taken down to the Smithy in 
Milton, where Mr. Gray's son still carries on his calling as 
*' village blacksmith." Here the revenue officers tried, with very 
indifferent success it must be admitted, to keep a watch on illicit 
distillation. They had two courses open, to discover if possible 
the still, or endeavour to seize the whisky in transit On their 
part the smugglers and their sympathisers kept a vigilant look out 
for gangers, and warnings were conveyed sometimes by very in- 
genious ruses. When the revenue officers had reason to suspect 
that a quantity of whisky was to be sent to Glasgow, they would 
set a watch, sometimes on the bridge over the Kelvin at Torrance, 
or at similar easily watched localities, but the smugglers were 
immediately made aware of any increased vigilance, so the 
Campsie blockade-runners went over the Southhill by Barraston 
and crossed the Kelvin at the stepping-stones below Balmore. 
There is a story told of a large quantity of whisky having been 
brought over Campsie Muir from the north by smugglers, who 



10? 

had it in k^s slung on ponies. The smugglers passed the nigbi 
at Kiukell farm, where they heard that there was a watch at 
Torrance bridge. One of their number arrived in advance, and 
having obtained two old naves at the wheel wright's shop in 
Torrance, he put them into a sack, which he then put on his pony 
and proceeded towards Glasgow. When the guagers had seen 
him, be appeared to start off in flight, but was pursued and 
overtaken near Kirkintilloch. When they took what appeared to 
be kegs out of his sack they were sold to find the wheel naves. 
Of coiii'se he had gone off in the opposite direction and his 
confederates ran their cargo safely into Glasgow, via Balmore. 
When the contraband liquor had to be carried by a pedestrian, it 
was put into tin vessels, which were strapped round the body, and 
could be concealed from observation. At other times it was con- 
veyed in carts, often under various disguises ; at other times in a 
jar covered over with some agricultural produce. A once well- 
known man in Lennoxtown, long employed in Lennoxmill, used 
to tell this story, in which he himself was an actor. In the first 
decade of the present century his father carried on business as a 
wright, and in addition he had a grocer^s shop with a spirit 
license in Torrance. Early one morning a cart stopped at the 
shop door and several articles were taken out and left in the shop. 
Amongst these there was a jar, containing about five gallons of 
smuggled whisky. After breakfast oue of the gaugers called and 
came as usual into the kitchen. He was well known to the 
goodwife, who was busily engaged in folding blankets, which she 
was putting into a large chest, standing open just behind him. 
While engaged with her blankets, she was chatting cheerily, when 
he began to make enquiry about a cart that had passed early that 
morning, and which, he had ascertained, had stopped at her door, 
where it had delivered some goods. The thought of the jar with 
the smuggled whisky, standing almost openly under his eyeS| 
flashed through her mind. Instead of replying to the query, she 
proceeded to make some jocular remarks, which set the ganger 
laughing ; the blanket she had in her arms she now threw over 
the ganger, and tipped him over into the chest. She got the lid 
down and kept him there, while she signed to her litttle boy to 
take the jar she pointed to away and hide it out of sight. The 
boy acted promptly and she then released the ganger, who was by 
this time in a towering passion. But she kept her good humouTi 
and she laughed so heartily at her own successful trick, that he 
gradually mollified. When he left the house he did not know 
whether it was done purely in fun or whether he had been sold* 
The clever goodwife got a lesson and never tried the same game 
again. 

DOUGAL THE RANGER. 

About the years' 1820-22 a serious riot and uproar occurred in 
Lennoxtown, for which two of the ringleaders, Malcolm M'Ghre- 



108 

got* and -— Shannon, were convicted, and sentenced to eighteen 
months' imprisonment. Bnlloch, the prime mover of the whole 
affair, fled, and remained in hiding till the excitement had calmed 
down and the authorities had ceased to look out for him. He then 
returned to Lennoxtown. About this time the smugglers solicited 
orders for their manufactures, and delivered these more or less 
openly, just like other traders. For a funeral at Maryhill a 
supply of whisky had been ordered, and an old man named 
Macintosh was as usual conveying it to the destination. The 
whisky was in tin cans, which were strapped around him. He had 
gone by Haughhead, past Woodhead, and was near Newlands, or 
Cock-ma-lane, when he encountered Dougal, the Ranger, who 
faithfully discharged his duty. Dougal was employed to scour 
the country in search of illicit stills or smuggled whisky. He 
took the whisky from old 'Tosh, and in doing so was* perhaps 
rather rough on the old man. The smugglers determined to have 
their revenge. Observing Dougal enter Lennoxtown one Saturday, 
they collected their friends and sympathisers. My informant, Mr 
John Brown, Whitefield, Lennoxtown, had been sent from the 
Bumhouse, where he then resided, into the village a message. 
Coming opposite the Relief Church, he saw a crowd in front of 
Robertson's Inn. Then a man came out, whom the crowd as- 
sailed with stones, mud, and missiles of various kinds. With 
these the man was struck, and his face was cut. Bleeding and 
frightened, he made his way westwards as quickly as possible, 
with the crowd in full pursuit. At the bottom of School Loan he 
ran for shelter into Bennie, the flesher's. He was, however, dragged 
out, and on emerging was received with a shower of stones. He fled 
west and took refuge in the Tontine, then kept by Malcolm Watters. 
The landlord at once closed his doors against the infuriated 
crowd, and protected the refugee. The attack was organised by 
local smugglers in revenge for Dougal's faithful discharge of duty. 
The riot had assumed so large proportions, and the Ranger was so 
severely injured, that the authorities were aroused and took mea- 
stires to bring the promoters to trial. Some few months after- 
wards Dougal disappeared — no one knew where. One day a 
shepherd on the old Craw Road, just above Jamie Wright's well, 
threw himself down on the grass. His dog went at once to a 
heap of stones and commenced scraping vigorously. He recol- 
lected that he had seen the dog at that heap before, and his curio- 
sity being aroused he went to ascertain the cause. Throwing 
aside some stones, he noticed the tail of a coat, then the body of a 
man. He went to the Clachan and obtained the assistance of 
Cassels the smith, and some others, and had the body conveyed 
to the Clachan. Here it was identified as that of Dougal, the 
Ranger, who had been murdered by smugglers, and his body hid- 
den beneath a heap of stones. The murderers were never disco- 
vered. Very shortly after this incident Cassels was called over 
to Fintry. He started homewards, but never reached the Clachan. 



169 

His body was found about 400 yards from the spot where the 
Ranger had been found. The cause of Cassels' death could only 
be conjectured, A cairn was erected where his body was found. 
There are other stories of revenue officers being attacked and 
maltreated by smugglers in the surrounding districts. 

CAMPSHJ BIBLE, MISSIONARY, AND SCHOOL SOCIETY. 

At a public meeting of the inhabitants in the Schoolhouse on 
30th Jan., 1819, it was resolved to form a society, whose principal 
objects should be : — 1. To discover whether all the poor possessed 
bibles ; if not, to supply them either gratis or at a reduced rate. 
2. To assist School Societies, Missionary, and Bible Societies 
throughout the country. Miss Lennox was requested to become 
patroness, and the landed proprietors and partners of the public 
works in the parish were elected vice-presidents ; John Lockhart 
and Robert Brown, students in divinity, were joint secretaries ; 
William Duncan was appointed depositary ; Mr John M^Farlane, 
preacher, was treasurer. The parish was divided into 28 districts, 
which were allocated among the directors. The directors were to 
employ every prudent exertion to obtain subscribers, personally 
wait on these when their subscriptions became due, discover, record, 
and report those who had not bibles, and what they would be 
willing to pay, to meet monthly, &c. I find the following names 
among the directors : — Eastern district — ^W. Stevenson, Alton ; 
Wm. M^Laws, John Forrest, James Heddleston, Hugh Cameron, 
John Gray, Milton ; John M'Pherson, David Buchanan, Wra. 
Forrest; Birdston— -John Gray, David Calder, David Muir. 
The names of nearly all the farmers are to be found, and in 
Lennoxtown, Robert Barclay, James Glen, James Fergus, George 
Mathieson, David Kinghorn, James Fairlie, Duncan Morrison, 
James M'Pherson, James and John Downie, James Maitland, 
John Eincaid, Robert Morrison, Moses M^Lay, James Davidson, 
John King, &c. 

The minutes are rather amusing reading. The secretaries had 
requested Sir Samuel Stirling and Patrick Falconer and others to 
accept the office of vice-presidents. Both of these gentlemen 
declined. Sir Samuel intimated a donation of £5, and Mr.. 
Falconer would either give £5 as a donation or in five-yearly 
subscriptions. The minutes record the matter thus : — 

«' Reaolyed, * That the genecpns and obliging manner in whidi Sir Samuel 
Stirling has become a donor to this society, and his interesting expression of 
attachment to its objects, merit the warmest thanks of this committee, that 
this be communicated to him,, . . . and in similar terms to Mr. 
Falconer. That this meeting declines dictating to Mr. Falconer the mode 
of his contribution, confident that he shall adopt such mode as shall be 
suitable to the state of the society.' ** 

Mr. M'Farlan of Ballancleroch, wishing the Society to distribute 
some testaments in Haughhead, proceeds by this petition :— 

" The petition of John M*Farlan of Ballancleroch, Esq., humbly sheweth, 



no 

lliAt tlie petitioner finds that among many families in the Haughhead a 
disposition to cultivate religious knowledge, combined with g^at poverty 
and a total want of books, particularly in the families of (here six names 
are given), that your petitioner has furnished testaments to a considerable 
number of other families, still more numerous than those now mentioned, 
but not enough to supply the wants of such families. May it therefore 
please the Society to authorise their Depositary to furnish your petitioner 
with such a number of testaments or other books as the Society may find it 
expedient to bestow on these families, and your petitioner will see ihem 
distributed to the best of his discretion, and remain ever grateful to the 
Society. 

«« John M'Fablak. 
•< Ballanderoch, 25th Oct., 1821." 

The Society not only granted the prayer of the petition, but 
minuted that at all times coming Mr. M^Farlan's demands for 
bibles and catechisms be promptly furnished. The Society 
had a fairly good income for many years, and was assisted by 
legacies. At the ninety-second quarterly meeting, on 20th May, 
1842, it was intimated that Mr. John M^Farlane, Lennoxtown, 
had left a legacy of £150 to the Society. After deducting legacy 
duty (£15) and for discharge (£1), £134 were at the disposal of 
the directors. The minutes state : — 

''Mr. James M'Kinlay moved and Mr. Wylie seconded— 'That this 
legacy be invested permanently in such a manner as shall be satisfactory 
to the Directors of this Society, the proceeds to be placed annually at their 
disposal.' Mr William Munro moved and Mr P. Stirling seconded — ' That 
said legacy be at present divided amongst the different societies which stand 
mostly in need of it. Upon being put to the vote, Mr. Munro's amendment 
was carried by a majority of 2. And there was then voted : — To Glasgow 
Missionary Society, £20; Glasgow African, £20; Campsie Educational, 
£40; Colonial, £20; Campsie Tract, £5; Bible Society, £5; Hibernian 
School, £5 ; Gaelic School, £5 ; leaving the balance in the hands of the 
treasurer in the meantime.' " 

The final meeting was held on 3rd May, 1853, when there were 
present: — Rev. James Brown, who presided; James M'Kinlay, 
Glenmill ; Peter Stirling ; William Taylor, teacher. The funds 
in hand (£2) were voted — £1 to the Tract Society, the remainder 
for the purchase of bibles. It was considered that the objects 
which the Society had in view when first instituted being now 
nearly superseded by the various schemes in the churches, it was 
unnecessary to urge its claims any longer upon the parish. It was 
accordingly dissolved and the minute book lodged with the Rev. 
Mr. Brown. The minute book afterwards passed into the custody 
of the Rev. W. Wood. When leaving Lennoxtown, Mrs. Wood 
handed it over to Mr. Robert Davidson, merchant, Lennoxtown, 
who is the present custodian, and to whom I am indebted for a 
perusal of it« contents. 

SABBATH SCHOOLS AND CHRISTIAN WORKERS. 

Lennoxtown has always been fortunate in having a number of 
earnest laymen devoting themselves to active Christian work. 



Ill 

There used to be a Sabbath School held in the Tar Bow. James 
M'Pherson, James Davidson, Hah Logan, and others were the 
teachers. The boys were very mischievous. It was great fun to 
them to aggravate Rab, as he swore at them when he got angry. 
When, by going out one after another during class hours, and 
leaving the door open, till Rab, who had risen and shut it half-a- 
dozen times, called out, with an oath, ^' Come back and shut the 
door " — ^a bit of the old Adam that made James Davidson hold up 
his hands. Another Sabbath School was held in the Old School 
in the Loan. Here Mr Downie was a leading spirit. I only 
recollect him as an aged man coming occasionally to Mr. James 
Gray's Sabbath School. Those who remember him speak of his 
prayers as impressing his hearers with the singularly devout and 
gnUeless character of the man. His short addresses were very 
impressive. Co-operating with him in the school were Mr. 
Archibald Duncan, Mr. Goldie, &c. Another man taking an 
interest in Sabbath Schools was Mr. Mackie. David Mackie 
was a cooper to trade, and in his younger days had gone several 
voyages to the Coast of Africa, engaged in bringing home oil. 
He had some peculiarities of his own, but his experience at sea 
and adventures in Africa enriched his teaching with illustrations 
and anecdotes which could arouse and sustain the interest and 
attention of the wildest boys. As Mr Archibald Duncan was 
coming down one day he saw Mr James Gray passing, and invited 
him to come and assist. James was diffident, but ultimately 
agreed. The school iu the Loan was transferred about 1840 to 
the New Subscription School, where I remember it. Mr Downie 
fell out at the transfer owing to age. The teaching staff that I 
recollect when I went to it as a scholar was James Gray, John 
Toung, Andrew Motherwell, John Cowan, Rowland Eadie, Miiss 
Williams, Miss Drysdale, Betsy Brown, <&c, &c. Alexander 
Fraser had a Sabbath School class in the Doddle Row which was 
largely attended, and through which he exercised a great influence 
for good. He was assisted in his labours here by William Malcolm 
and Robert (Bob.) Stewart, a son of Auld John or Greenbreeks, 
as he was called. When I was a boy Stewart lived beside James 
Glen's workshop. A Sabbath morning prayer meeting was held 
in Mr Fraser's school, in which Mr William Gardiner, engraver, 
was a leading spirit. My friend Mr James Millar used to attend 
this, and it was here in 1832 he made his debut as a Christian 
worker. Like many a young man's first address, it made an in- 
delible impression on his own mind, and he still remembers that 
his text was from Romans xl. 20 — ^^ Be not high-minded, but fean" 
In the lecture on Calico Printing I referred to the abounding 
labours of Alexander Fraser and James MH^herson in promoting 
Temperance and social reform. After Mr. M^Pherson went to 
England he visited the parish occasionally. He was well liked, 
and public meetings were held at which he told his old friends 
fvbout his work in the South* He bad ^ sweet voice and wfis nn 



112 

excellent singer. At his meetings he began by singing some 
songs with attractive and catching airs and chorus. One of his 
hearers could remember a part of one, rarely if ever heard now : 

" The whale, the whale, the whale Til sing, 
The ocean's pride and the fishes' king." 

Having put his audience in good humour with his songs, he then 
gave interesting descriptions of his work, and enlisted their 
sympathies on behalf of temperance and religious work. 

There were two men who were in great request for praying at 
sick beds and conversing on religious topics. These were Moses 
MXay, block-printer, to whom I have made reference in another 
paper, and James Buchanan, a labourer employed in Lennoxmill. 
Buchanan's pronunciation was very primitive and the grammatical 
<[;onstruction of his sentences was open to criticism, but he was 
earnest and devout, and there was undoubted unction in his 
prayers. It often happened that neither the parish minister nor 
the minister of the Relief could be present at funerals and some 
layman had to officiate. One decent man had carefully committed 
to memory a prayer for such a contingency. Beginning at the 
Creation the whole scheme of redemption was elaborated in detail, 
so that it was rather tedious. He was called on to pray at a 
funeral where the room was filled ; those who could not get into 
the room remained in the trance which was also full, and those 
who could not get into the trance had to remain outside. The 
day was cold, and those outside became impatient. ''Is he nearly 
done ? " asked one of the outsiders. The reply was whispered 
back — '' No, no, he is only paid ling through Jordan yet." Those 
who had heard the prayer knew that much had to follow the 
'* paidling." At another funeral, when, I think, Mr. Peter 
M'Lintock was engaging in prayer, the company were standing 
reverently when suddenly Brechin, the flesher, who had fallen 
asleep on his feet, fell heavily against the one who was praying, 
knocking the wind out of him. As Brechin could not be awakened 
without stopping the prayer, he was brought to the perpendicular 
and buttressed on all sides till the atnen was reached. 

Profane swearing was very common and was frequently quite 
unconsciously used. There was a decent man Sawney Ronald, a 
block printer in his early years, who used to be a great discusser 
of doctrinal points. One Sabbath morning Sawney was engaged 
in family worship. During prayer his son Rab was intently 
watching a tame sparrow flitting about the room. The window 
was down from the top. The sparrow alighted on the top sash 
and flew out. Rab could not stand this, but sprang to his feet 
while his father was still praying, exclaiming with an oath, '' Oh 
faither, my sparrow's oot," and with that he bolted out after it. 
Sawney was a strict disciplinarian and Rab was made aware of 
the heinousness of his conduct, and dealt with in a manner likely 
to impress the lesson on his memory. 



113 

READING-BOOM. 

Mainly through the instrumentality of Alexander Fraser' and 
James M'Pherson, a reading-room was opened about 1830. A 
room and kitchen was converted into a single apartment, very 
neatly got up, with two tables well supplied with the Edinburgh 
and Glasgow newspapers, and several of the magazines and other 
periodicals were also taken in. This room was next door to Mr. 
Fleming's drapery shop. 

CIRCULATING LIBRARY. 

A stationer and bookseller named Robertson, who had a shop 
in Drysdale's Land, was the first to start a circulating libraiy, 
which had began to be well patronized when Robertson left the 
village to go to Kirkintilloch. He ultimately emigrated to 
America. There was no general diffusion of healthy literature. 
Chap books and sensational stories of rather loose morality had 
been the popular pabulum, but novels, such as Sir Walter Scott's, 
and magazines like Chambers' soon drove the chap rubbish out of 
the market. Mrs. Tagg, postmistress, Crossbill, also kept a 
circulating library. 

Although newspapers were dear, a few found their way to 
Campsie and were eagerly read. Sometimes those interested 
assembled in a loomshop or a private house, one reading aloud to 
a number of attentive listeners. In this way the folks knew what 
was going on in the world. It was quite common, when the price 
of a newspaper was sevenpence, for six or seven persons to club 
together; each one got a full day for perusal, the last reader 
retaining the paper. 

There was a general illumination for Waterloo by putting 
candles in the windows, sometimes as many as a dozen candles 
being employed for a victory like Waterloo or the passing of the 
Reform Bill. After the trial of Queen Caroline the illumination 
was not so general. When the candles in Mr. Fraser's windows 
were almost flickering in their sockets, a passer-by remarked, 
" Oh, you're loyal, I see." ** You see my loyalty is nearly 
extinguished." 

At weddings, before the passing of the Poor Law Act, it wf^s 
customary for the minister to put round the hat, and the money 
collected in this way was distributed among the poor. When a 
child was taken to church to be baptised, the mother was 
generally accompanied by a young female who was honoured to 
carry the baby. A christening piece was always carried, and was 
presented to the first person they met, who had to take it and turn 
back a short distance with the christening party. There was a 
gratuity to the beadle, who exercised great care that all the , boys 
were baptised before the girls. Had a girl been baptized before a 
boy, the superstition was that she would have the beard and tbe 
boy would be effeminate. 



114 

CAMPSIE FAIR. 

The Fair day in the olden times would be on St. Machan's 
festival. This became both a religions and social event, the 
whole country side turned out, and traders soon took advantage 
of the numbers assembled to sell their goods. In this way the 
religious festival gradually became the local Fair. I have heard 
that in olden times there used to be two fairs in the parish— one 
held at the Glachan, which would probably be the original one, on 
St. Machan's festival ; the other held at Roitfair at the east end 
of the parish. This fair became notorious for brawling and 
quarrelling between the parishioners of Campsie, Kirkintilloch, 
and Kilsyth, and representations were made to the Sheriff of the 
county concerning this. The old fair at the Clachan had almost 
died a natural death at the end of the century, so it would appear 
that the Sheriff had suggested transferring the Roitfair to the 
Newtown, as the centre of population, which was accordingly 
acted on ; and this, becoming more popular, gave the coup de grace 
to the older one at the Clachan. The fair in Lennoxtown was 
therefore held on the date of the Roitfair instead of St Machan's, 
hence the change from September to October. There are many 
who will remember the time when the Fair was held in due form. 
Horses and cattle stood in the Main Street, adjoining the Tontine, 
while numerous barrows with sweetmeats, toys, and fairin's were 
ranged along the street between the Field Road and the School 
Loan. After the establishment of the weekly cattle markets in 
Glasgow, the local Fairs gradually disappeared. Long after the 
Fair had ceased to be held, the Fair uight was remembered, and 
was a favourite date for social and convivial gatherings. 1 can 
recollect when it was quite common for young women to ask 
their male friends ** if they were not going to give them their 
fairin' the night." The Fair day was at one time impressed in 
the memory of the young folks by another custom. Those who, 
from motives of economy, had gone barefooted all spring and 
summer, were allowed at the Fair to don their shoes and stockings. 
But when the month of March came round, they were required to 
go barefoot again. 

I have known people who remembered the Torrance and 
Balgrochan Fair, which was held on the 5th of November, in 
a field beside Wester Balgrochan. At this Torrance Fair many 
cattle were exposed for sale. This Fair fell into disuse fully 
twenty-five years before the one at Lennoxtown was discontinued. 

PENNY REELS. 

Penny Reels were an institution at one time. A fiddler took 
the room and supplied the music, and young men and young 
women resorted thither, paying a penny a reel. There was often 
a good deal of fun, and it was not considered discreditable in any 
way to have a night's fun at these. 



115 

MUSIC. 

Masie was at a very low ebb in Campsie iu the earlier decades 
of this centary. If the people were pleased with the preaching 
they would tolerate almost any kind of singing. Alexander 
Norris, a weaver at the Glachan, did a great deal in his day to 
promote the cultivation of music. He could read music at sight 
and he played the violin. He had a class on Saturday night to 
teach singing to the Sabbath School scholars. He sang and 
played over the tune and the scholars learned it by the ear, he 
leading with his violin. He was appointed precentor in the Relief, 
where he soon made his mark. The congregation were accustomed 
to sing in very slow time, so Norris's quicker time gave great 
offence to the older members of the congregation. The introduc- 
tion of the newer tunes was objected to, and when '* St. George's 
Edinburgh " was first sung in the Relief Church, a worthy couple, 
Mr. and Mrs. Wallace, rose and walked out. They were displeaised 
at singing so fast and at the repetitions, and declared, *^ Siclike 
singing was like a theatre, no' like a kirk ava." An old woman 
named Mrs. Malcolm complained bitterly of the innovations in 
the singing in the Relief. '^ Indeed," she said, '* Sawney Norris 
flings that quick that I am aye a dooble verse behin'." Norris's 
singing was slow compared to that of the present time. When 
the new parish church was opened in 1828, a precentor, named 
William Guddie, was appointed, who had an excellent tenor voice, 
and was a very fine, sweet singer. Cuddie .formed a small but 
very efficient choir, gave the members a little training, and then 
boldly introduced them into the church, where their appearance 
caused quite a sensation. Cuddie gave an impetus to the study 
of music while he was in Campsie. He followed Dr. Macleod to 
Glasgow, and was long precentor in St. Columba's. The leading 
singer in his Campsie choir was a young woman named Maggie 
Hill, who belonged to the village and was employed in Lennoxmill 
for some years. Maggie's powerful contralto voice was distinctly 
heard all over the new church. Cuddie used to get up concerts 
in Lennoxtown and neighbourhood. In all these he was accom- 
panied by his prima donna, Maggie, who was everywhere a great 
favourite. Mr. James Drummond succeeded Cuddie. After a 
few years in Campsie he became precentor in the High Church, 
Paisley, and afterwards in St. George's, Glasgow. He in turn 
was succeeded by Archibald Fyfe, who was the precentor in my 
time. 

When Cuddie had started his choir, Norris followed up by 
instituting a musical club, the members of which were mostly 
connected with Lennoxmill This club for a number of years 
gave an annual concert, and the knowledge of the science of 
music began to be diffused more generally in the village. I have 
heard a rather amusing anecdote of Sawney Norris. One day 
the Rev. Mr. Murdoch of Kilmaronock was preaching in the 

I 



116 

Belief. At the conclusion of the sermon he gave out a psalm and 
sat down. The precentor was motionless. No one had noticed 
that he was sound asleep, and now every eye was directed at hhn, 
while he, quite unconscious, slept soundly on. Mr. Murdoch now 
began to wonder why the precentor was not beginning. When he 
had realised the situation, he seized the pulpit Bible, by which he 
reached Norris. Giving him a vigorous push, he called outj 
'* Sing, sir, sing ! ** Norris awoke, started to his feet, looked all 
around and then commenced singing. My informant was young 
at the time, and says he was so confounded at the precentor 
singing away when he did not even know the psalm that he sat 
staring at Norris the whole time. A similar feat was accomplished 
also in the Relief church by a Mr. Christie, whom I recollect very 
well. Christie failed to hear what the psalm was which the 
minister gave out, so he rose and ^* hum-ha*d " through a common 
metre tune, and nobody noticed anything unusual. 

In 1817 and 1818 Alexander Rodger, a Glasgow poet and song, 
writer, started a class in Torrance once a week. It was conducted 
in Mr. J. Young's large room. Sandy Rodger's object was to 
earn money by teaching the art of music, and in this he was 
fairly successful, but he also succeeded in diffusing a taste for it, 
and many pleasant associations are connected with Sandy's 
music class. Songs and duets were chiefly taught 

CHARTIST MOVEMENT IN LENNOXTOWN. 

The Chartist movement had many ardent supporters in Campsie, 
during the ten years this agitation lasted, from 1838 to 1848. 
The demands in the People's Charter were for (1) universal 
suffrage ; (2) vote by ballot ; (3) annual parliaments ; (4) no 
property qtialification ; (5). equal electoral districts and (6) pay- 
ment of Members of Parliament. Some of these reforms have been 
attained, yet their advocates in* 1838-48 were regarded by most 
people as revolutionary zealots. In 1839 the Chartists throughout 
the country presented a monster petition in favour of their six 
points. This was signed by 1,200,000 persons. The prayer was 
rejected, whereupon the working classes in many parts of the 
country became riotous. In Monmouthshire, for instance, four 
or five thousand rioters, armed with various weapons, and headed 
by John Frost, a magistrate, attacked the town of Newport, but 
they were soon and easily dispersed. John Frost was deprived of 
his magistracy and banished, and as he thus became a martyr to 
the cause, he became the popular Chartist idol. It was suggested 
that petitions to be effectual should be presented with ** pens of 
steel " and *' ink of red." 

Amoiig the' most enthusiastic Chartist advocates in Campsie 
Robert Wingate stands pre-eminent. A decent, intelligent. God- 
fearing man, Wingate had been brought up in the Relief Church, 
and was a member of Mr. Harvie's congregation in Caltoo,' 



117 

Olasgow. One Sabbath in 1832, Mr Harvie praachad a 
against tha extrona political agitaticm than pravalaDt all ow tiM 
ooantry, and lia danounoed some of the views as being axtretta» 
In consequence oi his strong expression ai ofnnion 49 memboa 
left his church that day and never returned to it. Wingate was 
one of these. This happened all over the country, men oi extreme 
opinions perhaps, but yet of strong convictions had their most 
cherished opinions denounced in the pulpits. They came to regard 
the clergy, both Elstablished and Dissenting, as unsympathetic and 
hostile, and this feeling gradually intensified. In 1834 Wingate 
removed from Glasgow to Milton of Campsie, to a house in Mtc 
John Russell's land, and he obtained employment as a ^^nob** 
block^printer in Kncaid Field. Here he soon came to the fronts 
being a man of great intelligence, and possessing a natural 
eloquence, which impressed from the transparent honesty and 
earnestness of the man. The local leaders of the Radical rdorm- 
ers of that day were mostly connected with the Relief Church in 
Lennoxtown or the Secession Church in Kirkintilloch, of which 
the well-known Dr. Andrew Marshall was then the minister. 
The Radicals approached the Relief and Secession Church Courts, 
requesting them, by petition, to assist them in obtaining the 
objects they were agitating to obtain, which they described as 
obtaining civil liberty. The Synod, however, declined to interfere^ 
and refused their petition. About this time (1841)^ Dr. Marshall 
showed hostility to the movement, and preached against it. This 
brought matters to a crisis. Wingate, Cowan, and others quitted 
the Relief Church at Lennoxtown, and Davie and others foraook 
the Secession Church in Kirkintilloch. These, meeting and ood^ 
ferring on the situation, resolved to do in Lennoxtown what had 
been done in other places, such as Glasgow, Kilbarchan, dbc. 
This was the formation of a new congregation, called **The 
Christian Brotherhood." Its members met, and, after due de-^ 
liberation, resolved to act according to the precedents of the 
Apostolic Church, and *^ call " two elders to spiritual office, with 
power to administer the sacrament of baptism, and administer the 
ordinance of the Lord's Supper. After prayer, Mr. Robert Win-* 
gate, block-printer, and Jaq^es Cowan, weaver, were appointed to 
the office of elders without any imposition of hands. 

The hall of Robertson's Inn was engaged for the meetings on 
Sabbaths. Services were held there regularly at II and 2 o'clock; 
the same hours at which the services in the Relief Church were 
held. Many a good Gospel sermon was preached here by earnest 
laymen. The services were conducted in the same fashion as in 
the Relief Church. Occasionally the addresses were only 
ostensibly sermons, based on scripture texts, but partaking rather 
of the nature of political harangues, proving the righteousneM of 
their cause and expounding their new gospel. There was a regular 
communion-roll kept. The admission of members was as caref nlly 
safe-guarded as in the Relief Church itself, and the attendance al 



116 

theee Sabbftth' senrices averaged from 150 to 250. One of the 
prinoiples of the Christian Brotherhood was that of the ministry 
being unpaid. They had elders from other districts frequently 
addressing the meetings. Amongst those were Malcolm M^Far- 
lane, cabinetmaker, Glasgow ; and Matthew Cullen, a power-loom 
dresser, who were the elders of the Christian Brotherhood in 
Glasgow ; William Symington Brown, a doctor of medicine, who 
afterwards went to America, where he became a professor ; and 
James Jenkins, nailer, St. Ninians, who came frequently. He 
was a very intelligent man and a ready and effective speaker. 
He was a popular favourite, and whenever it was known he was 
to speak many strangers flocked to hear him. James Moir,. the 
well-known tea merchant in Glasgow, was a member of the 
Christian Brotherhood, and frequently came to Lennoxtown to 
week-night meetings. Another who came frequently was Abram 
Duncan, from Falkirk. 

In the year 1841, a labourer named Raggs, who was employed 
in ' Eincaid, was a member of the Christian Brotherhood, and 
desired his child to be named '^John Frost," after the banished 
magistrate. Wingate, in performing the baptismal rite, named 
the boy accordingly, ''John Frost Baggs." Mr. Inglis heard of 
this the following day, and he sent for Wingate to the counting- 
house, to whom he expressed his opinions on the transaction in 
rather strong language. He told the foreman he had decided to 
dismiss Wingate, and to '' give him the slip." Mr. Heys, the 
manager, entered at this moment, and Mr. Inglis told him what 
he had just done. Said he, " You're wrong, Mr. Inglis ; you're 
wrong. Do you think Wingate'll let that pass ? . It'll be blazing 
in the Glasgow HercUd and will raise a great outcry against you 
for. your tyranny. Don't do it ; at least don't do it just now, Mr. 
Inglis." At Heys' intercession, the matter was passed over, and 
Wingate continued for three years. Owing to his abilities as a 
preacher, he was well known in Glasgow, and a sympathetic 
employer or manager offered him work in Clydebank Printworks, 
Glasgow, where he wrought at his trade for a number of years, 
and his connection with the parish ceased. He removed to 
Paisley, where he was for twenty years the keeper of a reading 
and coffee room. Cataract compelled him to resign this appoint- 
ment, and for the last fifteen years he has lived retired. After 
he left Campsie the Christian Brotherhood church languished, 
and then became extinguished, its members being absorbed into 
other denominations. Cowan and his family joined the Latter- 
Day Saints, and went to America. The Glasgow church ended 
similarly, and the last to be given up was. the church in Kil- 
barchan. When Bailie ** Jeems " Martin was working as a " nob " 
at Milton he lodged in Wingate's house. 

A hand-loom weaver, named John Stevenson, who belonged to 
the district of the Cathkin Braes, held extreme opinions in politics, 
which led him into overt acts of sedition. In particular he had 



119 

taken a promioeot part in a rising against the Grovemment of the 
day at Strathaven. To escape prosecution he left the Cathkin 
district, and tamed up at Clachan, where '' Deacon " Gilchrist 
gave him a web. Shortly afterwards the Deacon's young 
daughter, the late Mrs. Jamieson Provan, saw some troopers 
coming along the old Clachan road, and she called in at the loom- 
shop '^ to come and see the sodgers." Stevenson bolted at once, 
and concealed himself in the glen, until his acquaintances went 
and discovered him and told him the soldiers were away. It tran- 
spired they had come out in connection with smu^ling at Finglen, 
and the officer had instructions to wait on Mr Gartshore Stirling, 
the nearest resident magistrate, confer with him, but act on his own 
discretion. The officer was satisfied that smuggling prevailed to a 
great extent, and surmised that the smugglers had the tacit sympathy 
of the farmers, shepherds, and cottars, who would not betray them. 
He was satisfied that he had not force to make a raid on the glen, 
as his troopers would have to dismount, so, having gleaned infor- 
mation, he returned and reported, but no further action followed. 
The appearance of the red-coats made Stevenson very cautious. 
He got employment at Lennoxmill at the time of the strike. 
When the Chartist movement commenced its partizans at first 
looked to Stevenson as a veteran reformer to lead them, but he 
subjected them and their scheme to his very caustic, almost 
vitriolic, criticism. Stevenson was a sly, pawky, secretive man, of 
unsociable disposition. His action caused division in the extreme 
party, and this led to embittered personalities. The Chartists had 
a song composed on one whom they considered as a sort of 
renegade. Two strong men were got to sing it through the 
village. It had a popular air, copies were sold, and it took the 
public ear, was sung very generally, and even now old Field hands 
remember its stanzas. It extinguished Stevenson as a political 
force. Two verses, repeated from memory by contemporaries,' 
I now quote, as Stevenson is dead long ago, and there is no one 
who might be annoyed by their reproduction. 

'< Tell a' hae heard tell o* oor great CathkiDite, 
Ye'll a* hae heard tell o' oor great Cathkinite, 
Theyll mak' him an elder — at the plate hell look bright-^ 
For he's braw muckle pouches, oor great Cathkinite. 

** Yell a' hae heard tell o' oor great Cathkinite, 
Ye'll a* hae heard tell o' oor great Cathkinite, 
To please the kirk bigots hell baith bark and bite — 
He's a true son of Belial, the great Cathkinite/' 

Feeling himself in rather an isolated position Stevenson went to 
Australia. He had obtained possession of a famous old Radical 
flag that had seen service at the Strathaven rising, and when he 
went off to Australia, shortly after the discovery of the gold-fields 
there, he took it with him. When he died it was, by his own 
request, used as his winding-sheet. 



THB BELIEF OBJJBOB9 

The old Relief Meeting-House of 1784 was replaced in 1872 by 
a handsome new church, the entire cost of which, amounting to 
£8750, was defrayed within six years. A new U. P. manse had 
previously been erected in 1855. In 1884 the Church celebrated 
its centenary, and instrumental music was then introduced, Mr. 
Ritchie of Yiewpark having presented a harmonium. The 
following gives the line of ministers for over a century : — 

1786-1796 — Re?. James Colqahoun ; resigned. 

l796-179»-yaGancy. 

1798-1608— Her. James Thomson ; called to Tbmd Street Charch* 

Paisley ; elected Moderator of Belief Synod, 1818; first 
Professor of Theology of Belief Church, 1824-1841 ; had 
degree of D.D. conferred by University of Glasgow, 

1808-1810-^Vaoancy. 

1810^1854— Ber. James Brown ; died at Wellbank Cottage, in the 8OU1 
year of his age and the 44th of his ministry. 

1845-1854^— Bev. William Wood, as colleagne and successor. 

1854*1888 — Do., as sole pastor; died suddenly at Car- 

radale, 1888, in the 65th year of his age and the 88tb of 
his ministry. 
1884— Ber. W. B. T. Davidson, the present pastor, inducted. 

THE BOBEBTSOIT ABMS INN. 

• * * * « 

The Inn adjoining the Relief Church was the principal one in 
ihfi district at the beginning of the century. The host and 
hostess were connected with the Relief Church, and the first' 
minister, Mr Colquhoun, used to drop in when passing. The 
Qountry members were very kind to their pastor, when he visited 
them and used to send him away laden with butter, cheese, eggs, 
and farm produce of various kinds. When making a pastoral visit 
at a farmhouse one day Mr. Colquhoun received a roll of butter„ 
^hich he put carefully into his coat pocket He dropped in to the 
Robertson Arms before getting home. /Here in the cheerful 
kitchen, standing before the blazing fire', he got into animated 
discussion. The butter in the meantime was melted by the heat, 
and was running down to the fioor, oozing out of his pocket like 
jelly from a straining bag. When noticed by the bystanders it 
caused laughter at the expense of the minister, and it was too 
good a joke to pass soon into oblivion. The host atid proprietor 
was a joiner, and was engaged in this business, leaving his better 
half to attend to the house. She seems to have been an energetic, 
capable woman, prompt in action. Coming in from the garden 
one day with a cabbage in one arm and the knife with which she 
had cut it in the other, she found her domestic barring the egress 
of a man whom she had served with refreshment and who had 
then coolly declared that he had nothing to pay for it. Indignant 
at being swindled, the hostess demanded payment, failing whicb 
she declared she would have satisfaqtion, even if she had to ruiBp 



121 

him before he got oat. No payment being forthcoming, shd 
jseized one of his coat-tails and cut it off, leaving the astonished 
defaulter to go through the town with his coat with one tail. 
The story got wind and was the occasion of her getting ** Rump 
him " for a nickname. She was very proud of her three hand- 
some daughters, whom she commended as likely to make excellent 
wives. She declared that they were ** wind tight and water free," 
which passed into a proverbial saying. One of the daughters 
was married in very strange circumstances. Her intended hus- 
band had become bankrupt ; the daughter was likely to be well 
dowered by and bye, so, in order that the creditors might not 
seize his wife's money in payment of his debts, he divested himself 
of his all and was married clothed with a barrel. The idea of an 
ante-nuptial contract, in which the husband's jus mariti was 
excluded and her own money settled upon herself, never occurred 
to any of these simple-minded folks. 

I recollect the Inn in the ^^ fifties." The Robertson Arms were 
blazoned in all their details as a sign above the door. On the 
shield three wolves heads erased ar, a man in chains lying under 
the escutcheon, the crest a dexter hand holding a regal crown. 
The supporters were a serpent balancing itself on its tail, and 
a dove of immense size, for it was as long as the serpent I 
remember shortly after beginning Latin trying to make out the 
motto, Virtutis gloria merces ; viriutia I knew, gloria I knew, but 
tnerces I I would have to turn up my Ainsworth for that when 
I got home. I learned in after years how James II. had granted' 
to the family of Robertson of Struan the crest supporting the 
regal crown, and for motto, •* Glory the recompense of valour.** 
I look back on this sign as my first lesson in heraldry; it was 
more complicated and difficult to understand than the Lennox 
Arms, the supporters of which were two savages, wreathed head 
and middle with oak, holding in the hands clubs erect. The 
motto, **ril defend," being in English, was not a hard nut 
for a boy to crack, like a Latin motto. There was a dancing 
school held in the hall of the Robertson Arms by a Mr. Brockle- 
bank, and of those who attended that class there are very few 
now resident in the parish — many are dead, many I have lost 
sight of altogether. I look back on that class in the RobertSQii 
Arms when the Kirkwoods were tenants as a ver^ happy time. 
At the ball which wound it up, Willie Simpson, then of Capieston, 
Gavin Jack, then of Balcun*och, and myself danced the hornpipe 
of Jack Tar. 

CHOLERA. 

The parish suffered from a visitation of cholera in 1838, 1849, 
and again in 1854. On the 22nd January, 1832, it broke put in 
Kirkintilloch. There was considerable difference of opinion as to 
whether it was introduced there by a sailor suffering from it, or 
tliroogb the medium of a cargo of horns, hoofs, woollen rags, etc., 



from the Baltic, which was discharged at Billhead for the Hurlet 
and Campsie Alum Company's works at Campsie, for the 
manufacture of their prussiates. It raged in Kirkintilloch with 
terrible virulence, about forty deaths having taken place in the 
square formed by Moodie's Land, Townhead, Freeland Place, 
and the Canal Bank or Luggie Bank Road. It was attempted to 
draw a sanitary cordon round Campsie, the roads were watched, 
and tramps or vagrants were not permitted to enter, in case of 
bringing infection. So rigidly was this carried out that some 
families residing in Kirkintilloch, but employed in Kincaid 
Printfield, were compelled either to flit into Milton or be excluded 
from entering the parish, and they removed their dwelling-places 
accordingly. Notwithstanding all these precautions, cholera broke 
out in Lennoxtown, but was confined to the east end of the 
village. The frightful suddenness of the attack, the celerity with 
which it ran its course, the helplessness of man in the midst of a 
pestilence which walked in darkness, and a destruction that 
wasted at noon day, were sources of terror by day and by night. 
Neighbours were too frightened to perform the most common 
offices of humanity. In no country perhaps is there such a 
strong feeling of reverence and respect for the dead as in 
Scotland ; yet, here in Lennoxtown, people living on the same 
stairhead could not be got to assist in carrying out the coffin of a 
departed neighbour, or to help in any way. Even in 1854, 
M^Luckie's apprentice joiners, in several instances, carried the 
coffin to the door and left it there, refusing either to put in the 
corpse or go in to carry out the coffin. The foreman, Mr« 
Shearer, said this was scandalous, and with the assistance of W. 
Kelly had it done himself. 

On the occasion of the first outbreak in 1833, a Mrs. Smith 
was seized on the Sunday, and was dead on Monday morning. 
Her acquaintances and neighbours were in terror, so her son pro- 
cured a coffin, into which he placed the corpse. He then got a 
two-wheeled barrow, and he managed unaided to carry his mother's 
coffin and place it on the barrow. Unaccompanied, he wheeled 
his burden towards the new Parish Church, the graveyard- around 
which had only been laid off in 1831, the first interment being that 
of William M'Laws, who died 3rd February, 1833, aged 87, His 
burial-place is in the north-east corner ; Dr. Macleod's is in the 
north-west corner ; M'Law's at the opposite end. In pushing his 
load up the steep brae, in front of the church, he became exhaust- 
ed, and was compelled to stop. Two sons of John Glen, shoe- 
maker, had been watching this unusual sight, admiring the filial 
devotion, and, prompted by feelings of humanity, they now walked 
up towards him, accosting him with the words, *' Your case is a 
hard one ; we have come to give you a helping hand." James 
M^Pherson had learned of the circumstance, and he, too, hastened 
up to assist, and Mrs. Smith was buried by her son and his three 
volunteer helps. Funerals caused the village to have a deserted 



123 

took. No person was to be seen in the streets, the doors were 
shut, and blinds, screens, or shutters were closed to hide the awe- 
inspiring processions from sight. On one occasion James Kincaid 
was one of four carrying a coffin shoulder high. There were a 
number of people following at a greater distance than usual. 
Kincaid became exhausted with the burden, but there was none of 
the usual readiness to relieve the pall-bearers, and he had to stop. 
** Men," he exclaimed, ^* do you mean us to carry all the road ? 
We're fairly exhausted." Some came forward on this appeal and 
relieved the bearers. 

In the 1833 attack Dr. Robertson was the principal 
medical man. Dr. Finlayson was also in practice. To assist 
them Mr. R. Dalglish, the Provost, sent a German medical man, 
who had the reputation of being very clever. Mr. Robert 
Dalglish, late M.P., showed an excellent example at this time. 
When people were paralysed with fear he took measures to have 
the bedding, &c, fumigated in the houses where deaths had t^ken 
place. Clothes were disinfected by steeping in large boynes. 
The late James Kincaid, long of the madder colour dye-house, and 
for many years beadle in the U. P. Church, was his right-hand 
man in carrying out this work. Taking the precaution to have a 
half-glass of whisky the first thing in the morning, Kincaid then 
Ijghted his pipe and took a smoke, thus fortifying himself for his 
disagreeable and dangerous but most essential duties. Kincaid 
was t(>ree weeks engaged at this work in the village, during which 
he had his full wages at Lennoxmill, although absent from his 
own proper work. Provost Dalglish came out from Glasgow, and 
brought a quantity of adherent plaster cloths— like a batter. The 
substance making it adhere was warmed and stuck on the breast 
and belly. Thomas Young, the joiner in Lennoxmill, was in- 
structed to have a number of wooden shapes made for cutting out 
these plasters, so as to suit all ages and sizes. Camphor, worn 
round the neck in a little woollen bag, was also used as a disin- 
fectant. The mortality from cholera in 1838 was about 20 or 30. 

In 1849 the Parochial Board, as the Local Authority, set about 
measures to improve the sanitary state of the parish, in view of 
a possible outbreak. Dr. Eadie was then the principal village 
doctor. As Inspector of Nuisances, he examined every ashpit in 
Lennoxtown, Mount of Glorat, Milton, and Torrance. Protective 
measures were adopted when cholera did break out. Those affected 
were isolated, and, mainly owing to the carrying out of greatly 
improved sanitary arrangements, only five fatal cases occurred at 
this time. James Thomson, engraver, died 31st December, 1848, 
and Mrs. Gourlay on 28th January, 1849. 

The outbreak in 1854 raged with great virulence. The local 
doctors were overwhelmed with work, and two medical men had 
to be got from Glasgow to assist. One of these was sent by Mr. 
Dalglish, the other was obtained by the Local Authority^ Before 
tbe epidemic had spent itself, nurses had also to be obtained from 



Glasgow. Ite appearance was sudden. The first case was that oi 
Wm. Gilmonr, farmer, Bencloich Mill, and grocer, Lennoxtown* 
He was in Glasgow on Fair Saturday in his usual robust health, 
and was dead before Monday morning. The disease spread 
rapidly, and a great depression rested on and oppressed the whole 
community. On the annual holiday at the end of July there 
were ^ye corpses in the village, all cholera victims, yet the trip to 
Edinburgh by railway went on as usual. On a fine Sabbath 
evening four acquaintances had a walk. As they bade each other 
-good-night they wondered what would be the news in the morning 
— whom would it be next ? Before morning, Peter M^Kindlayi 
One of the four, was dead. In the beginning of August 1854, at" 
the Easter Lodge to Lennox Castle, immediately adjoining thc» 
present Bailway Station, Bob M^Callum's son John and an in- 
mate of the house, Leezie Anderson, an elderly woman, had b^n 
attacked, and both died. When the friends came to bury the two 
dead, they found the father and his son Wee Bob had also been 
attacked. It was a distressed household. The relations who had 
come to bury the two dead hesitated to touch the coffins iii 
Order to screw on the lids. Rab Torrance and Kelly did this, and 
carried out the bodies. In another case, Mrs. M^Intyre had died 
at Whitefield. The old husband was unable to coffin his wife^ 
and the daughters were unable to lift their mother into the coffin, 
which had been left at the door for her, so they appealed f(^ 
assistance from the open window. Here again Torrance and 
Kelly offered their services and a terrible job they had to get the 
6ody down the narrow winding stair, as Mrs. Macintyre was very 
st6ut and Very heavy. 

In some families there were two deaths, notably Mrs. Downie, 
grocer, and her daughter, and the two M^Callums. When the 
gloom was resting heavily on the village and at its blackest, when 
bcfming tar barrels were being carried through the streets at night, 
some one suggested that the excellent brass band might march 
through the town, playing their most inspiriting music, to help to 
break the melancholy spell. The band, at that time most efficient, 
promptly responded to the suggestion, and played through all the 
streets. The music roused and cheered the drooping spirits of the 
community, and as the epidemic had by that time spent its 
virulence, the performances of the band got a share of the credit 
of having done good work, which put the villagers und^r 
obligation to assist them when they next appealed for pecuniaiy 
help for new instruments, etc. 

One family removed or rather fled to a house at Aberfoyle 
while the pestilence raged in Campsie. When it had entirely 
ceased, and all seemed well again, they returned to Campsie. 

Mrs. very soon afterwards took violent cramp in the stomach, 

and died viery suddenly. In one case in Lennoxtown the 
Inspector, Mr. Johnston, wished to remove the other inmates and 
put them into an unoccupied building on the Finglen Bum at 



1S5 

Hatigfahead. This was the old printfield, afterwards a weaving 
factory, which was to have been turned for a time into a 
temporary hospital. Some bundles of straw had been got from 
Mr. Galbraith, the farmer in Kilwinnet, but the Haughhead 
people rose in a kind of riot as a protest against this. The crowd 
tore out the straw and scattered it, and owing to the strong 
opposition, which was mainly headed by a Mrs. Dearie and her 
two sons, the idea of carrying out the proposed hospital at 
Haughhead was abandoned. It was a strange fancy, but Robert 
Torrance, the late keeper of Campsie bowling green, attended 
nearly every cholera funeral, at all events all west of Lockhart'a 
Loan. He only once had a momentary fear. In going to 
M*Intyre's, at Whitefield, some woman in terror asked if he was 
not afraid. *' Not a bit," said he. '< Do you never take a glass 
pf whisky before you go in ? " '* Never a drop." He took a 
shiver and came back and asked his wife for a glass of whisky. 
To her remonstrances against his going to all these funerals he 
replied, ^*I canna help it; I must go." Ultimately, on the 
application of the Local Authority, two nurses were got from 
Glasgow, but by this time things were improving. 

In making enquiries on this subject it occurred to me to write 
to my old friend Dr. Wilson, then residing at Kirn, who favoured 
toe with the following reply, which I give in extenso .**— > 

"East Vibw Bank, 
'* CtamFF, 26th July f 1889. 
"DsAB Mb. Cambkqnj 

** Your note was forwarded to me liere about a 
fortnight ago, and I have been thinking on the subject of it since, but so 
long a time has elapsed since the epidemic you referred to occurred, and at 
the time, and since, in Campsie, I led such a busy life, that I retain but a 
very general inpression of the events that occurred during its course. 

** The outbreak of cholera in Campsie commenced in the early part of the 
sttmmer^-^I think of 1864—but not having any books here I cannot speak 
positiTelv at to the date. In anticipation of it we Iwd for some month* 
preTiottsiy beeq endeavouring to set our house in order, by getting dung« 
steads and pig-styes cleaned out, and, when too dose to dwelling-houses, 
removed to a distance. In this work we were considerably obstructed by 
the unwillingness of some people to obey instructions, for as you are 
probably aware, at that time, it was a common belief among country people 
tliat such things were not hurtful but positively wholesome ! 

''The first case of cholera I saw in the epidemic was the case of Dr^ 
Taylor, of Kirkintilloch, who was then the only practitioner there. On 
bearing, casually, that he had been seized, I rode over to see hinif and found 
him collapsed and pulseless, and evidently dying. I waited and did what I 
could for him. He died during the night. His waA the first case in Kirk'* 
intilloch. A day or two afterwards, the first case occurred in Campsie, 
ending in death in about 24 hours, and for a period of about three months 
fresh cases occurred almost daily. The number of cases during that time 
wasy I think, about 120 of genuine cholera, apart from those of diarrhoea, 
which were innumerable, and which, being treated in time, were probably pre^ 
vented from running into the collapsed stage. The Parochial Board engaged 
an assistant for me, and Mr. Dalglish sent out another, so that, with Messrs^ 
Baird and Marshall, there were five of us engaged in fighting the enemy, and 
yet we were all kept bosy-^so. much so in my case that I am sale to laj thai 



126 

for three months I scarcely CTer bad a whole night m bed, and was com* 

Eelled, in order to get some needful rest, to get a friend to giTe me a bed in 
is house occasionally, and thereby enable my housekeeper to say truthfully 
lliat I waa not in. Of course, the long-continued strain told upon me, and 
towards the end of the epidemic I had a sharp attack of the preliminary 
symptoms, by which I was laid up for a few days, and which I rather 
welcomed as an opportunity for getting: some rest. I may mention that 
during my illness almost the only person wlio called to sympathise with me 
was the Rev. Father Gillon, Catholic priest; and to show the doTOtion of 
the Catholic priesthood to their duties I may mention that he also had a 
smart attack of the preliminary symptoms one Saturday night. On being 
called to see him, I told him he must keep his bed next day or he would run 
great risk, but he said he could not do so, if he were able to be up at all, 
Ihat he had mass to perform both at Kilsyth and Kirkintilloch, and mast go. 
I then advised him that before leaving (which he had to do at six o*clock 
in the morning), he should take a cup of cofFee and some toast ; but this 
also he said he could not do, as, according to the rules of his Church, he dare 
not take food or drink before saying mass at both places, so as it would be 
two o*clock before his duties were over you may fancy the risk he ran. I 
said to him I thought that taking it under medical advice would exonerate 
him, but he said, * No, I could take meat on a Friday, or on any of the 
ordinary fast days of our Church, by your advice, but I cannot do so on this 
occasion without a special dispensation from the Pope.' It is worthy of men- 
tion, too, that he was equally strict and assiduous in his attendance on those 
of his flock who were attacked, both by night and day. I have pleasure in 
recalling these reminiscences of a good and worthy man. I am sorry that I 
cannot say that our Protestant clergymen were equally assiduous in visiting 
tHose who were attacked. Indeed, one of them went to reside at the coast, 
coming up on Saturday nights for his duties next day, and going away again 
on the Mondays ; and I was very much amused, and, at the same tiine« 
sorry at such an exhibition of the lack of faith, to observe that if I met him 
in the village, and held out my hand to shake hands, he carefully avoided 
seeing it. Indeed, he never once shook hands with me during the epidemic, 
although I, rather mischeviously, always offered to do so when we met. 

" With regard to your query, * Was there a panic in Campsie, and were 
people afraid to perform the last offices for the dead, as in 1833 ? ' I do not 
think that such was tiie case. There were, I believe, two or three isolated 
instances of such disinclination, but the feeling was not at all general. As 
a rule, too, the sufferers were faithfully attended to by their relatives. 
Albeit I met with one instance of apparent desertion of a patient who was 
m extremis. One night, during a round of late visits, I called to see a 
patient, whose case I had given up as hopeless some hours previously, and 
found him tossing in the agonies of death, and deserted by his relatives. 
This, however, was the only instance of such inhumanity, caused by fear, 
I have no doubt, that I met with. There was fear of the disease very 
generally, doubtless, but I do not think there was any general fear of 
tnfectfon, and the reason for thiis was because it was held and inculcated by 
medical men that the disease was not infectious. And from my experience 
g| a former epidemic at Coatbridge, in 1849, I was rery strongly of that 
opinion, and, therefore, lost no opportunity of impressing it upon the people. 
Largely, no doubt, in consequence of this, the sufferers, as a rule, were 
assiduously attended by their relatives; and for those who had no 
relatives able to perform these duties nurses were provided by the Parochial 
Board. In addition to providing nurses and medical attendance, the Board 
also issued instructions as to checking the first symptoms of the disease, and 
I was instructed to have supplies of medicine for that purpose at Tor- 
rance, Lillyburn, Kincaidfield, Lennoxmill, and Clachan and OlenmiU 
Bleachfields. The mention of the last place reminds me that the only case 
of cholera (?) that occurred there was rather a ludicrous one, which served 
to relieve somewhat the grim horrors of the period. The. proprietor of Glen- 
mill was, as you will remember, Mr. M*Kinlay, a very worthy, man, and who 



1S7 

took great interest in the spirittial as well as the physical condition of his 
workers. These were chiefly women, and resided in the works — a large flat 
being fitted ap as a dormitory fur their use, which was called the woman- 
house, and Mr M'Kinlay was naturally anxious in case the disease should 
break out there. One morning eurly I gi)t a message from him saying that 
one of the girls in the woman-house had been attacked daring the night, and 
that he had regularly administered the medicine I had left him, but that she 
seemed no better. Of coarse I hurried up at once and saw the patient ; but 
at a glance I saw it was not a case of cholera. Mr M^Kinlay said she had 
been vomiting, and suffering much pain nearly the whole night, and he had 
done all he could to relieve her. Thinking she must have taken something 
that had caused a fit of indigestion I ordered a mustard poultice, and 
turned to leave when she was seized with a paroxysm of pain which stopped 
me, and aroused certain suspicions. I then made a closer examination, and 
found that she was about to increase the population of the woman-house, 
which she did in about an hour in the shape of a fine boy. Imagine the 
horror of poor Mr. M^Kinlay when told of the cause of his case of cholera. 

^< With regard to any Campsie incidents outside of my profession, I do 
not remember any worth recording. There may have been, but I was so 
absorbed in my professional duties that if there were I have retained no 
recollection of them. If, however, there is any incident you may have heanl 
of, on which you think I could throw any light, I will be glad to do so, if I 
can. I trust you will be able to read tlie foregoing rambling and meagre 
reminiscences (medical men, as you know, are proverbially bad penmen), of 
a time, alas I now lung ago (nearly 40 years), when you were a very small 
stripling, and your worthy father, of whose friendship I still retain a warm 
appreciation, was alive. I, too, was then a young man, beginning the battle 
of life. How much has happened since then ! But I must not get into a 
moralising vein, or you will be thinking I am getting doited as well as old. 
Do you intend to publish the results of your labours, or is it for a lecture you 
are working ? If the former, I will be glad to see a copy. By the way, it 
occurs to me that your neighbour, Mr. Gordon Wilson, might be able to give 
yon some information about Campsie. Any statistical information, such as 
the number of cholera cases, number of deaths, &c., you could easily get 
from the Parochial Board books of the period. — With kindest regards, 
believe me, sincerely yours, 

" A. T. Wilson. 

** J. Cambbon, Esq." 

Dr. Wilson's letter is very interesting, but in contrasting the 
conduct of Father Gillon with that of the parish clergyman he 
unintentionally rather omits to do justice to the Rev. William 
Wood of the U. P. Church. Mr. Wood did his pastoral duties 
most faithfully at that trying period, and was not afraid to visit 
at the houses where there was cholera, or where there had been 
deaths from that disease. He became so worn out with his 
labours, especially after having had a slight attack of the cholera 
himself, that he was obliged to go away for a few weeks' rest after 
the epidemic was over. 



THE LE.^mOXTOWN FRIENDLY VICTUALLING SOCIETY. 

This Co-operative Society was founded in 1812 and is now, I 
believe, either the second or third oldest Co-operative Society in 
Scotland. 



ins 

JAMBS DKNNISTOUN OF GQLFHILL. 

James Deooistonn, the well-known banker and merchant in 
Glasgow, was bom in Campsie in 1752, at Clousey Firs, I have 
been led to understand; but in 1756 his father was tenant of 
New Mill of Glorat, where he was factor for Glorat and also to 
his kinsman, Dennistoun of Colgrain. His brother John 
succeeded his father in New Mill, and died there in 1813. In 
1782, in conjunction with his brother Archibald, he established 
the great mercantile house of J. & A. Dennistoun, which in time 
became one of the largest firms in Glasgow, having branches at 
London, Liverpool, New Orleans, Havre, New York, and 
Melbourne. He also founded the Glasgow Bank, in which 
adventure there were sixteen partners. This bank joined ^^The 
Ship,** and afterwards *' The Thistle," and is now represented by 
the Union Bank. During Dennistoun's management the bank 
maintaineid a very high reputation. He retired from active life 
in 1829, when his fellow-citizens entertained him at a great public 
dinner, *Mn testimony of their respect for him not only as a 
banker, but as a man of liberal political views and principles.'^ 
In 1832 he was offered a baronetcy by Lord Grey, but ne declined 
this honour. He purchased Golfhill estate in 1802. He died 
in 1834, and was buried in the Ram's Horn churchyard in Ingram 
Street, but his body was afterwards transferred to the faniily; 
vault in the Necropolis, Glasgow. His eldest son, Alexander,' 
was member of Parliament for Dumbartonshire, and his young 
son, John, was M.P. for Glasgow from 1837-47. There is ei 
tandition in the parish that when he left New Mill for Glasgow 
to push his Way in the world he crossed the Glazert opposite New 
Mill with only a half-crown in his pocket. 

The Lennoxtown folks, during the first quarter of the century, 
were many of them simple-minded people, with very primitive 
notions. When in the Sabbath school at Tar Row, some mis- 
chievous boys ignited a peeoy while old James Davidson was 
engaged in prayer. Feeling the smell of gunpowder he remarked, 
'* Surely the devil is in this place and I knew it not'* At the 
Bnrnhouse a hot bread and milk poultice was to be applied to 
B The poultice disappeared while the preparations for 

putting it on were being made. The invalid was the culprit ; it 
looked inviting, so he admitted having supped it, and he added, 
'*Let the saw (salve) seek the sair." Once old Robert Baird 
(" Auld Whey ") was having a visit from his elder, who was dealing 
very pointedly and faithfully with him, in view of his serious illness 
and the apparent near approach of death. This he disliked, and, 
instead of replying to the query whether he was at peace in Christ, 
he turned round at bay and said, '^ Man, Tummas, fu' muckle will 
Willie Craig pay for Baglass ? " On another occasion, when 
Robert Reid, Clousey Firs, was on his death-bed, his wife, 
Babbie Allan, a good woman, was reading the account of our 



IS9 

Saviour walking on the sea Jiowards the boat in which His disoiplef 
were being tossed by the waves. His comQientary did not take a 
personal application. It was, ^* Losh ! Babbie, He wasna a fear'd 
ane i my certy. Babbie, He wud 'a made a gran' sailor I *' .There 
were a family of Bairds, miners, who did not go to any churchy 
but rambled over the hillsides on the Sunday. During one of 
these excursions, old " Muchty '^ Baird was standing leaning on 
the wooden paling which fenced an old pit, when the railing 
suddenly gave way and he fell in. Fortunately the pit was not 
very deep, and had some water at the bottom, but Baird had on 
his Sunday surtout coat, the tails of which greatly broke his falU 
When he was got out he remarked to one of his brothers^ *' Man, 
Jimmack, wisna it the Lord's wull that I had on ma Sunday coat 
the day, or I micht hae been shivered a* tae spunksi**" 

Robin Stirling, Crossbill, I remember as rather a queer one. 
He was of superior intelligence, shrewd and logical, and delighted 
in. disquisitions on Scottish Law, and when tired of that he would 
descant on original sin. The houses in Crossbill were at one time 
called Stirling's Dandy Raw. The first of these, at . the higher 
end, were commenced by Saunders Service, the grandfather of the 
D.D., but. Robin bought this and had the remainder built. He 
was at one time the Field carter. When he suddenly and. 
unexpectedly became an owner of house property, people said he 
must have found a purse, but while going with the Field cart he 
had been obliging in executing commissions in Glasgow and his^ 
own. industry and frugality laid the foundation of his competency. 
He had a great dislike to Mr. Joseph Kay, and would come out 
and bow with mock humility as Mr. Kay was passing and ropas8-« 
ing to his work. One day before some spectators he came out 
and taking off his hat he bowed before Kay almost to the ground. 
Kay affected not to understand his object, putting his hand into^ 
his pocket he tossed a copper into the hat and walked on. The 
laugh at Robin's expense cured the salaaming, and Kay was not 
further troubled in this respect 

Thpmas M'Luckie received an order from Mr. Cunningham Cor. 
a wooden gate. This gate Tammy could not make to fit in be-< 
tween the posts, " Hand yer wheesht ; it'll wear till't," he always 
said ; and ^' It'll wear till't like Tammy's yett " became proverbial, 
and is quoted by Dr. Service in his novel of ^^Novantia," which- 
appeared in Good Words. 

THE GLAZERT COACH COMPANY.. 

In Pigot's Directory of Scotland, published about 1825, it is 
stated that a noddy leaves Lennoxtown for Glasgow each Wed- 
nesday morning, being market day, and returns in the evening.. 
This was, however, quite inadequate to the requirements of the 
village of Lennoxtown and surrounding districts. Accordingly, a 
meeting of those interested was held on the 20th September, 1825, 



ISO 

at the Robertson Arim Ino, when it was resolved to established a 
stage coach to run between Campsie and Glasgow three times a 
week, or as much oftener as circumstances seemed to require. 
The articles of agreement provided that the style of the co-partner j 
should be The Glazert Coach Company, trading as William Ross 
& Company. 

1 . That the number of subscribers to the new venture should be limited 
to sixty, and that all these should be resident in the parish. 

2. That the amount of each subscription should be Five Pounds, and 
that no member have more than one share. 

• •#••••• 

6. The business to be managed by a committee of directors, who were to 
bare the assistance of a special committee in the first instance to purchase 
the horses and the coach, but they were to provide provender, maintain the 
coach in arood repair, appoint the driver, pay tolls, &c. 

The committee of directors chosen at the first meeting, held on 
20th September, 1825, when the company was floated, waa — 
Robert Clarke, president; Robert Brown, treasurer; William 
Ross, clerk ; Robert Barclay, John Leckie, James Robertson^ 
James Buchanan, James Ronald, Malcolm Buchanan. The 
directors agreed with Robert Ferrie to supply the horses with hay 
and litter for a year. On 29th September, 1825, William Nelson 
was appointed driver at 16s. per week, for which he was to do all 
the work of the stable, etc. On 17th October, the contract for 
shoeing was given to Alexander Cassels, at 19s. each horse per 
annum. Advertisements were inserted in Glasgow Hetnld and 
Chronicle that the coach was to commence on 19th October, 
starting from the Robertson Arms Inn at eight o'clock morning, 
and leaving M^Kerracher's King's Head Inn, Glasgow, at ^ve 
o'clock evening; fares to and from Glasgow, 3s. 6d. inside, 
2s. 6d. outside ; single journey, 2s. and Is. 6d ; to Kirkintilloch, 
9d. inside and 6d. outside ; Kirkintilloch to Glasgow, Is. 6d. and 
Is. ;'any intermediate place, 9d. and 6d. On 22nd June, 1826, 
it was agreed that any days when not running to Glasgow 
members of the coach society could have the use of the coach on 
applying to the president, but distance must not exceed twelve 
miles from Lennoxtown. On 21st August the coach arrived, 
having sustained damages. It had been racing with the Stirling 
coach. The driver of the Stirling coach was considered entirely 
to blame for collision, but the Campsie driver was cautioned not 
to strive on the road with any other coach. In October it was 
agreed that the coach run daily, leaving during winter at 8.30, 
returning from Mein's Blackfriar's Inn at four o'clock. On 28th 
March, 1P27, the coach was attacked by James Lawrence, jun., 
James Adam, jun., and William Nelson (late driver), who 
attempted to overturn it. It was agreed that a complaint be 
lodged, and the minute to this effect was signed and handed over 
to Robert Millar, messeager-at-arms, for execution. 

Like a great many other joint stock concerns, the Glazert 
Coach Co* was not a financial success, and on 25th April, 1881, 



131 

at a general meeting of the proprietors it was resolved to take iu 
offers for the coach, horses, harness, &c. The offer of John Gray, 
Tontine, was accepted, being £106 for coach, horses, and harness. 
On 3rd Nov., 1831, the proprietors received £2 48. 9d. for their 
five pound shares and the concern was finally wound up. The 
tenant of the Tontine or Lennox Arms continued to run the 
coach as a private undertaking, but the opening of the railway 
caused the Campsie Coach to be withdrawn about 1848. 

The Tontine, or Lennox Arms, took the lead as the principal 
inn. after the opening of the new church in 1828. It was rather 
enterprising to take the coach away from the Robertson Arms, as 
this brought custom from pnssengers. The Robertson Arms then 
fell into a secondary place. The passengers by the Tontine coach 
had sometimes a little ze^^t added to the journey by accident. 
One day an axle suddenly broke. All on the top were thrown 
off, except Major Graham Stirling, then a youth, who held 
on to the seat. Among the passengers were the late Mr. 
William Cunningham and Miss Isabella Ewing, Arngomery. 
One lady had an arm broken. Gilroy was the driver, but no 
blame attached to him. 

MISS OSWALD, FOUNDER OP THE OSWALD SCHOOLS. 

The laird of Kiucaid had a son and two daughters. One 
daughter was married to Mr. Oswald, writer, Glasgow, who 
became connected with the parish on being appointed clerk to the 
Woodhead Baron-Bailie court in 1775, and they had two 
daughters. On Mr. Oswald's death his widow came to reside in 
Kirkintilloch, in a two-storey thatched house at the foot of the 
Crofts, popularly known as the *' Old Phoenix," from the 
insurance label on it. After having resided here for a number of 
years, she returned to Glasgow, and had the house in Kirkintilloch 
taken down and rebuilt. It is now the property of Mr. James 
Wood, who resides in it. Mr. Wood's mother, Jean Dollar, was 
for many years Mrs. Oswald's faithful and devoted attendant. 
Mrs. Oswald and her daughters afterwards removed to Yiewfield 
Cottage, above Kincaid House, which the laird had built for his 
sister. After the death of her sister and mother. Miss Oswald 
made a will, bequeathing all her means to build schools in 
Campsie and Kirkintilloch, which in due time were built and 
named after Miss Oswald. After erecting these buildings there 
was not enough left to endow them. They have now been 
handed over to the respective School Boards of Campsie and 
Kirkintilloch (burgh). In the latter case, the Kirk-Sessions made 
certain reservations in their own favour, in order that they might 
have the use of them whem ver they wished, when not required 
for educational purposes. Many who are familiar with the name 
Oswald School know nothing of the kind-hearted lady who 
founded them to promote the educational interests of the two 
parishes she was connected with. 

K 



182 



CENSUS OF OHUBCH ATTENDANCE IN 1876. 

The North Bntiah Daily Mail took a census of Church attend- 
ance in and around Glasgow in 1876. The census in Campsie 
was taken on 30th April of that year, and in mj scrap book I 
have the following particulars : — 

Church. Minister. 

Established, ... Rev. T. Monro, 

Free, Rev. J Dewar, 

Torrance Free,... Rev. Mr. Brown, 

U. P., Rev. W. Wood, 

Summary of Attendance — Established, ... 

Dissenting, 



On Roll 




Attendance. 


1053 




840 


120 




178 


—^ 




78 


295 




333 


• • • 




840 


• • • 




589 



1429 



BONISTERS BELONGING TO CAMPSIE. 



A friend has Suggested including in this paper a list of the 
natives of the parish, or those belonging to families closely con- 
nected or identified with the parish, who have been ordained to 
the Ministry of the Gospel, or licensed to preach it, during the 
present century. The following list has been compiled to show 
this, and unless where otherwise stated the charges are those of 
the Church of Scotland : — 



James Lapblib, son of the tenant 
of Bendoich Mill. 

Jambs Adam, son of the tenant of 
Cloasey Farm, on Bendoich 
estate. 



Jambs Andbbson, son of — Ander- 
son, joiner and farmer, Lukeston. 

Patrick M*Farlan, D.D., younger 
brother of John M'Farlan of 
BaUancleroch. 

Thomas Gordon ; father a print* 
field worker, Lennoxtown — 
attended Orig. Secess. Church, 
Kirkintilloch. 

Alezandbr Mathibson, D.D., son 
of George Mathieson, calico press 
printer, Lennoxmill. 

John Stevenson, D.D., son of Wm. 
Stevenson, Birdston, who died 
in 1844. 

John Lockhabt, D.D., son of John 
Lockhart, feuar and Sheriff- 
officer, Lockhart's Loan, Len- 
noxtown. 



Campsie. 



Assistant at Kilbimie, wliere he 
wrote the new Statistical Ac- 
count ; presented by the Earl of 
Glasgow ta parish of Cumbrae. 

Belief Church, Beith. 



St. John's, Glasgow; West Parish, 
Greenock; latterly of Free 
Church, Greenock. 

Original Secession Church, Falkirk ; 
Established Church, latterly of 
Free Church. 



Montreal. 



Teacher at Bowantreefauld ; Church 
of Scotland, Bombay; afterwards 
of Ladykirk. 

Teacher in School Loan ; Scotch 
Church, Newcastle - on - l^ne ; 
afterwards of Fraserburgh (re- 
signed). 



138 



Joioi Edwabds, I>.D.-, ton of Wm. 
Edvaids, ouwoii, Alnm Works. 

James M^Faklah, son of John 
M'Fsrian of Ballancierudi. 

Alexander Feaser, son of James 
Fraser, teacher, at one tiaoe 
foreman engra¥er in Lennozmill. 



Alexander Stbtenson, son of the 
tenant of Birdston. 

Robert Stevenson, son of the 
tenant of Birdston. 

Matthew K. Battbrrbt, son of M. 
Battersby, block printer, Len- 
noxmill. 

BoBEBT H. Stevenson, D.D.; his 
father was joint-tenant of Shields 
with his cousin, then tenant of 
Craigend, and latterly Nether- 
inch. 

JoBtr Shbaheb, son of Wm. Shearer, 
tenant of Sterriqua farm. 

(jrBOBGB Stbvbnson, biother of l.ite 
W» Stevenson, Alton farm, son 
of tenant of Birdston. 

Albxandbb B. Sclandebs, son of 
Bobert Sclanders, baker, Tor- 
rance. 

William Bbown-, grandson of Kobt. 
Brown—" Baker Brown's Well " 
— son of William Bruwn, baker. 

Donald Macleod, D.D., son of Dr. 
Macleod of Campsie. 

John M'Luokib, sketch-maker in 
Lennoxmill, son of Adam 
M*Luckie, block printer. 

William F. Stevenson, son of the 
tenant of Alton. 

John Sbbvice, D.D., formerly in 
Lennoxmill, son of John Service, 
block cutter, Lennoxmill. 



William Jambs, block cutter, son of 
Bobert James, block printer. 



Greenhead U.P. Ohnrcb, Glasgow. 



Mniravonside. 



Congregational Churches in Edin- 
burgh and Colchester; Ewing 
Chapel, Waterloo St., Glasgow ; 
went in 1863 to Austnilia, owing 
to health failing. 

Berbice, British Guiana ; Rnthwell 
Parish. 

Airdrie and Forfar. 



U. P. Church, Hamilton; 



Crieff; St. George's, Edinburgh; 
Moderator in 187L 



U. P. Church, Larkhall. 



Free Church, Tullibody ; Wick. 



U. P. Churches, Bathgate and Moi< 
selburgh. 



Independent minister, Middlesboro*, 
Dorsetshire; Brisbane, Queens* 
land. 

Linlithgow ; Park Church, Glasgow. 



U. P. Churches, Lanark and Udd< 
ingston (resigned). 



Rutherglen. 



Hamilton; Melbourne, Australia: 
Inch, Wigtonshire; Hyndland 
Church, Glasgow. Author of 
Sermons and EtHayn, Novemtia, 
Sec, 

U. P. Church, Leeds. 



1S4 



Free Church, AUua; Arbroath. 
Author of The Martyrt of Angus 
and Meams, 

St. Luke's, Dundee ; Ndlston. 



Presb. Church, British Columbia; 
Hamilton, Ontario. 



Fauldhouse (resigned). 



Free West, Alloa. 



Presbyterian Church, Melbourne. 



Jambs Moffat Scott, son of John 
Soott, Fingerpost, now of East- 
side and Ashwood, Kirkintilloch. 

Petbb Maclbod, son of Peter Mac- 
leod, Muckcrof t and Alum Works. 

Thomas Thomson, son of James 
Thomson, engraver, who died of 
cholera, stepson of Thomas 
Watson, grocer and farmer, witli 
whom he went out to Canada. 

John Connor, son of John Connor, 
block printer, Milton. 

Jambs W. Habpbb, son of William 
Harper, Whitefield, block printer, 
LennozmiU. 

Robbbt Fbb&us, son of Wm. Fergus, 
block cutter. 

The followiog were licensed to preach io connection with the 
Church of Scotland, but were never ordained ; — John M'Farlan, 
parochial teacher, Clachan ; Joseph Stirling, son of Sir John, 
fifth baronet of Glorat; Robert Brown, Westerton of Glorat; 
Robert Home, New Mill of Glorat ; Charles A. Monro, Manse 
of Campsie. It has been remarked of the Homes and Stevensons 
that both families evidently belonged to the tribe of Levi, as they 
found their vocation in the Church. A Mr. Stevenson of Boghead 
had three daughters who married three farmers, Home, Ferrie, 
and Black, all of whom had sons who entered the Church. The 
first was Robert Home, Braes o' Yetts (father of James Horne, 
New Mill), whose son David became minister of Corstorphine, 
whose son Robert succeeded him. He resigned owing to ill health, 
when Dr. Dodds, the present incumbent, succeeded. Ferrie's son 
(Gartclash) was Dr. Wm. Ferrie, professor of Civil History in 
the University of St. Andrews. Black's son (Kenmuir) was 
Dr. William Black of the Barony. George Home, son of the 
Braes o' Yetts farmer, Cumbernauld, had two sons in the Church, 
one in Slamannan, the other at Port-Glasgow. Two cousins, 
Stevenson, were tenants of the Shields. John went to Craigend, 
afterwards to Netherinch. His son was Moderator of the Church 
of Scotland in 1871. His son became a minister, and, after 
being assistant to Dr. Mathieson, was lately ordained to Athel- 
staneford. Dr. Stevenson's successor in St. George's, Edinburgh, 
was Dr. Scott, a son of the tenant of Bogton, whose mother was 
a Brown of Balcorrach. William Stevenson, after separating 
from his cousin at Shields, took Alton, afterwards removing to. 
Birdston, leaving his second son William as tenant in Alton. He 
had six sons, four of whom became ministers, and two farmers. 
After an exhibition in the Glasgow Presbytery, a leading Glasgow 
minister said of Lapslie, *'The minister of Campsie should be 



135 

tied in tlie pulpit and fed there with milk and brose meal over the 
side of it. He is a good man in the pulpit and a fool out of it." 

CAMPSIE RE-UNIONS IN GLASGOW. 

The Gampsie Re- union in 1875 was presided over by Mr. Alex. 
Galloway, and the other speaker was the Hev. William Wood. 
In 1876 I had the honour of presiding, and the other speaker was 
the Rev. W. F. Stevenson of Rutherglen. The following year 
the chairman was James King, Esq., then Lord Dean of Guild of 
Glasgow, when the speakers were the Rev. Dr. Macleod of Park 
Church and the Rev. Dr. Monro. When I again presided, in 
1885, 1 had a note from Mr. Jas. M*Lay, now of Bird & M'Lay, 
C.A., Glasgow, in which he said: — ** It would oblige me much 
if in the course of your remarks as chairman you would urge upon 
the audience, and especially the Re-union committee, the necessity 
of taking up the dormant Benevolent Association. At present 
there is in Bank a sum of £54, and I should like mueh to see this 
sum increased to £100, the interest of which would help some 
indigent Campsonian. My own time is too much occupied to 
give the Benevolent Association any attention, but I shall be 
very pleased if some others can be got to do so." 

A Glasgow Benevolent Association of Campsonians had been 

previously formed and office-bearers appointed. Mr. John Duff, 

131 Annfield Street, was president; John Wotherspoon, Hi 

Parson Street, vice-president. Peter Connell, 272 Dalmamock 

Road; William Hume, 295 Nuneaton Street; Andrew Faulds, 

7 Grovebank Place ; William Cooper, 25 Meuse Lane, Renfield 

Street; and T. Forrester, 178 Castle Street, St. Rollox, were 

directors. Mr, William Houston, 221 Gallowgate, was treasurer; 

and Mr. James M*Lay, 5 Grafton Square, was secretary. The 

following is the preface to the rules : — 

" Considering the great number and steady increase of Campsie people in 
Glasgow, and that notwithstanding the numerous Charitable Institutions in 
tiie city there exists none at present of a local nature, where Campsonians 
in distress may lodge special claims to relief, and that cases frequently occur 
where no proper fund exists to alleTiate the suffering ; it is tliereiore re- 
solved (by the Committee for the eighth Annual Be-Union of the Natives of 
Campsie in and around Glasgow), to form a Benevolent Association for 
behoof of honest and industrious but necessitous persons having connection 
with or interest in the parish, by nativity or adoption. The chief object of 
the Association, therefore, is to deal with exigent cases of distress arising 
from accident, disease, bereavement, or old age. The Association is further 
intended to serve as a medium to moral and social advancement, and to 
stablish or strengthen an agreeable disposition of brotherly unanimity, by 
instilling or fostering reciprocal feelings of regard among the members, and 
the maintaining of vivid and lively recollections of the companions, scenes, 
and associations connected with the parish and the past." 

The re-unions have been discontinued for some years, although 
those I have seen were well attended. What has become of the 
Benevolent Association ? It is a pity that it should be allowed 
to drop. 



id6 

THE DESIGNATION "OF CAMPSIE." 

I was not present at the Campsie Re- union in 1877, when Mr. 
(now Sir) James King presided. In some way a discussion had 
arisen over the words, **of Campsie," which generally followed 
the name of the chairman of that evening, and the Rev. Dr. 
Monro referred to this in the course of his soiree speech. Dr. 
Monro was essentially a courtier, and he referred to the chairman 
as *' the proprietor of the barony of Campsie," and, as such, 
entitled to assume the very comprehensive title " of Campsie." 
From papers which have come under my notice subsequently I see 
that Dr. Monro's dictum has been called in question. I shall 
endeavour now to state the facts of the ca^e. The lands of 
Torphin, Muckcroft, &c., were once portions of the estate of the 
Lairds of Woodhead. When the Laird had heen almost ruined^ 
owing to his have joined Montrose in the civil wars, he had re- 
course to borrowing. He obtained first a loan on Balglas, and 
then parted with this outright to Adam Cunningham of Boquban, 
near Killearn. He borrowed money from Sir James Livingstone, 
in security for which he gave a wadset bond over his lands of 
Bencloich, part of Easter and Wester Muckra, Baldow, Carrower, 
Tamfin, Tambuy, &c. Being unable to redeem this bond within 
the prescribed time of twelve years. Sir James Livingstone became 
proprietor. Shortly before his death Sir James purchased from 
the Duke of Lennox, who had now possession of all the rights of 
the Earls of Lennox of the old line, the superiority of a great 
part of the lands in Campsie, which had come into the Darnley 
family and the Crown, after the death of Earl Duncan's daughter, 
Duchess of Albany and Countess of Lennox. In this purchase 
even the superiority of Balcorrach was included. Sir James also 
acquired part of the Antermony lands, viz., Inchbelly, Inehbreak, 
and Auchinririe, from Fleming of Wadilee, who had recently got 
these from the Laird of Kincaid, in whose family they had been 
since 1444. Sir James having obtained possestiion of the Wood- 
head Laird's lands of Bencloich, &c., which he had been in the 
occupation of for twelve years as secririty only, and having 
become superior of these lands and the portion of the Antermony 
lands, he got them erected into a Barony of Campsie, as dis- 
tinguished from his Kilsyth lands, which formed the East and 
West Barony of Kilsyth. The original charter from the Crown 
in the time of Charles II., erecting the lands into a Barony 
of Campsie describes in the following manner the lands thus 
embraced : — 

" All and haill the lands of Bencloich and Mains of the same, Over and 
Nether Colsay, with cottages, outsets, and pertinents thereanto belongiDg, 
the lands of Easter and Wester and Little Mockcrofts, Tamfin, Baldow, 
Carrower, Tambuy, with the privil^e of lUncloich Mill, lands, maltureii 
ancl sequels of the same, united and incorporated into a whole and free 
barony, caUed the Barony of Campsie, ordaining the place and tower of 
Bandoich to be the principal messuage of the said barony, and a sasine to 



137 

be taken at said place, tower, or messaage of Bandoich to be a su^lcient 
service for the whole said barony." 

Sir James Livingstone was raised to the peerage shortly 
after the restoration of Charles II., as Viscount KUsyth and * 
Baron Campsie. He died in 1661. Viscount Kilsyth having 
"gone out" in 1715 had his estates forfeited for rebellion, and 
the superiority reverted to the Crown. By charter dated 29th 
November, 1716, the Crown bestowed the superiority on William 
Lennox of Balcorrach and Woodhead. The Campsie estates of 
Lord Kilsyth were afterwards acquired by the York Buildings 
Company, who sold them in 1784 to Sir Archibald Edmonstone 
of Duntreath. In 1834 Sir Archibald's grandson, also a Sir 
Archibald, sold the lands of Torphin and a small part of Ben- 
cloich to Mr. Charles Macintosh, of Crossbasket and Alum Works. 
The remainder of the estate was sold by Sir Archibald to Captain 
M^Farlane of Luggiebank, Kirkintilloch, whose trustees sold it to 
Sir Charles Stirling, Bart., of Glorat. Mr. Mackintosh's son, 
General Mackintosh, in 1856 sold his portion of Livingstone's 
forfeited estate to * Mr. John King of the Alum Company. The 
old barony having thus been broken up and some of the rights of 
superiority having reverted to the Crown, the question has arisen 
who is entitled to claim the designation, '* of Campsie." I believe 
it is a rule in law that the owner of the major part of an 
estate is the custodier of the principal title deeds and is to be 
regarded as the chief of those who have acquired portions of the 
estate. But Livingstone's lands were but a small portion of 
Campsie, and were only a portion of the Woodhead estate. None 
of the old landed families who have held their lands for centuries 
ever assumed the designation, ** of Campsie." If in virtue of their 
having been formed into a barony, and if the proprietor of Torfin 
has the larger portion of the old barony, he may technically have 
the right to assume the '* of Campsie," notwithstanding that the 
charter ordained the place and tower of Bandoich to be the 
** principal messuage of the said barony." But it should also be 
remembered that the Earl of Lennox granted a charter of the 
** Castle and lands of Camsi" to his son Malcolm, and that the 
Stirlings of Craigbarnet and Glorat are the lineal descendents of 
Malcolm. If anyone has a right to the desigpation one would 
fancy it would be those deriving their descent from the Earl's son 
upon whom the lands and castle were originally bestowed. The 
proprietor of Ballagan, where the original castle of Camsi was 
situated, might have some claim, unless the right was conferred 
subsequently in some of Livingstone's charters and not forfeited 
by his rebellion. 

* In 1869 Mr. King registered as armorial bearings : — Az. on a fess ar. 
betw. a lion's bead erased in chief and two billets in base ; or., three round 
bQcklee of the fi^Id ; crest, a dexter hand prpr. ; motto, Honos industrt(e 



138 

GREAT PUBLIC DEMON STRATION& 

In uiy lecture on ^* Calico Printing in Campsie," pablished last 
year, at page 16, 1 referred to one of the great popular demonstra- 
tions at Glasgow in favour of reform. The Lennoxtown people 
had auioDg their leaders only one of the local landed proprietors, 
Mr. John M'Farlan of Ballancleroch, but Mr. Alexander Fraser, 
Mr. James M^Pherson, and others were the moving spirits, and 
they had their full share of the political meetings, gatherings, and 
commotions of that exciting period, when the country was on the 
eve of civil war, when dragoons were held in readiness to act 
promptly if any symptoms of revolution appeared ; but the '* people 
quietly took an attitude whose resolute meaning could not be 
mistaken." 

One great local gathering assembled in the middle of the 
village to march across the muir to Fintry to take part in a 
great demonstration in which contingents were to meet from all 
parts of the county of Stirling, and at which Admiral Fleming 
and Captain Speirs of Culcreuch gave addresses. Fraser and 
M^Pherson from Campsie, whey called on to speak, gave very 
telling speeches. The Campsie contingent had arranged to be 
accompanied by a brass band, but while the processionists were 
assembling a lot of strolling players, exhibiting mechanical figures 
or marionettes, paraded back and forward through the Main 
Street and proved a counter excitement to the procession. The 
players decided to attend the political demonstration, and headed 
the march across the muir to the appointed place of muster. 
The strolling bandsmen were experienced players, and fairly 
eclipsed the Campsie band by the excellence of the music they 
discoursed. 

The Anti-Com-Law League was originated in 1837 at a public 
dinner in Manchester. Two great reformers came prominently 
before the public agitating for free trade in bread. These were 
Richard Cobden and John Bright. The failure of the potato 
crop in Ireland in 1845 brought matters to a crisis and the Corn 
Laws were abolished the following year. This was made the 
occasion of great public rejoicing and accordingly the Lennoxtown 
people organised a demonstration, which took the form of a great 
procession, in the summer of 1846. With many banners displayed, 
and with a large loaf borne aloft on a pole, emblematic of the 
cheap bread which the abolition of the Corn Laws was expected to 
produce, they marched to the Clachan, and round Ballancleroch 
House, as a compliment to John M*Farlan, or " Old Kirkton," as 
he was then affectionately called. When we think now of the 
low wages and dear bread which the labouring classes had to put 
up with previous to this time we almost wonder how they could 
live and bring up their families. 

The close of the war with Russia was celebrated by a great 
public gathering in the early summer of 1856. This again took 



139 

the form of a procession to the Clachan and Ballanclerochi 
returning to the Field Park, where the day's performances were 
finished up with games and races. 

A welcome-home reception to Major Graham Stirling of Craig- 
barnet, on his safe return from the Crimea, was the next occasion 
which caused a public demonstration. This took place on the 
23rd August, 1856. Charles Campbell Graham, the heir- 
presumptive to the Craigbarnet estates under the entail,* in the 
event of Alex. Gartshore Stirling having no issue, entered the army 
in 1844, joining the 42Dd Royal Highlanders. He had served in 
various parts of the world, including Malta, Bermuda, and Nova 
Scotia. The regiment was stationed at Port«ea when it received 
orders to embark for the Eastern expedition. It sailed 21st May, 
1854, and disembarked at Scutari 9th June. At the battle of Alma 
it formed the right wing of the Highland Brigade, the other regi- 
ments being the 79th and the 93rd. At this battle the regiment 
was thus addressed by Sir Colin Campbell — " Now, men, the army 
will watch us ; make me proud of the Highland Brigade." He 
then gave the order, " Forward, Forty-Second." All through 
the trying period of the Crimean war the 42nd bore its full share 
of the trials, privations, and sickness endured in the camp and 
trenches before Sebastopol. This was shown by the fact of the 
command of the regiment having devolved on Major Graham 
Stirling when the final assault was made. For his gallantry on 
this occasion he was made Brevet-Major. The Major received 
the Crimean medal and clasp, the Turkish medal and Order of 
the Medjidie. At the conclusion of the war, having succeeded to 
the estates on the death of Mr. A. G. Stirling in 1 852, and having 
assumed the surname of Stirling under the entail, he retired 
from the army on 1st May, 1857, and on his return to Campsie 
received a most enthusiastic reception from all classes in the 
parish. The local congratulations were on his accession to the 
estates, and also an expression of the satisfaction felt by the 
people of Campsie at his safe return from the war. His arrival 
was announced by a salute of 18 guns. Two bands were present — 
one played, ** See the conquering hero comes," the other, " Welcome, 

• Mungo Stirling, tenth of Craigbarnet, married Marjory Stirling, his 
ooasin, daughter of Sir George, the first baronet of Glorat. Their only 
sarviving son was James Stirling, the famous ** Barry ** who was ** out ** in 
1715 and 1746. Their daughter Mary married George Graham in 
Shannochhill, a cadet of the Grahams of Airth, and great-grandfather of 
Charles Campbell Graham Stirling, the present laird. He is the only son 
of John Graham, who was second son of Robert Graham Burden, of Feddal, 
in Perthshire. The oldest son, Hobert Graham, was for some time in the 
navy, and on the death of his father succeeded to Feddal. John Stirling, 
the twelfth laird of Craigbarnet, in 1799 executed an entail on which, after 
the heirs of his own body, he called to the succession the heirs of the body 
of his sister, Charlotte Stirling, and James Gartshore, her husband, whom 
failing, Uie heirs of the body of Robert Graham Burden of Feddal. Under 
this sobstitution the present laird has succeeded. 



140 

Royal Charlie." A beautiful floral arch was erected at the head 
of the Field Road, and another at the junction of the Craigbarnet 
and Ballancleroch estates. Craigbarnet House was beautifully 
decorated, with " Welcome, Thrice Welcome Home," above the 
door. Marching alongside his carriage was an escort of Campsie 
men who had served under him in the Crimea. I can now only 
recollect the names of Alexander Hosie, who had been wounded 
in the throat, and Muirhead the slater, generally called '* The 
Slasher." An address of welcome and congratulation from the 
workers of Lennoxmill was read by George Norval, the foreman 
in the finished warehouse. The following was then read by one 
present : — 

Awake, ye proud sons of the heath -coTered mountains, 
And welcome, thrice welcome, Brevet Major Qraham. 

Come forth, let us meet him wi* pibroch's k>ud chanting 
His welcome return to the braes o' Strathblane. 

For brave did he march o*er the red field of danger, 
Where vengeance did fly on her dark crimson car, 

But ne'er did he flinch from the blood-thirsty stranger, 
Till peace was proclaimed in the land of the Czar. 

May glory attend him, and honour still crown him, 
And aye tae Auld Scotia and Colin prove true. 

May heaven still award him, where justice invites him 
To fight for his Queen 'mang the bonnets o' blue. 

The Major replied in a brief, soldier-like speech, and three 
cheers were then given for the Major, for Mrs. Gartshore Stirling 
of Craigbarnet, for Sir Colin and the Highland Brigade. The 
procession was then formed four deep and marched back, every 
one intensely gratified at the manner in which the proceedings 
had gone off. 

A public reception of Mr. Robert Dalglish in 1857, after his 
election to represent the City of Glasgow in Parliament, was the 
next occasion of a great public gathering. By arrangement, Mr 
Dalglish drove out from Glasgow, and was met between Muck- 
croft and Kinkell by the workers in Lennoxmill, headed by the 
manager and the foremen. He came out of his carriage and' 
walked at the head of the procession. The brass band led 
the way, and the company marched through Lennoxtown to 
the Field Park where a platform had been erected. Here a con- 
gratulatory address from the workers was presented to Mr. 
Dalglish, which, after refeiring to the great interest his father 
had always taken, and the many good deeds he had done for 
Campsie, referred to Mr. Dalglish's own services to his people. 
This was read by Thomas Young, engraver, and Mr. Dalglish 
made a long speech in reply, thanking them for their good wishes 
and for the enthusiastic reception they had given him. He stated 
that in leaving to attend to his Parliamentary duties in London 
he had every confidence in leaving the management of the work 
in the capable hands of Mr. Gordon Wilson and those acting 



141 

under him in charge of the various departments. When the 
proceedings in the Field Park were over the procession was re- 
formed and marched westwards by Service Street When clear 
of the village Mr. Dalglish entered his carriage and amid great 
cheering drove home to Kilmardinny by way of Strathblane. 

These demonstrations I have attempted to describe briefly were 
almost entirely originated in Lennoxmill, where the details were 
worked out and all arrangements made, with great spirit and 
enthusiasm. For several weeks beforehand it was a busy time in 
Lennoxmill, where the employees were permitted to work at this 
on their own time in meal hours, or after work hours in the 
evening. On such occasions, and especially so in the reception of 
Mr. Dalglish, great numbers were actively engaged designing the 
devices of the various departments, printing or drawing them on 
the banners. There was one emblematic of the wright shop that 
had the merits of novelty of design and artistic effect. The 
motto was cut out of thin deal wood ; so was the name of the 
handicraft whose emblem it was. This was hung round by 
festoons of long curled wood shavings, arranged most skilfully, 
and was much admired. Another flag showed Mr. Dalglish in a 
railway carriage, just starting for London. He was looking out 
of the window, waving his hand in token of farewell, while above 
was displayed in large letters, ** Hurrah for St, Stephen's." 

The other public reception that I can recall was the one in 1 862, 
en the occasion of the home-coming of the Hon. Mr. and Mrs. 
Hanbury Lennox after their marriage. The newly-married 
couple were met at the railway station by the two local corps of 
rifle volunteers, with the brass band, a great many local gentry 
in carriages, the tenantry on the estate, many of whom were on 
horseback to form a mounted escort, and a great multitude of 
wellwishers. On emerging from the station they were received 
with a general salute, the band playing " The last Rose of 
Summer." Miss Annette Campbell then advanced and presented 
a beautiful bouquet from the school children. The crowd 
cheered heartily. A procession was then formed, and accompanied 
Mr. and Mrs. Lennox to the Castle, where refreshments were 
liberally provided to the tenantry, volunteers, <&c. 

The three public receptions accorded so spontaneously and 
enthusiastically were quite unique in their way. Nothing like 
them has occurred in Campsie since. The only occurrence that 
resembles them was the presentation to the Rev. Dr. Thomas 
Monro of a testimonial consisting of a silver salver, a timepiece, a 
musical box, several other valuable articles, and a purse of 300 
guineas, the contributions of over 1200 subscribers. This meet- 
ing was held in the Town Hall about 1872, and was presided over 
by Sir Charles Stirling of Glorat, who, in presenting the 
testimonial, assured Dr. Monro that by it they wished to show the 
appreciation they felt for his faithful services to them, as pastor, 
friend,' and adviser during the past 28 years. Dr. Monro, in 



142 

replying, said this meeting was a great era in his life, a white 
stone in his existence, a joyful landmark in the afternoon, or 
perhaps he should say the evenii^, of his pilgrimage. 

At a conversazione of the United Presbyterian Church, held in 
the Town Hall a few years ago, there was rather a novel exhibi- 
tion among the objects of interest exhibited in the hall. This 
was a display of memorials of former ministers of the church. 
"The Unity of the Church," containing a reply to the Rev. 
James Lapslie, by Mr. Colquhoun, the first minister. There 
were portraits of Dr. Thomson, Mr. James Brown, and Mr. 
William Wood, the second, third, and fourth ministers. Mr. 
Davidson concluded his speech by observing that they saw before 
them a true and faithful likeness of their present minister in his 
own person. In the course of some remarks by Mr. John Barr, 
one of the elders, he said he remembered the time when he first 
came to Campsie, that even a soiree in those days was looked 
upon as a kind of innovation, and now the conversazione was an 
innovation on the soiree. 

LIGHTING. 

I can recollect when the illuminants were tallow candles and 
lamps in which ** train " oil was burned ; wax candles were rarely 
used, or only on great occasions. The properties of coal gas had 
been long known before it occurred to Mr. Murdoch, an engineer, 
to store the gas in a gasometer and use it for lighting purposes. 
Murdoch's first gasometer was fitted up in 1792. In 1798 he fitted 
up gas in Boulton & Watt's Soho Works, Birmingham. The 
front of these works was very brilliantly lighted up in 1802, and 
the effect produced quite a sensation throughout the country. 
After this the use of gas rapidly spread, in the manufacturing towns 
first, then in London. Gas was introduced into Lennoxmill about 
the year 1828-29. It was not till 1852 that it was adopted in 
Lennoxtown. A joint stock company was formed in that year, the 
original promoters of which were chiefly Messrs. James Bishop, 
banker ; Gordon Wilson ; Robert Clarke, Alum Works ; and the 
Rev. William Wood. Neil M^Callum was the first secretary; 
Mr. Bishop was, I think, treasurer. When Mr. M^Callum left 
Lennoxtown, Mr. William White, banker, was appointed sectetary 
and treasurer, the duties of which offices he has performed now 
for many years to the entire satisfaction of the shareholders. 
Mr. Gordon Wilson has been chairman of the company for 
upwards of twenty years. The company were exceedingly fortun- 
ate in many respects. Iron was then very cheap, and wages 
were low. For instance, the wages for mason work and excava- 
tions were at the rate of — masons, 18s to 20s per week; labourers, 
lis and 12s per week. Had the works been erected a few years 
later they would have cost a great deal more, both for pipes and 
labour. The first site thought of for the gas works was the field 



143 

between the U. P. Church and the Glazert, but the managers of 
the church objected ; they thought there would be disagreeable 
smells and other drawbacks, so the present site was then chosen. 
Matthew Blair was the first manager, but he did not remain long. 
He was succeeded by James loglis, who filled the situation with 
great satisfaction to all concerned for about 30 years. The 
company has been prudently managed, the works have increased 
in value, and as yet always paid a good dividend. Shortly after 
its introduction into the village, there being no legal power of 
assessing for lighting, a voluntary association was formed for 
lighting the streets. Lamp pillars were erected, and a wonderful 
improvement was effected by these lamps during the dark nights 
of winter. The use of gas was at one time almost universal. It 
is very likely it will be subjected to the competition of the 
excellent illuminating paraffin oils which afford now such briUiant 
light at small cost. Gas made from oil has been introduced into 
some of the mansion houses and larger villas, and this gives 
brilliant results. 

WATER SUPPLY. 

Lennoxtown used to be supplied with water from various 
sources — Crossbill had Craig's burn ; the Main Street and streets 
abutting near Field Road had the Spout ; further east there were 
the ** Clash " well at Birbieston, and the famous ** Baker Broon's 
well," while there were other private and less publicly known sources 
of supply. From these water for domestic purposes was carried in 
wooden stoups. In course of time it was proposed to have a 
supply by gravitation, and the agitation for this having convinced 
the Locid Authority of its utility, they proceeded to have a water 
district formed. Over this a keen contest raged, mainly on the 
question of the boundaries — who were to be included and who 
excluded ? — because, in the latter case, those denied the advantages 
were free from assessment. At first the Local Authority tui*ned 
to the Glorat estate as the likeliest source of supply. Obstacles 
came in the way of prosecuting this scheme, and, after discussion, 
the Bencloich scheme was finally abandoned on the Local Author- 
ity becoming aware of others having prior claims on the water. 
After a lull the question was again raised. Various other sources 
of supply were mentioned and examined, such as the Shields burn, 
the Cress well on the North hill, and the Katie Crystal spring on 
the South brae, above the targets and lime works. All these 
having been considered, were set aside in favour of a scheme for 
taking a supply from the Glen or Clachan burn away up near 
Auldwick Bridge. An analysis of the water by Dr. Stevenson 
Macadam was considered vei-y satisfactory. The supply was 
abundant, at a high level which permitted the formation of a 
storeage reservoir at a lower level, yet sufficiently high to give 
pressure over the whole of the water district. The land for this 
reservoir was acquired at a cost of £110, Mrs, Haubury Lennox 



144 

giving the supply of water free. The preliminaries having been 
arranged, the water works were formed at a total cost of £2900, 
which included preliminary expenses in some of the other schemes. 
Mrs. H anbury Lennox was invited to turn on the water and thus 
formally open the works. This was done on 4lh October, 1884. 
The Lennoxtown people assembled on the Field Park and marched 
in procession up to the reservoir. Here the engineer presented a 
silver key to Mrs. Lennox, who then turned on the water, after 
which the procession was re-formed and marched to a platform 
in front of the Town Hall, where the Campsie Horticultural 
Sciety presented Mrs. Lennox with a beautiful bouquet of choice 
flowers, and the contractor gave a silver cup. The Rev. John 
Duke opened the proceedings by asking the company to unite in 
singing Psalm C. He then engaged in prayer, after which 
speeches were delivered by the Chairman of the Local Authority, 
the Hon. Mr. Hanbury Lennox, Col. M'Farlan of Ballancleroch, 
and others. The supply has been a great success. Before 
the charge of the water supply was taken over by the County 
Council the rate of assessment by the Local Authority was only 
twopence per pound, which made it one of the cheapest as well 
as one of the best supplies in Scotland. 

MUCKCROFT BRIDGE. 

The road from Lennoxtown to Glasgow via Kinkell and 
Balquharrage was at one time a statute labour road. There 
was then no bridge over the Glazert at Muckcroft and when the 
Glazert was in flood there was no passage. An Act of Parliament 
made it a turnpike and enabled the Road Trustees to borrow 
money to build the bridge. It was built very shortly before the 
Relief Church, as the grandfather of the late Mr. Stevenson of 
Alton was the mason, and he had very shortly completed the 
bridge when he got the erection of the Relief Church. Some 
accident happened when just being completed. There waff a 
sudden call to the workmen to *' clear the brig," when a portion 
fell into the water. One tradition is that the seven brothers 
whose nameless graves are in the Clachan kirkyard were killed: 
by its fall. This I do not think was the case. 

THE LATE JAMES M. KEILSON. 

On glancing over ** Poems and Songs, chiefly in the Scottish 
Language," by James M. Neilson, a native of Campsie, I see a 
poem which will bring many recollections to Campsonian boys 
and girls, and recalls M*Namee, whose " bull's eyes" were con- 
sidered then as something that could not be surpassed. The 
poem includes the following : — 

" It's as sure as the pay day oomes, there comes the man 
Wi* his bull's eyes an' candy in sticks a lang span ; 
An' as Bune as the schule skails oor Willie skelters hame 
For his bawbee, on whilk he has surely a claim, — 



145 



For be*8 oot in the mornin's, an' a' the street redds 
O* the kye an* horse drappin's for oor ingin beds ; 
An' ye*d think that his faither had hooses an' Ian', 
As lie struts proodly back tae the candyman's stan*. 

Gin his mither aye settles wi* Rab in the store 
For oor tauties an' meal, she gets sweeties galore ; 
An' she's fain tae get Will tae buy oot o' her pock. 
But he kens he aye gets them, Will's no' sic a gowk. 
At the schule he's in coontin', an' writin' an' a', 
Fills a copy a week, an' whiles three in the twa ; 
But I doot it's no dune for improvin' his haun — 
For auld copies are ta'en at the candy-man's stan'.' 



>♦ ♦» 



Mr. Neilson contributed a number of very interesting articles 
to the Olcugow Weekly HeraM on "The Auld Kirk at the 
Glachao," &c. He died at Thornliebank at a comparatively 
early age. I have cut out of the Glasgow Weekly Herald of 7th 
July, 1888, an " In Memoriam ** poem, signed " Caviare,*' and 
I now quote the first and last stanzas of it, as follows : — 

'< Oh, friend, whose homely singing woke 

The first crude impulse of my pen 
To imitate thy muse, that spoke 

Of simple themes to simple men. 
Ob, genuine poet, thy pure soul. 

Burning with passionate love of song, 
Chafed at the forces that control 

Life's fitful fever, and prolong 
The weary routine and the strife 
That warps a humble poet's life. 

** Yet not in vain you lived awhile 

To die ere thou did'st reach thy prime ; 
For still thy pleasing strains beguile, 

And linger o'er the fields of rhyme. 
We weave a garland for thy lyre, 

Whose echoes softly sound again, 
Imbued with the poetic fire 

That stirs the hearts of honest men — 
And cheers the humble cottage hearth 
With simple song and artless mirth." 

THE BRASS BAND. 

In these papers I have had occasion to mention the band 
several times. A short notice of it. may not be uninteresting. I 
can recollect the starting of the band in 1850, and the praise- 
worthy assiduity with which the members in meal hours and 
evenings practised on their instruments, and the discordant sounds 
they at first drew out of them. When they assembled for practice 
in Miss Sloss's school I was sometimes there with my school- 
fellows to listen, and I remember how pleased everyone was when 
at length they ventured to march out, playing a few simple 
melodies, quadrilles, <&c. Mr. Edward B. Connor, a most 
enthusiastic musician, was conductor and teacher, and he really 
de60,rved the utmost credit for the rapid progress the bandsmen 



146 

made uoder his tuition. It occurred to me to call on Mr. Connor, 
at 12 Scotia Street, Glasgow, and get, if possible, a few particu- 
lars. Although I had not seen Mr. Connor, as far as I could 
recollect, since I left Lennoxtown in 18G4, I knew him at once, 
and he was very pleasi*d to see me. Apropos of the lecture on 
'* Calico Printing," he said that although of a Milton family and 
in Kincaid field as boy and man till 1850, he had never rightly 
understood the history of it till he had read it there. He told me 
he recollected the first Campsie band, to which I had referred at 
page 81, as starring through the country at the time of the strike. 
His family were " Auld Lichts," and went to church at Kirkin- 
tilloch, but he remembers coming to the new Parish Church to 
hear Cuddie's choir, and the delight their singing afforded him ; 
such singing opened a new world to him. He came to Lennox - 
mill in 1850. 

When the movement to get up a brass band was started in 
1850 it was favourably received by the public, who subscribed 
the funds to purchase the instruments, and the object aimed at 
was speedily accomplished. A reed band, numbering about IG 
performers, was enrolled. Most of these were quite ignorant of 
music or instrumentation. Some did not want to be '* fashed " or 
take much trouble to acquire the necessary training. At the end 
of the first three months, therefore, there were a number of 
resignations and changes. The members who then settled steadily 
to practice were: — 4 clarionets, James Shand, James Stirling, 
John Hume, and Robert Taylor ; fliite, William Kincaid ; cornet, 
George Dinwoodie and John Shields; French horns, William 
Morrison and Peter Blair ; trumpet, Thomas Stones ; ophicleide, 
M. Johnstone ; trombones, W. M'Gilchrist and David Ross ; big 
drum, James Purdon, &c. ; drummers, triangle, &c. The first 
public appearance was at a concert on Campsie Fair Night, 1850, 
to raise funds for the right-of-way case over the old road to the 
Clachan. They also turned out to a Masonic torch-light 
procession in December, 1850. At this there was some unpleas- 
antness, the band complaining about the quantity of refreshments. 
When the Freemasons next wished a band to accompany them to 
the laying of the foundation stone of the new bridge at the bottom 
of Stockwell Street, Glasgow, in 1851, they could not agree as to 
terms. The band were willing to play gratuitously if they were 
paid their day's wages. Rather than agree to this the Freemasons 
engaged the Kirkintilloch band and paid them more money. The 
band languished for want of public support. It was only taken 
out at long intervals, the funds got low, and it came to be 
disheartening work taking round the hat for subscriptions. 
Practice ceased about 1855, but by a great effort the old members 
were mustered to accompany the procession that was to meet Mr. 
Dalglish in 1857. This was the last time this band was out 

A new band was got up in 1857, the nucleus of this being 
formed of members of the now defunct reed band, but these, with 



U7 

the exceptions of Dunwoodie' and Archie Wilson, did not remain 
very long in it. The new band was of brass instruments only, 
there were no reeds as in the last one. George Dunwoodie was 
elected 1st £ flat cornetta. Archie Wilson, a drummer in the old 
band, got a cornet, and was ultimately solo cornet, a position he 
was eminently qualified for. A number of willing and intelligent 
members left the existing flute baud and joined the brass band, 
which caused a little ill feeling at the time. Mr. Conner was 
asked to undertake the training, but he was at first most reluctant 
to do so. The people in Lennoxtown were waking up to the im- 
portance of the culture of music in the family circle, and 
pianos were becoming very common, and harmoniums were also 
being introduced. Mr. Conner had formed a large connection 
in private teaching of music. However, he was prevailed on to 
give it a trial, and he soon ascertained that the members now 
forming the band were of the right metal to make into a splendid 
band. 

In 1858, Mr. Dalglish invited his foremen in Lennoxmill and 
a few others to an entertainment in the Crown Inn, Clachan, as a 
return for their magnificent' demonstration the previous year. 
Mr. Gordon Wilson had always evinced a kindly interest in the 
band, but had never shown any marked encouragement. It now 
occurred to him to invite the band to play during the feast, and 
they acquitted themselves so well that Mr. Conner was sent for 
to come into the supper room, where he was highly complimented 
on the efficiency of his pupils. Mr. Dalglish and Mr. Wilson 
were both agreeably surprised, and the fate of the band as an 
institution was at once secured. During the course of this even- 
ing, Mr. Begg, then factor on the Lennox estates, suggested to 
Mr. Dalglish the desirability of raising a yeomanry cavalry 
corps (he pronounced this corpse). The M.P., with great gravity 
of mien, but with a merry twinkle in his eye, replied that for his 
part he would prefer an infantry corps to a cavalry cot-pse. An 
entertainer's little jokes are always well received, this one caused 
tremendous hilarity. The band diligently went on with their 
training, and when next year the volunteer movement overspread 
the land a Lennoxmill corps was got up of 80 members, and the 
band, consisting of 20, were incorporated with the volunteer corps. 
The band was now established on a safer basis and set before it 
the systematic study of music. Not content with the mere 
average ability of a country band, such as playing marches or easy 
dance music, Mr. Conner in 1851) had the overture to Guy 
Mannering arranged for them. This was followed by selections 
from the operas and choruses from the oratorios of the great 
masters. 

It was very cheering to the Conductor that when he called on 
them for an effort, in preparing for a special occasion, the mem- 
bers would steadily practise for four or ^ye nights a week without 
a murmur, and never grudged the time required to keep them- 



148 

selves in good form. lo a short time they had acquired a degree 
of proficiency they themselves never suspected. This was dis- 
covered unexpectedly in 1861, when they played at a Band 
Ridotto in Dumbarton, where some of the best volunteer bands of 
the West of Scotland were present. The bands of the 76th regi- 
ment and of H.M. guardship, then lying at the Tail of the Bank, 
were also present. They had travelled down from Glasgow in 
the same train with the band of the 76th, who rather affected to 
look down on a mere country band, what notice they did take was 
the reverse of complimentary, but a wonderful change came over 
them afterwards. The 76th played Masaniello. Canipsie played 
Stradella, when they had finished their overture they were simply 
mobbed by the generous and appreciative bandsmen of the 76th 
and other rivals. Where did you get that overture ? Your piano 
passages were magnificent ! Invitations were showered on them to 
allow themselves to be treated to a glass of ale, &c. Mr. Conner 
however held his highly gratified men well in hand. He thanked 
those who wished to treat them, but they had another piece to 
play, and *' business before pleasure, gentlemen." He said if 
their ^tano bits were so well played as to merit their approbation, 
there was little for them to fear in their fortes. Mr. Clark was 
there that day from the Vale of Leven, to choose the best band 
he could hear, for the Lochlomond Regatta on that day week. 
** Stradella " had settled that in their favour. When he offered 
them the engagement, they could not accept without previously 
asking and obtaining permission. " Whose permission ? *' Captain 
Wilson's, was the reply. Mr. Clark, " Oh, I'll make that all 
right, I know Mr. Wilson well," and it was made all right It 
was said of the Campsie band that they were the only volunteer 
band that could play overture for overture with the army and 
navy bands. Mr. Conner had succeeded in infusing his own 
enthusiasm for music in his bandsmen, and they played con amoi^e. 
The band was sometimes taken out to play at the Glasgow flower 
shows, and carried off a prize at a great competition at Perth. 

I annex a list of the players, who in 1861 raised the reputation 
of the Campsie Brass Band so high in musical circles : — Cornets, 
G. Dunwoodie, A. Wilson, J. Herron, A. M'Intyre, J. Mulholland, 
G. Britton, M.Brown, and A. M*Sporran; trombones, E.M*Sporran 
and John James; bombardons, D. Gardner, Elphinstone Dalglish, 
and G. M*Kay ; horns (various), M. Cameron, J. Stewart, and 
T. Shand ; euphonian, E. B. Conner ; drum, Tom Herron, after- 
wards Joe Brown ; side-drum, H. Erskine. This band was occa- 
sionally asked to Lennox Castle to play during dinner, when there 
were distinguished visitors at the Castle. One day a party of 
the guests there were being shown through Lennoxmill. In pass- 
ing through the machine-engraving shop the Hon. Mr. Hanbury 
Lennox recognised Mr. Conner, and came forward and spoke to 
him. The sight of him suggested the brass band, and Mr. Lennox 
mentioned that there was a large number of guests at the Castle. 



149 

'* Why/' said he, ^* that gentleman is the Duke of Leinster.. 
This lady coming along, is the Duchess of Montrose. I 
should be much obliged if your band would come up 
to-night and play your very best, for you will have 
a critical audience/' When the Duchess of Montrose cam6 to Mr. 
Conner's machine Mr. Lennox asked it to be stopped and the 
process explained to her Grace. This having been done Mr. 
Lennox mentioned that this was the conductor of the local brass 
band, which was to play to them that evening. The Duchess 
turned, looked at the machine-engraver, standing with his shirt- 
sleeves turned up and his white pinafore on, and showed unmis- 
takeably that she did not look forward to much of a treat from 
the playing of the band. Her look and manner put Conner on 
his mettle ; he made out his most attractive programme and called 
on the bandsmen to do their very l)est. The band never played 
better. Mr. Conner was extremely gratified when the Duchess 
of Montrose came up to him and said she had heard the bet^t bands 
in London, but had never been more agreeably surprised and de- 
lighted than she had been that evening. From young men work- 
ing hard at t];ieir daily work for ten hours a day, and only taking 
music up in their leisure, she could never have anticipated such 
proficiency in execution and such exquisite taste. She was very 
pleased to have the opportunity of telling him so. 

Mr. Conner spoke very warmly in praise of Mr. Gordon 
Wilson, for many years the captain of the Lennoxmill corps. 
He said he proved a noble patron to the bandJ The amount of 
good he did in a quiet, unostentatious manner to the members 
individually and collectively was more than he could recapitulate. 
The history of the band after 18G4 must fall into other hands 
than mine. I am sorry I have no particulars of the flute bands 
that existed for brief periods in Lennoxtown. 

GAMES AND PASTIMES. 

Forty years ago the games and amusements of boys were en- 
tirely different from those of the present day, when firstly cricket, 
and latterly football, have superseded almost entirely the old 
games. In my boyish days the handball was used in many ways. 
There were two kinds of ball, the tennis ball and the solid, 
caoutchouc one. Some games were played against a wall, the 
ball being returned either before it touched the ground or in its 
first rebound. Another game was played by sides, who, when 
they got it to one end, claimed a " hail." ** Rounders " and 
" house-ball " were favourite games. " Smugglers," or " smug- 
gle the geg,*^ was another favourite in the evenings. The ** geg " 
was generally a penknife, and the outs had to get this to the 
^^ den," the ^* ins " capturing the smugglers ; and when th^y 
caught the one having the '* geg " they changed places. A 
favourite den was the high wall in front of John Allan's coal-ree, 



.•Iv 



150 

where the Tea Rooms were built subsequently, near the head of 
the Field Road. The den could be reached from front, rear, and 
both flanks. Shinty was common. Boys looked carefully in the 
hedges and woods for a bent branch suitable for their purpose ; in 
other cases it was bent artificially. With an evenly- matched side, 
a round, wooden knacket was started in the centre between the 
^als, and each side tried to pret it to their goal. It was a de- 
lightful game. Cricket was then only played at a single wicket, 
a big stone generally serving as wicket. In its present form of 
double wicket it was really introduced by a Mr. James Sowter, a 
grocer, who was a great enthusiast in the game, and one of the 
gentlest and most unassuming of men. Football was then the 
** kickba*," and when played, which was not very frequently, was 
a far more indiscriminate game than we are acquainted with now. 
** Leap-frog, or "Foot-and-a-half," was a common game,. played 
both in the school playground and in the evenings. It continued 
to be practised by lads long after they had left school. At the 
New- Year there were formerly shooting raffles. A cheese or 
some other prize was thus shot for with small shot, the winner 
being the one who put the greatest number of pellets «in to a paper 
mark. This custom appears also to have been discontimied. 
There used to be a gathering in Mr. Taylor's school on New- 
Year^s Day» when a little present was given to Mrs. Hume, who 
occupied the lodge at the end of the playground. This was a 
sort of survival of what was usual in parts of the country where 
the teacher got presents at Hansel Monday. 



SNOWSTORMS. 

Some very heavy falls of snow h^ve taken place within living 
memory. One of these snowstorms occurred in February, 1821, 
and some individuals perished on Campsie Muir, having been 
overtaken there while crossing, and having got bewildered and 
lost their way. The snow on the roads between Lennoxtown and 
Milton and Torrance was nearly level with the tops of the hedges. 
There were then no snow ploughs, and the roads had to be cleared 
by gangs of men, who were only provided with shovels, and whose 
rate of progress was very slow. This fall was long of melting, 
and very great hardships were experienced in many parts of the 
parish that were situated any distance from the main roads. 
These had been made passable, but it was almost impossible to 
get coals, provisions, and farm produce conveyed to or from the 
isolated farm houses or cottages. The roofs of Rowantreefauld 
cottages were then lower than at present, and were literally a 
tar-covered row, with four feet of snow on the flat roofs. The 
row had the appearance of a long level ridge, and the 
smoke of the concealed chimneys, rising out of the white expanse, 
produced a very curious effect on the landscape. 



161 

FARMERS NINETY YEARS AGO. 

Tlie great changes that have taken place in the work of the 
farmers* households are illustrated by a comparison of then and 
now. The parish farmer then was a man of fair intelligence, of 
sturdy independence, who required to practise self-help in many 
things never dreamed of now. A Campsie farmer ninety years 
ago rarely if ever required to have recourse to butcher, baker, or 
draper. His own cattle, sheep, and pigs supplied the family re- 
quirements. The wool of his sheep — scoured, carded, and spun, 
dyed indigo blue and woven into cloth on the home loom, or by the 
local weaver — provided the outer garments for both men and 
women. Home-grown flax, cut, weathered, steeped for six weeks 
in the lint pond, then dried, heckled, brought back to the farm as 
lint or tow, was then spun into yam, woven into clpth on hand- 
looms, bleached in the open-air for weeks, with frequent waterings, 
until it became as white as snow. Then under-garments for both 
sexes and mutches for the women were made from this, and the 
shroud for the inevitable end of all. The farmer's household was 
the scene of unceasing industry, of constant occupation. It is 
difficult for us of the present day, with everything made ready to 
our hands, to realise how they managed then to get along so well 
without the many aids which we enjoy. 

A CONTRAST : 1798—1874. 

I have seen somewhere a contrast of farmers in 1798 and 1874, 

which had reference to the East of Scotland : — 

1798, 

Farmer haudin' the plough, 
Wife milkin' the coo, 
Sons thrashing in the barn, 
Dochters thrang spinnin' yarn ; 
Ilk ane busy ; a' happy ; 
The farna clear. 

187J^, 

Farmer goes to Cattle Show, 
His lady plays the piano ; 
Sons at college studying Latin, 
Daughters at home dressed in satin, 
Style, carriage, hunting, coursing ; 
The farm bonded. 

THE CLOCHCORE PLOUGHMAN AND THE WISE MARE MAGGIE. 

Then, as now, when a new tenant entered on the occupation 
of his farm, his neighbours all round, on a set day, sent 
ploughs, horses, and men, and gave him a day's ploughing. 
On the Baldernock side of the South Hill there was a great 
turn-out, and after the day's work was over the ploughmen 
and neighbours were hospitably entertained. A contingent 
had been there from Clochcore Farm, and as Bob the 



ibi 

ploughman was riding borne across Clochcore Moor, his legs lost 
all power of grip, and he was unable to keep his seat on the horse's 
back. He fell off softly and lay helpless. He was sufficiently 
conscious to observe the mare Maggie, who was greatly distressed 
on his account. She walked round and round him, put the chains 
as near his hand as she could, wishing him to catch hold, and she 
would lift him. Bob could just understand her good intentions, but 
was powerless to avail himself of her aid. When Maggie realised 
this she set off for human help. The farmer's household had mean- 
time got uneasy, as it was now getting late, and "many anxious 
looks had been directed across the moor. . Then Maggie was seen 
coming briskly, but all alone. She would not enter her stable, 
but went to the house place, and whinnied again and again, and 
then made for going back to the moor again. The household 
were called out, and she was promptly followed. She led them to 
Bob lying helplessly drunk. He was then taken home, and when 
he sobered he was able to tell how wisely the animal had acted, 
and had in all probability saved his life. 

A CHRISTENING PARTY LOSE THE BABY. 

On the same South Hill, about a mile to the eastward of 
Clochcore Farm, stood then a small cothouse called Braehead. It 
was situated just above Baldow, a little west of the lime works. 
It was inhabited by Rabbie Baird, better known as Whey. He 
was one of four brothers, all of whom were well known in the 
parish. All of them had very limited vocabularies. All of them 
had phrases constantly on their lips which gave them their nick- 
names. Rabbie began his sentences with " Why," which he pro- 
nounced " Whey ; " hence his name. With Tam, everything he 
saw or heard was " a dainty bit," so he was dubbed " Dainty ; " 
Jock was "Forrit bye;" Jammack was "Muchty," from his 
** sprosing " sometimes that he had two or three guid Much ties 
left yet of some paper currency or securities connected with 
Auchtermuchty. Rab, or " Whey," and his wife had taken their 
child to the Clachan church for baptism. The rite was duly per- 
formed, and after the kirk h«(1 skailed a number of relatives and 
friends were making kindly inquiries after the mother and child. 
The party turned into a field, where they sat down to have some 
refreshment before starting homewards. Eatables and drinkables 
ha^ng had justice done to them, the Braehead party started 
homewards, all very jolly. When they reached home, and were 
Hsked where the wean was, they were obliged to make the humi- 
liating confession that they must Iiave lost it on the road, and that 
they had forgotten all about it. Maternal instincts were now 
aroused, and caused the despatch of a search party, who discovered 
the baby lying in the field, wliere it had been deposited when the 
mating and drinking was commenced. If anyone wanted to have 
their Kttle joke with a young anxious mother taking her first baby 



153 

out to church, they advised her to be careful and not lose the 
wean on the road home. 

In bringing this paper to a close I realise how many subjects 
have had to be omitted altogether, owing to my incomplete infor- 
mation, and I cannot help expressing my regret that so many of 
the old local traditions, legends, superstitious observances, freits, 
and obsolete usages should have been allowed to pass away with- 
out any effort having hitherto been made to preserve some record 
of them. Within my own recollection there has been a 
goodly number of very intelligent men, with retentive memories 
and quick observation, who had acquired a minute acquaintance 
with parish history, whose minds were stored with local knowledge 
of the best kind, obtained from older parishioners or the results of 
their own experience or observation. When coming into personal 
contact with . some of these men, I see now that I had many 
opportunities of acquiring facts and obtaining information, but I 
was then too careless or indifferent or busy to give what I heard 
much attention, or make any note of it at the time. I also see 
where I could have obtained much local lore from individuals 
who would have been delighted to impart it, but who are now 
dead. I have myself, when a boy, listened spell-bound to the 
wonderful stories, which dealt with topics that I rarely hear 
referred to now. They dealt greatly in the supernatural, in 
apparitions from the other world, friends making solemn compacts 
that whoever died first should pay a visit to the survivor ; sights, 
such as Hugh Miller describes, when as a boy, on his father be- 
ing lost at sea, he saw at the open door, within a yard of his 
breast, as plainly as ever he saw anything, a dissevered hand and 
arm stretched towards him * ; and as Mungo Park's appearance 
to his sister, when he had just perished in Africa. I have only 
a vague and confused recollection of stories of apparitions or 
wraiths, when a man who came by sudden death, such as djrown- 
ing or murder, was seen by certain individuals almost at the 
exact moment when such must have happened. In one case I 
can condescend on names. A young man named Tamson served 
his apprenticeship as a wright with Robert Robertson, Drumfem- 
hill. West Balgrochan, Torrance. Having completed his term, 
he went away to work in another part of the country. One 
winter evening it was reported to his former employer that 
Tamson had returned to his father's house at West Balgrochan. 
This was matter of great surprise to Mr. Robertaont >nd he 
closely interrogated his informant, who declared that he knew 
him quite well, and that he had passed him on the rpfijl 
close to ^* Markie " Tamson's house ; he had not spoken to 
him, but he had no doubt as to his identity, and there Was 
no mistake as regards having seen him. But, as Tamson had 
not been at his father's, and no one else had seen him, the 

* My Schools and Schoolmasters. Chapter ii. 



154 

impressioD became common Id the hamlet that it was a case 
of mistaken identity. A few days afterwards intelligence 
came that Tamsou had been accidentally drowned, on the same 
evening and about the same time that he had been seen at Bal- 
grochan. Robert Robertson, who has been referred to in these 
papers, carried on at one time a business as wright at West Bal- 
grochan. He then removed to Glasgow, and after a few years 
again returned to West Balgrochan. When he did so he got as 
many as he required of his neighbours' carts placed at his disposal 
to remove his furniture and tools and plant. '' Markie " Thomson 
was one of those assisting, and he had got all his load of furniture 
in his cart safely except a valuable grate. He was turning this 
over the edge of the cart, remarking, '* It wis a guid thing thae 
yettlan* things didna break," when the grate slipped from his 
grasp, and, falling on the ground, was smashed to pieces. While 
at West Balgrochan, although it is not relevant, I may here 
record the following story. One of the wee Balgrochan lairds, 
old Laird Turner, lived to a very great age, to the great regret of 
his son Rab, who had many a time been heard to wish that his 
father were dead. Latterly the old man became so infirm that he 
was entirely confined to the house. One day, however, he was 
seen seated in a chair a little bit in front of the house, while his 
son stood in the doorway. A neighbour expressed his surprise 
at seeing Rab's father out there in front of the house, and asked 
what he was doing there. Rab replied, " The Lord has quite 
forgotten that ma faither's leevin' yet, and Tve just brocht biro 
oot that He micht just see him for His seF." There also bulked 
largely in these stories recitals of remarkal^le dreams, fore- 
shadowing future events or conveying warnings of danger or 
death, and singular realizations of such visions of the night ; 
mysterious sounds, calls, knocks ; the howling of dogs, the terror of 
animals, which it was supposed saw the angel of death or the 
departing spirits of the dead, all presaging death or other 
imminent disaster. They also told of scenes in varicus localities 
or ruins that were reputed to be haunted, such as Auchinreoch 
and old Bencloich Tower; fairies, omens of good and evil, 
what to do to secure luck and avert skaith, a lucky " first 
foot ; " survivals of old pagan rites or sun worship, such as 
getting up early on May morning to wash with May dew, a thing 
which 1 have myself practised ; also charms, salt being under 
certain conditions considered an effective one. Down to the end of 
last century, and even later, there were lingering legends of fairies 
and witches having once lived in the district. Bowbank Glen was 
reputed to be haunted by the former, while Craigenglen was the 
abode of the latter. Craigenglen was also known among the old 
people as witch-whorl glen, as the witches got the credit of manu- 
facturing the numerous stems of fossil crinoids, called by them 
witch-whorls, which are to be found in the strata of the glen. 
I have seen men who believed they had seen fairies in Campsie 



■4 •* * 

loo 

Moor. Seventy years ago there were one or two old women living 
about West Balgrochan, who had some reputation of being witches, 
but I have been unable to glean any particulars of their doings. 

There was then a greater acquaintance with our native plants 
than what appears to obtain now, and many of these were credited 
with possessing great medicinal virtues. From our common 
herbs, many laxatives and purgatives were obtained. There were 
also carminatives, such as mint or peppermint water, to expel 
wind ; diuretics, such as a decoction of broom tops, to promote 
flow of urine. Diaphoretics and sudorifics, to induce perspiration 
and sweating, were got from yarrow or sage. Anodynes, to allay 
pain or procure sleep, were got from such a plant as henbane, which 
in some respects resembles opium, without causing costiveness. 
Tonics and bitters for stomach complaints were got from many of 
our commonest plants, such as gentian, camomile, centaury, dande- 
lion, &c. The flowers of camomile were used externally as a 
fomentation, and the common w^ed groundsel had wonderful 
healing virtues when made into a poultice. Some of these plants 
and roots were used for illegitimate purposes, such as to procure 
abortion, &c. The infusion from centuary was considered to 
be superior to the finest wine for strengthening, while the 
dandelion or taraxacum root, leaves, and flowers, was con- 
sidered to be a corrective for the liver and also a tonic for 
the stomach. Meadow sweet, or queen of the meadow, was 
believed to be a specific for stone and gravel, indeed it was 
also called gravel root. There are people who are always treat- 
ing themselves for real or often imaginary ailments. If these 
simple decoctions, which the mother or neighbour had gathered 
and ** masked" themselves did no good, they could do little harm, 
which is perhaps more than can be said of the numerous kinds of 
pills, «Scc., which are swallowed in great quantities now-a-days by 
the credulous. I can recollect collectors gathering herbs in the 
proper season, which was generally when they were full of sap in 
coming into full blossom. They were gathered on a dry day, tied 
up in bunches, hung up to dry, and then either wrapped up in paper 
or rubbed to a powder and put away carefully. Campsie florists are 
famous for the perfection with which they grow herbaceous plants, 
phloxes, penstemons, pansies, &c., but fifty years ago I think 
there was more general acquaintance with our wild flowers and 
plants and the virtues ascribed to them. A little attention de- 
voted to these would greatly increase the interest of a summer 
evening walk. Dr. Charles Mackay says of them* : 

" My fair companions of the wood, who love the morning light — 
Valerian, saffron, camomile, and rue and aconite ; 

The golden mallow of the marsh, the hemlock, broad and rank ; 
The nightshade, foxglove, meadow-sweet, and tansy on the bank. 
And poppy with her sleepful eyes, and water iris, dank. 

* Under Green Leaves, by Charles Mackay, page 63. 



156 

Are we not fair ? Despise us not ! — we soothe the couch of pain ; 

We bring divine forgetfulness to calm the stormy brain ; 

And through the languid pulse of life drop healing like the rain. 

There's not a weed, however small, that peeps where rivers flow 
Or in the bosom of the woods has privilege to grow, 
But has some goodness in its breast, or bounty to bestow. 

And if we poison ; yours the fault. 

Use us unwisely we may kill — use wisely, and we save. 

Our virtues and our loveliness are none the less our own. 

And if we're common, so is light, and every blessing known." 



Since the paragraph ^^ Freemasonry," on page 102, was printed, 
1 have obtained further information regarding William Morrison, 
referred to there. It was in 1819 that Miss Lennox of Woodhead 
granted a tack for 99 years of the ground of Dam head (now 
Meadowbank) to John Morrison and Cecilia Lennox, his spouse. 
At that time they had removed from the old thatched cottage of 
Damhead, and were residing at Leddriegreen, Strathblane, while 
Meadowbank was being built for their occupation. There is 
another version of the Freemasonry story to this effect, that 
Wui. Morrison, having learned the handicraft of a coachbuilder, 
was going out to India in the same passenger ship as his relative, 
Captain Lennox. While on her voyage the vessel was boarded by 
a press-gang, and William Morrison was among those who were 
seized. On his giving the Masonic sign he was liberated. There 
seems no doubt of the fact that he was saved by giving the 
Masonic sign. Afterwards, in a great storm, the crew, in order 
to lighten the vessel, threw a lot of cargo overboard, and with it 
many of William Morrison's tools. Morrison was in business in 
Calcutta for about 20 years, and made a lot of money there. He 
then came home to Campsie. Ue had gone up to London to see 
a young man off to India, and when there he burst a blood- 
vessel. His eldest sister. Miss Cecilia, went to London by coach. 
He was in life when she arrived, but did not live long. Miss 
Lennox of Woodhead took a great interest in the Morrison family, 
sometimes calling and often sending fruit. The list of ministers 
is as exhaustive as I have been able to make it — it does not 
profess to be complete. Since it was printed I have heard of one 
omission — James Allan, son of William Allan, long resident at 
Easter Alton, and afterwards at Craighead of Milton. He went 
to New South Wales when he was a minister. 



157 



































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158 



VITAL STATISTICS OF GAMFSIE PARISH. 



Tear. 


BiBTHS. 


MABBIA6ES. 


Dbathb. 


No. of 

BirthR in 

Excess of 

Deaths. 


Legitimate. 


Illegitimate. 


Total. 


1881, ... 


162 


15 


177 


35 


108 


69 


1882, ... 


165 


11 


176 


32 


120 


56 


1883, ... 


170 


12 


182 


35 


117 


65 


1884, ... 


168 


13 


181 


28 


101 


80 


1886, ... 


156 


16 


172 


30 


121 


51 


1886, ... 


165 


15 


180 


45 


121 


59 


1887, ... 


184 


16 


200 


30 


108 


92 


1888, ... 


167 


8 


175 


33 


111 


64 


1889, ... 


132 


13 


145 


24 


98 


47 


1890, ... 


154 


13 


167 


26 


107 


60 


1891, ... 

Total for 
11 years. 


141 


17 


158 


32 


121 


37 


1764 


149 


1913 


350 


1233 


680 


Average 
each year, 


160 


13i 


174 


32 


112 


62 



The arerage mortality per 1000 of population — 

Basing on 5873 the census of 1881 is 19.07. 
„ 5338 „ 1891 is 20.98. 

The percentage of illegitimate hirths on the total number of births averages 
7.51 for the period of eleven years. 



THE LENNOXES OF LENNOX CASTLE. 



THE LENNOXES OF LENNOX CASTLE. 



THE GENEALOGY. 

This family are lineally descended from Duncan the eighth 
Karl of Lennox of the old line, who, when eighty years of age, 
was beheaded at Stirling, in May, 1425. The Earl, his son-in-law 
Murdoch Duke of Albany, and Murdoch's two sons, were all 
tried, condemned, and execut-ed in one day. Some years before 
his death the Earl, by charter dated 22nd July, 1421, granted 
the lands of Ballyncorrauch, Ballyncloich, Thombuy, and others 
to his well-beloved' son Donald of the Levenax, who, in 1423, 
acquired the lands of Ballegrochyr, formerly held by Sir William 
Graham of Kyncardine. 

Donald Levenax married Elizabeth, daughter of Sir John 
Stewart of Girthon and Gallic, and settled down at his castle of 
Ballecorrauch, the site of which was very close to the bottom of 
Campsie Glen, and traces of the pleasure grounds and also some 
of the trees therein can be seen on the hill slope opposite the 
present manse. He had two sons — John, who succeeded him, and 
William, who became first of the Gallic line. Five Lennox lairds 
lived and died at Balcorrach. Duncan, the fifth laird, died child- 
less, in 1572, and was succeeded by his brother John, who was 
sixth of Balcorrach, and first of Woodhead ; for it was he who 
built the mansion house of Woodheid, as it was then designated. 

Passing over eight generations, at the beginning of the present 
century, the fourteenth of Balcorrach was John Lennox, who 
died in 1811, and was succeeded in the family estates by his 
sister, Margaret Lennox, who then became the fifteenth of Bal- 
corrach and tenth of Woodhead. 

" THE CASE OF MARGARET LENNOX," &c. 

Miss Lennox, being impressed with the conviction that her 
family had undoubted rights to the title and honours of the 
ancient earldom of the Lennox, at once put the matter into the 
hands of Mr. Robert Hamilton of Gilkerscleugh, a clever Edin- 
burgh advocate, and some time SheriflF-Depute of Lanarkshire. 
He devoted himself for a considerable period to the careful 
preparation of the grounds upon which Miss Lennox of Wood- 
head based her claim to the Earldom. When Mr. Hamilton 
had completed his labours, Miss Lennox had them printed in 
1818, by Alex. Lawrie & Co., Edinburgh. Hamilton's production 



162 

is entitled, " The Case of Margaret Lennox of Woodhead, in 
relation to the Title, Honours, and Dignity of the ancient Earls 
of Levenax or Lennox." It was printed for private circulation 
among friends and others likely to be interested. It has been 
often referred to, and has been quoted by genealogists and history 
writer<s, and it is also a valuable historical record upon other 
points besides the history and genealogy of the Lennox family. 

Miss Lennox was a most estimable lady, but her life and S* 
character were in no way remarkable, unless the strong desire to 
be recognised as nearest lawful heir of Duncan, eighth Earl and 
last of the old line of Lennox, or to have the title of Countess of 
Lennox conferred upon her. Miss Lennox enjoyed possession of 
the estates from 1811 until her death in 1833, when she was 
succeeded by her nephew, John Lennox Kincaid, son of John 
Kincaid of Kincaid and Cecilia Lennox her younger sister. 

JOHN LENNOX KINCAID LENNOX. 

John Lennox Kincaid then became John sixteenth of Balcor- 
rach and eleventh of Woodhead. He at once assumed the name 
of Lennox, as required by the entail. Mr. Kincaid- Lennox was 
born in 1802. On 26th August, 1828, he was married at Craig- 
ends, Renfrewshire, to Frances Maxwell, third daughter of John 
Cunnthgham of Craigends. In 1836, when the Ship Bank was 
amalgamated with the Glasgow Bank, which was afterwards 
merged in the Union Bank, he and the late Michael Rowand 
were the only proprietors of the former establishment. In 1842 
he was appointed convener of the County of Stirling. Mr. 
Lennox devoted much time and attention to the improvement of 
his estates. He understood well and delighted in observing the 
successful progress of such improvements. He was a considerate, 
judicious, and altogether an excellent landlord, a good, practical 
man of business, and strictly honourable in all his transactions. 
He took much interest in county and parochial concerns, anxiously 
endeavouring to promote the public welfare whenever it was in 
his power to do so. Shortly after becoming owner of the estate, 
in 1833, Mr. Lennox resolved upon making an extensive addition 
to the old mansion house of Woodhead, and he employed Mr. 
David Hamilton, architect, Glasgow, to prepare a plan giving 
effect to the wishes of Mrs. Lennox and himself in the matter. 

PLAN TO ENLARGE THE OLD MANSION HOUSE. 

Mr. Hamilton's instructions were to prepare a plan showing a 
large extension to the existing mansion house of Woodhead, as 
both Mr. and Mrs. Lennox were resolved to abide by the old an- 
cestral home. Mr. Hamilton soon realised that the site and style 
of the old mansion presented great difficulties, and he ventured to 
suggest that Woodhead should be abandoned altogether and an 



163 

entirely new house built on the old site or on one to be selected 
by Mr. Lennox. The architect's objections were overruled. Mr. 
and Mrs. Lennox, at this time, clung like limpets to the old 
Woodhead, which had been so long occupied by their family. The 
plans were accordingly made out in conformity with their ideas ; 
specifications of the work were prepared, and were about to be 
issued to contractors. The plans had been passed to the newly- 
;» appointed factor, Mr. Alexander Galloway, to have the lines of 
the proposed buildings marked out, to ^how their extent, and the 
ground that was to be taken in. This was done, and Mr. and 
Mrs. Lennox were going over the ground with their professional 
advisers, when these united in asking them to carefully reconsider 
the matter of the site. Together they explained the difficulties of 
the proposed plan and the inconvenience of the occupation. They 
reminded them that Woodhead was not the first seat of the 
family ; that had been Ballecorrauch, near the old churcli. and at 
the foot of the Glen. This old site was not suitable now, but 
Woodhead was not much more so. People do not select sites 
now-a-days in inaccessible places or build mansions with thick 
walls and small windows. What was wanted now was architec- 
tural ornamentation, with comfort and all the elegancies and con- 
veniences of the present day. Their relative, the late Miss Lennox, 
had almost set her heart on regaining or attaining the ancient 
title of Countess Lennox. In this botli Mr. and Mrs. Lennox 
heartily sympathised, and at that very time skilled experts had 
been set to the task of studying the details of charters and other 
documents stored away in Woodhead, Kincaid, and with the 
E<linburgh agents of the family. All this labour was in Conti- 
nuation of Hamilton's " Case of Margaret Lennox of Woodhead." 
It was then being zealously prosecuted, as both Mr. and Mrs. 
Lennox cherished the intention of petitioning the House of Lords 
to restore the ancient title of Earl of Lennox to Mr J. L. Kin- 
caid Lennox. This being so, "Why not," it was asked, **go 
back to the early origin of the family, in the period of the Norman 
Conquest? As they wished to renew these titles as Earls of 
Lennox, why not abandon the old site, inconvenient and unsuit- 
able in many respects ? Why not adopt a Norman style of 
architecture, build an entirely new house on a suitable site, and 
call it Lennox Castle ? After consideration the plans for enlarg- 
ing and reconstructing Woodhead were discarded, and the idea of 
a new house, in the Norman style, to be called Lennox Castle, 
found favour, and it was determined to have an entirely new 
house on a suitable site. 

A NEW LENNOX CASTLE TO BE BUILT. 

Fresh plans were called for, the site was discussed and settled, 
and the new plans were approved of, specifications were issued 
and contracts for the work accepted. Then Mr. and Mrs. Lennox 

M 



164 

went off to reside in France for two years, while the building 
operations were in progress. When these had all been completed, 
and the castle was being got ready for occupation, the question 
arose, what was to be done with the old mansion. Mr. Lennox 
would have had it removed entirely, but Mrs. Lennox's views and 
wishes were given effect to. These were to have Woodhead 
partially pulled down, but so much left standing as would repre- 
sent and keep in mind the old structure as an interesting ruin. 
This was done. What was left standing was planted with ivy and 
climbing plants, and the arched apartments of the ground floor 
were to have been converted into an ice-house, but this part of 
the scheme miscarried through their having proceeded on a wrong 
method of construction for an ice-house. The house was stored 
with ice, but when opened for a supply, on the occasion of a large 
party, not a bit was to be seen. The ice-house was a total 
failure. Thege alterations were carried out in 1840-41. 

Meantime, Mr. Lennox was reconsidering the matter of the 
petition to the House of Lords. The castle had swallowed up 
the stock formerly invested in the Ship Bank, and of course the 
dividends from that quarter would now cease. A moderate 
estimate of the expenses likely to follow prosecuting the petition 
placed it at not less than five thousand ponnds. Then, even \^ith 
the free income of the estate, was it prudent to undertake to 
maintain the dignity of a peerage ? Mr. Lennox came reluctantly 
to the conclusion that he had better abandon the idea of going 
forward with the case. While Mrs. Lennox acquiesced this was 
understood to be a great disappointment to her. 

The issue of the marriage was one son and three daughters. 
I can recall vividly the appearance of the family pew in the front 
of the gallery of Oampsie Church. Mr! and Mrs. Lennox and 
their daughters, Miss Lennox, Miss Cecilia, and Miss Fanny. 
Frequent visitors were young William Cunningham, and another 
nephew of Mrs. Lennbx named Duke. Mr. Lennox's cousin 
Mr. Pitcairn, and the late Captain Lennox, of 12th Lancers, &c. 
I remember the young laird, and recollect seeing his trunks being 
made at M*Luckie & Taylor's wright shop, when his regiment 
was ordered abroad. I watched his initials and regiment being 
painted on the boxes. Young Lennox joined the 1 2th Lancers, 
which was sent out to the Cape, to take part in the Caffre War, 
which this country had on hand then. Here '' his lodging was on 
the cold ground " literally, and through exposure on night duty 
and the hardships incidental to a harassing campaign, he caught 
disease of the lungs and asthma. London doctors informed him 
that he could not live long in this climate, but that in the warmth 
and sunshine of the Nile valley his life might be prolonged. They 
could not give him any hope of ultimate recovery. He elected to 
spend what time he had to live in the sunshine. His mother and 
eldest sister accompanied him to Egypt, and they had ascended 
the Nile Valley when they were introduced to Viscount Strangford, 



165 

who was in delicate health himself, and who had a boat of his 
own on the Nile, in which ho was living. He invited the Lennox 
party to share its accommodation, and prevailed on them to pro- 
ceed in it with him as far as the falls and back. While on this 
voyage young Lennox died, 28th Feb., 1857, and was buried at 
Thebes, in Upper Egypt. Born 14th Oct., 1830, heir to a fine 
estate, he passed away in his 27th year. The rest of the party 
returned at once to Cairo, and as soon as possible sailed for 
England. During this voyage Lord Strangford made himself 
most agreeable. He was of the greatest use to the ladies during 
the illness and after the death, and they were naturally very 
grateful for his kindness, hospitality, and sympathy. However, 
he wanted more than gratitude, and before they separated he had 
engaged Miss Lennox to marry him as soon after getting home 
as possible, as at that time he thought himself jquitc convalescent. 
But after being in this country for a short time he i^elapsed, and 
grew more and more of an invalid. Miss Lennox insisted on going 
to nurse him, and went. Lord Strangford and she had not been 
long beside each other till they resolved to marry. On 9th Nov., 
1857, Margaret, eldest daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Kincaid Lennox, 
was married to George Augustus Frederick Percy Sydney Smythe, 
seventh Viscount Strangford, who was born 13th April, 1818, 
succeeded 29th May, 1855, and died 23rd Nov., 1857, just a 
fortnight after his marriage. His younger brother succeeded to 
the title, but he died 9th Jan., 18()9, when the title of Viscount 
Strangford became extinct. 

The death of his only son had been a great blow to Mr. Lennox. 
After it he was frequently ailing, and change of air and scene 
was tried first in Edinburgh and afterwards in the south of 
England. He continued to droop, and died in London on the fith 
March, 1859, in the fifty-seventh year of his age, little more than 
two years after his son. After that for him the zest of his life 
was gone, 

" For his heart in his grave was lying." 

On the death of her father, Margaret Viscountess Strangford 
became seventeenth of Balcorrach, twelfth of Woodhead, and 
second of Lennox Castle. On 17th October, 18(51, Viscountess 
Strangford was married to the Hon. Charles Spencer Bateman 
Hanbury, second son of William, first Lord Bateman, born 8th 
October, 1 827, and who was at that time M.P. for Leominster. 
He assumed the name of Kincaid -Lennox. She waived her title 
of Viscountess, and elected to be styled the Hon. Mrs. Hanbury 
Kincaid Lennox. There has been no issue of this marriage, and 
the heir presumptive is her sister, Mrs. Peareth, and after her 
her eldest son, who also inherits extensive estates in England. 

Mrs. Kincaid Lennox died on 10th September, 1876, aged 69 
years. Mrs. Lennox had erected, in 1861, at her own expense, 
the Lennox Tea-Rooms, which she designed to be a workingmen's — 



166 

clufo, on temperance principles. This did well as long as it was a 
novelty, but the games and reading-room in time were deserted, 
and the building, which stands on the Main Street, opposite the 
head of the Field Road, was then converted into dwelling-houses. 
A Dorcas Society in Lennoxtown was commenced by her. She 
liberally supported and personally superintended this, and many 
of the poor have been greatly benefited by her considerate kind- 
ness during the winter time. When preaching her funeral sermon, 
the late Rev. Dr. Monro thus feelingly referred to her; — "During 
the thirty-two years of my incumbency no one has more earnestly 
or more generously, nay, let me say at once, so earnestly or so 
generously helped me in my ministry as the late Mrs. Lennox. 
In that lengthened period how many plans designed by her for 
the good of the parish, how many acts of thoughtful beneficence 
performed by her, how many instances of unostentatious liberality 
and genuine kindness exhibited by her rush into my memory, and 
not one angry word, not one ungenerous action. In some respects, 
indeed, her death seems to me almost like an epoch in my ministry. 
Perhaps in some departments I have leaned too much on her 
generous kindness, and I will need during what remains of my 
incumbency to appeal more earnestly to you, dear brethren, to 
hold up my hands in my work, that that work may not suffer." 

Captain Peareth, who married Miss Cecilia, and Colonel Oakes, 
who married Miss Fanny, had both been brother officers of 
Captain Lennox in the 12th Lancers. 

FEUDAL JURISDICTION AND COURTS. 

Feudal charters, such as were granted by the old Earls of 
Lennox, besides the lands, gave privileges, jurisdictions, and rights 
which constituted the owner of the barony a most influential 
personage within his own baronial jurisdiction. King Malcolm 
gave feudal barons power to have a pit wherein women condemned 
for theft could be drowned, and gallows whereon men could be 
hanged. When the feudal superior had the power of pit and 
gallows he had as ample jurisdiction as the justiciar or the sheriff. 
The powers thus conferred on owners were exercised in the barony 
courts. Viscount Kilsyth was the last to exercise the power of 
life and death, held by him under his feudal tenure. In 1693, 
he condemned one of his own servants in Bencloich to be hanged 
for stealing silver-plate from the Tower of Bencloich, and the 
man was forthwith hanged on the gallows-knowe of Bencloich, 
which is just south of the N. B. Railway, between New Mill and 
Muckcroft, just beyond *' The Field of Blood." Mr Galloway, in 
his lecture in 1864, referred to the institution of the Woodhead 
Barony Court, and he gave a list of the lands and tenants of the 
Woodhead estate in 1660. These were — ^The lands of Bin, 3 
tenants; Baccorach, 10; Corshouse, 1; Champiestoune and 
HoU, 2 ; Balgrochan, 5 ; Parkestoune upper, 2 ; Parkestoune 



167 

nether, 2; Birbestoune, 4; Boghous, 3; Invertedie, 10; also 4 
cottars, one of whom, James Allan, was a weaver. The number 
of tenants on the estate as it then stood was 48. 

While the Kirk-Session attended to the morals of the parish 
the Barony Courts were occupied with the affairs of their own 
estates — Souming and oversouming, encroachments on tackmen's 
rights, regulating the order and quantities of coals to be led to 
the baron's mansion house, &c. 

The history of the Lennox estate and its farmers from the year 
1660 is well brought out, almost month by month, in its barony 
court minutes. These minutes contain no notice of any blackmail 
having been payable by the tenants or by the laird, so that the 
tradition of Rob Roy's wife riding down to Wodheid and remind- 
ing the laird of his arrears finds no corroboration here, whereas, 
had blackmail been levied, we might have expected some reference 
to it. The payment of blackmail, generally about 4 per cent, on 
the rental, was a necessity of the times. In one respect it was 
superior to our police rates, for those who levied it undertook for 
the money to return the cattle stolen or their values. The farmer 
might not get back the identical cattle, but he asked no questions 
for conscience's sake. 

The number of horses and cattle which the tenant might own 
were regulated according to the extent of his infield and of his 
liability for services ; it might be work in harvest, cartage or 
carriage of landowner's goods or chattels, labour on the roads in 
the barony, or provision payments for the mansion house. The 
tenants watched jealously and resented hotly any encroachments 
on their joint rights, and resorted .to the barony court whenever 
they fancied they had ground of complaint These courts were 
generally held on knolls, laws, or little hills, and were called Mute 
Hill, mote or mute meaning a plea or quarrel. Adjoining this 
court place was the pit and gallows hill, noted already. We have 
still remaining the *' Law " at Balgrochan, the " Law Park " at 
Kincaid, the " Gallowhill" of Bencloich, and the '' Courthill" of 
Craigbarnet, where King James the IV. held a court in 1507. 

The Woodhead barony courts were held pretty regularly about 
twice a-year, and occasionally more or less frequently. They 
continued from 1660 to 1775. Other neighbouring baronies as 
well as all the important free baronies throughout the kingdom 
used such courts, and their records are to be found in the General 
Register House or the Advocates' Library. 

WOODHEAD BARON BAILIES COURT. 

The Records of the Court of the Baron Bailie of Woodhead 
contain much having a local interest. 

The John Lennox who presided at the first Court, in 1660, had 
married Jean Cunninghame, the daughter and heiress of Adam 
Cunninghame the Laird of Balglass, who was said to have murdered 



168 

Collins, the minister, in 164>^. Jean brought back the Balglass 
lands to Woodbead as her tocher. The first minute begins thus : — 
^^ Ane Court of the lands of Woodheid, balden at the place of 
Woodheid be John Lennox, heritable proprietor, yr. of James 
Wallace of Bardrame his bailzie, upon the 23rd November, 1600 
and three score yeris. Callit Court, &c., Walter Lennox was 
officer. John M^llhose, damster, and William Graham, clerk 
and writer to the court. 

** The Bailzie did inquyre at ye officer if he knew of any bloods 
depriements, or break of arrestments. The officer declared on 
oath he knew none. 

" Considering that the woods within the glen above the Kirk 
hath not been dressed and guydet as they ought in time past, it 
is statut and ordained that no person or persons within the land 
presume to cut any bit of greenwood in all time coming, and that 
under the penalty, &c. 

The following is a list of the Baron Bailies :-^ 

16G0 — James Wallace of Bardrame. 

1661 — John Stirling of Craigbarnet. 

1663 — James Wallace, chamberlain to the Viscount of Kilsyth. 

1664 — Edmonstone of Hurlehaven, now called Arlehaven. 

1665 — Archibald Edmonstone of Callean, who was likely tacksman of 

Colzium under the Viscount. 

1666) 

to > Archibald Edmonstone of Ballewan, probably the same man. 

1684) 

1686 — Archibald Edmonstone of Spittal. 

1686 — John Napier of Culcreuch, or Kilcroich, as he spelt it. 

1715 — Hugh M*Farlan of Kirktoune. 

1720^ 
. f James Napier of Culcreuch ; in his absence John Rankin of Green- 

1728 1 ^^^^ officiated. 

1775 — George Brown, tenant of Damhead, was appointed. He chose James 
Oswald, writer in Glasgow, as clerk. 

I 

The following cases illustrate the nature of the business coming 
before this court : — 

Compeared Archd. Brown in Boghouse and John Blair in 
Capieston as to what soumes were wont to be kept by the Cross- 
house tenants. Deponed they heard there were 26 soumes. 
Ordains them not to exceed the foresaid soumes, under the penalty 
of £5 Scots for each sou me over. 

On 24th Aug., 1721, at the Wood head Court, the fiscal com- 
plained against Janet Brown, living in cottage in Auchenrossie, 
Netherton of Innertadie or Wodheid, was charged with cursing 
several persons in Woodhead. She pleaded on her knees that she 
had cursed none but those who took away her honest name. The 
Bailie fined her £20 Scots. 

In 1716, John Rankin of Greenfoot, as pro tempore Bailie of 
Woodhead, ordained, at the instance of one of the tenants, Damed 
Brown, about the oversouming, they shall eat the grass and muir, 
conform to an Act dated 28rd June, 1661, and all subsequent 



1^9 

Acts made thereaoent, viz., to be hirded upon the lands of Bin 6 
score soumes of nolt, 24 heads of sheep, 12 heads of horse, and 9 
score lambs, &c. 

In 1730 the Bailie ordained the Clachan soumes in the mure to 
continue as formerly, under the penalty of £5 Scots for each 
soumin over. 

Court of the Lands and Barony of Woodhead, holden at 
the Manor place of Woodhead, the 11th day of August, 
1735, by Sir William Fleming of Ferm, Bailie — anent the 
complaint given in by Mr. Hugh Stewart, merchant in Glas- 
gow, tacksman of the Lym Craig of Skulliongour, mentioning 
that certain individuals named wrought the said Lym Craig, 
notwithstanding the pursuer's tack. The Bailie having con- 
sidered the complaint, finds that the Pursuer has right to the 
Lym Craig of Skulliongour, and that the defenders have not title 
to work therein, excepting for the use of their grounds, and ten 
chalder yearly to sell, each of them, therefore decerns the De- 
fenders to desist from working the said Lym Craig in time coming, 
excepting as above, under the penalty of £12 Scots for each 
chalder they shall exceed the ten chalder mentioned yearly each 
of them. Signed, Wm. Fleming, Bailie. 

Having quoted about the Lym (lime) Works, I should also 
quote about the coal, which is thus referred to — Court of the 
Lands and Barony of Woodhead, holden at Woodhead, the 16th 
day of January, 1744 years, by John Rankin in Kilwinnet, 
Bailie. The Bailie decerns and ordains the whole tenants to lead 
twelve loads of coals weekly to the House of Woodhead, in 
manner aftermentioned, viz. — Each plough to lead twelve loads 
weekly, eight of which loads to be brought from the coalpit at 
Drumlourick and four from Skulliongour coalpit, that Thursday 
every week be the day for leading the said twelve loads of coals, 
and that the plough of land of Balgrochan, begin on Thursday 
first, and so on weekly, under penalty of Twenty Shillings Scots 
for each transgression. Signed, J. Rankin. 

In concluding these notes on the Lennox family and the barony 
rights, it may be of interest to give the following copy of the 
charter granted by Duncan, eighth Earl of Lennox, in favour of 
Donald de Levenax of Ballyncorrauch : — 

** Be it kende till all men be yr prut lers, us Duncane Erie of ye Levenax, 
with ye consent and ye assent of Walter Stewart, till haff giffine and till 
haff grantit And be this prnt writ gifes and grantis till my well belufit sone 
laffwell Donald of ye Levenax All and Singlar my Landis of Ballyncorrauch 
wt. ye pertinas, all ye Landis of Ballyncloich and Thomboy wt. yair pertinas 
Lyand wtin ye pariscbing of Camsy and wtin ye Erledome of ye Levenax, 
Haldand and till Hald All and Singlar ye forsaid Landis of Ballyncorrauch, 
Ballyncloich, and Thomboy wt. yair ptinas of mie and myne ajrris till ye 
forsaid DonaJd my laffwell sone and his ayris and assigns in fie and heritage 
for evirmair be all richt mkis aid and divisis in bushis plants in myrris and 
marrisies in vayis roddis in watteris stangis wt. mylnys & ye miuturis of 
yaim and yair folowingis in medowis pasturis and lesowris witli haukyne 
and huntyng and fysching wt. pettis and turfis with orichiardis and dowcottis 



170 

wt. 8tane and Ijme wt. coUis wt. brewhousis and bakhousis wt. smythyis with 
aneragiis and carriagiis and dawerkis with tenand and tenandry with blude- 
wittis herzeldis and merchettis of women wt. courtis and ye escheittis of yaim 
with all and uther singlar conmodities fredomis and aysiamentis and wt. all 
richwiss pertinas quhatsumever yat be als weil unnemyt as nemyt als well 
under ye erd as abuffe als well fer as ner yat till ye said (landis) wt. ye 
ptinans richtwysly ptenis or may pertene be ony maner of way in tynie to 
cum frely quytly fulily halyly honourabilly weill and in peiss in ail & be all 
withoutyn ony gaynstandying — Giffand yairfor zerly ye forsaid Donald my 
lafFwell son and his ayris and his assignaes till me myne ayris a peny of 
silwir in name of Blanche ferme at ye fest of Witsunday allanerly gif it be 
askit for all uther wardis relewis mariagis soyttis of courttis dupliacions 
ferme and for all oyir wont seryice secular exaccions or demaundeye qnhilk 
of ye forsaid Land with ye ptinans may be askit be mie or myne ayris or 
requiryt in tyme to cum. And we forsutht ye said Duncane and our ayris 
ye forsaid Land with yair ptinnns till yc forsaid Donalde and till his ayris 
and till his assignaes agayne all crdely man and woman we sail warand mak 
quyt and for evirmair defende. In Witnes of ye quhilk thyng till ye put 
charter we haf hungyne to our Sell at Strablayn ye xxii day of ye monetht 
of Julij ye zere of our Lord a thousand four hunder twenty and a zer. 
Befoir yir Witness Yat is to say Walter Stewart and James Stewart his 
broyer William of Strevylling Lord of Cadar Alexander of ye Levenax Sir 
Robert Lang Prson of Inchecalzach Gilbon of Galbrath Donald Clerk 

M'ith oyr mony personis." 

The Walter Stewart whose assent and consent is given in the 
above charter was the Earl's grandson, eldest son of his daughter 
Isabella Duchess of Albany. James Stewart, a witness, was a 
brother of Walter. Alexander was a younger brother of the 
Earl himself. In 1423 Donald acquired the lands of Ballegrochyr 
from Sir William Graham of Kyncardyne, and he is 'styled in the 
charter by Sir William — '•^Jilius legitimus Duncani Comitis de 
Levenax.^^ To this charter Earl Duncan, Donald's father, was a 
witness. This was confirmed in 1444 by Isabella Duchess of 
Albany. In her charter Donald is styled — ** Donaldo de Levenax 
Jilio legittime Dni Duncani quondam Comitis de Levenax y Ham- 
ilton's contention was that such an appellation could not have 
been applied to any oue who was not de jure entitled to it. The 
heirs male of Earl Duncan lawfully begotten were entitled to the 
succession, and Donald being heir male by a second marriage, as 
alleged by Hamilton, should have succeeded to the Earldom of the 
Lennox. But, in 1423, Sir William de Grahame granted a 
charter to John Brisbane of a quarter of land in Campsy called 
Ballenclerach. In this the witnesses are the Earl Duncan himself 
and " Malcolmo Thoma et Donaldo Jiliis suis naturalibus.^* 
(Malcolm, Thomas, and Donald his natural sons.) Sir William 
Eraser, in ** The Lennox," vol. i., pp. 258-1), quotes a charter which 
had never before been brought to light proving that the spouse of 
Duncan, Countess Helen, mother of Isabella Duchess of Lennox, 
survived her husband for about 9 years, and died in or shortly 
before 1434. If Countess Helen survived her husband, that 
would effectually dispose of the theory of a second marriage. 



GENEALOGIES AND OLD PARISH TOWERS. 



GENEALOGIES AND OLD PARISH TOWERS. 



lu the chartulary of the Leunox Earls we see how the lands 
within their jurisdiction were from time to time apportioned 
among the members of the Earl's family, and other favoured 
iodividuals. Alwyn or Allan 2nd Earl of Lennox (1155-1217) 
had a large family of nine sons and one daughter. The sons 
were: — 1, Mai d win ; 2. DufiPgall, or Dougal ; 3, Malcolm; 
4, Amelic (Auleth or Aulay are various forms of spelling the 
name of the Earl's fourth son) ; 5, Gilchrist ; 6, Christinus ; 
7, Core ; 8, Duncan ; 9, Henry. The daughter's name was Eva. 
Maldwin succeeded his father, and from his lineal descendant, 
Duncan, the eighth earl, sprang the Lennox family of Balcorrach 
and Woodhead. Duffgall the second son was a churchman, and 
Rector of Kilpatrick. The Earl, in 1199, gave Cochnacfa, 
Edenbaruet, Monach-Keneran, Drumleth, Climan, and Cultbuie, 
to the church of Kilpatrick of which his son was rector. 
Malcolm, the third son, obtained'from his father the ** castle and 
lands of Camsi." Probably the castle was named after the parish 
church which had a few years previously been erected and 
endowed by Earl Allan and his predecessor Earl David. The 
*' lands of Camsi " embraced portions of what are now included 
in the parishes of Strathblane and Baldernock, as well as Campsie. 
Amelic or Aulay, the fourth sou, got as his portion the lands of 
Faslane and an extensive tract on both sides of the Gareloch, 
including Rosneath, Glenfruin and Luss. Gilchrist, the fifth son, 
got for his share the lands of Arother (Arrochar). He had a 
son Dun<;an, whom we find designated as Duncan Mac Gilchrist 
de I^evenax. His son was Maldwin, whose son was Bartholomew 
or, in Gaelic, Parian. His descendants were called M*Parlanes, 
and latterly MacFarlans. The Arrochar estate of the old 
M*Farlans was sold in 1785 for £28,000 to Ferguson of Raith, 
who sold it in 1821 to Sir James Colquhoun for £78,000. The 
M^Farlans of Arrochar ended in the perscm of Elizabeth 
Margaret, the daughter of the chief who had sold his patrimonial 
estate. This lady died 12th May, 1846. Before her death she 
pronounced Col. John Warden M*Farlan of Ballancleroch to be 
the Chief of the Clan M^Farlan, as the head of the oldest cadets 
of the old stock. The Colonel's ancestors had acquired in 1642 
the lands of Balnacleroch, Keithtown, Kirktown or Ballancleroch, 
as this estate had been called at various times. The Earl's only 
daughter married Malcolm, son of Duncan, Thane of Callendar, 
in StirlingiBhire. Her brother, Earl Maldwin, granted a charter 



174 

to her and her husband, dated 10th August, 1217, of Glaskell, 
Breugoene, and a ploughgate and a half of Kilnasyde (Kilsyth), 
with the patronage of the church of Monybroch. Their descend- 
ant Patrick favoured the claims of fialiol, for which he paid the 
penalty of forfeiture of his lands. Patrick's daughter married 
Sir William Livingstone. She had the lands restored to her, 
and in this way the Livingstones became connected with Kilsyth. 
Omitting all reference to the other sons, we have seen how 
amply the Allan 2ud Earl had provided for his family, dis- 
tributing amongst them a great portion of his earldom of the 
Lennox. ^ 

We now revert to the Earl of Lennox's third son, Malcolm. 
In all probability the Earl Allan had caused Camsi Castle to be 
built for this son. Until the beginning of the present century 
some of the remains of this old castle or peel were to be seen at 
Ballagan, on the opposite site of the Blane from the present 
house, but the materials were used as a quarry for stones for the 
present Ballagan House, and as only debris and rubbish were left, 
these were cleared away, and all trace above the surface of the 
old castle disappeared, the last stones having been built into the 
present garden wall. The north garden wall is said to be built 
on some of the ruins. A magnificent old yew tree, close to the 
site of the old castle, is now the sole memorial of the past. But 
there are still traces of the old foundations, which Mr. Galloway 
said he had had no difficulty in tracing. They showed that the 
buildings of Camsi had been much more extensive than those of 
Balcurroch, Bencloich, Glorat, Kyncade, or Craigmaddie. I 
have been favoured by Mr. William Brown, a son of George 
Brown, formerly tenant of the Mains of Bencloich Farm, with a 
perusal of some letters on this subject. My correspondent, Mr. 
William Brown, is one of the Browns of Wester ton, but has long 
been resident in Renfrewshire. He takes the deepest interest in 
Campsie history, as many of the older residents can testify, his 
thirst for information being almost insatiable, especially in all 
that relates to the old Tower of Bencloich. He carried on a long 
correspondence with the late Mr. Alexander Galloway, extending 
from 1868 till 1883, the year of Mr. Galloway's death, and Mr. 
Galloway was in the habit of imparting to him in these letters 
anything interesting about Campsie. Concerning Camsi Castle 
Mr. Galloway became himself deeply interested, arid detailed his 
labours from time to time in letters to Mr. Brown. The story, 
as gleaned from those letters, may be summarized as follows. 
Mr. Galloway^ in the course of perusing some old charters, quite 
unexpectedly chanced on the discovery that Ballagan old castle, 
from its erection about 1190 till the year 1890, was called Camsi 
Castle, and he followed up this clue with great enthusiasm. He 
first proceeded to make a large plan of the ground. On this he 
laid down, as he believed, the site of the castle, with ground plan 
of the castle buildings, and offices, barns, stables, harness and 



176 

store rooms. He laid down a moat with drawbridge, and showed, 
the |H*iDcipal approach to be from the west, with a secondary, one 
from the east. The large ordnance survey map was the basis of 
this plan. It was all to a regular scale, corresponded to the 
ordnance survey map where the parts coincided, and gave the 
minutest detail, even showing the arrangements for regulating 
the height of water in the moat. INIr. Galloway thus, described 
his plan :,— . 

"CAMSI CASTLE IN 1190. 

"Sketch showing the probable construction, ground floor 
arrangements, and accesses of the original castle at Ballagan. 

^^The main sketch shows what I assume to have been a ground 
plan of the buildings, that is in accordance with the practice of 
t^e time, the position, and the circumstances; the raaiii building 
140 feet square, outside measure, with walls 5 feet thick ; internal 
hearing walls, 3 feet thick ; in the centre an open court 82 by 72 
feet; main entrance near centre of west side, and outer court 
entrance on north side; three circular stairs for access to the 
upper floors ; a tower at each of the west corners ; north court for 
harn, stables, and harness ; a moat 14 wide by 1 1 feet deep round 
ail these, with a drawbridge for main entrance and another for 
cart and horse entrance ; a farmery in three sides of a square, 
placed nearly where the present mansion is ; garden west from 
the castle a short way; principal approach road coming from the 
west of the public road at Broadgate, Bredgate, big gate ; and a 
secondary approach from the east, outside the moat and the burn.'* 

Malcolm, the occupier of Camsi Castle, had no male heir, and 
his daughter succeeded. She married Finli, son of Robert of 
Redheuch, Menteith. Surnames were then unknown, and the 
owners of estates took their names from the lands they occupied* 
Finli having married the heiress thereupon becomes Finli of 
Camsi, and his descendents were called Finlis or Finlays of 
Camsi. Finli appears to have had no sons, but three daughters : 
(1) Maria, wife of John de Wardrobe; (2) Elena, wife of 
Bernard de Erth of that Ilk ; and (3) Forveletb, wife of Norrin 
de Monargrund of that Ilk in the shire of Perth. About 1390 
the name of the owner's residence becomes changed from Camsi 
to Strathblayn. Duncan, eighth Earl of Lennox signed the 
charter to his son Donald de Levenax of Balcorrach, at Strath- 
blayn. The lands of the original charter, in so far as not 
in possession of the successors of Elena, a daughter and 
co-heiress of Finli, and in so far as they had not been sold 
or alienated, would appear to have reverted, from want of 
entered heirs or otherwise, to Earl Duncan about 1422. Earl 
Duncan was beheaded in 1425, and in this year the name 
would seem to have been changed from Strathblane Castle 
to Ballagan Castle, for reasons which cannot now be dis- : 
covered. When King James I. had seized and beheaded Earl 



176 

Duncan, he took possession of lands to which he had no legal 
right, and he gave these away to his friends. In this way, before 
1434, he made over to his brother-in-law the lan(|s of Duntreyve 
and others in Strathblane. Isabella, the daughter and heiress of 
Duncan, held out against this partition until 1445, when, in 
consideration most likely of her grand-daughter, Matilda Stewart, 
having married 8ir William Edmonstone, she granted a charter 
to the Edmonstones, which was afterwards confinned by a charter 
of James J I. He bestowed the EarFs Duntreath lands on his 
brother-in-law, William Edmonstone of Culloden. Some of the 
Ballagan lands, according to Mr. Galloway, were given as hush 
money to the Bishop of Glasgow, who, had he represented to the 
Pope the manner in which the Earl's daughter had been unright- 
eously despoiled, might have made it very disagreeable to the 
king. Although Parliament decided that the Earl of Lennox 
had not committed any act which involved forfeiture of his 
estates, yet James I. seized and held as for the Crown the 
estates of his daughter and successor, Isabella, Duchess of Albany. 
After the reformation we find Ballagan lands divided among the 
lairds of Mugdock. Duntreath, Easter Ballewan, Craigbarnet, 
and Glorat, and the buildings of the old castle <rradually 
disappeared, being applied in building farm-houses, building and 
repairing dykes, &c. 

The present Ballagan House was erected early in this century. 
It is only in as far as Camsi castle was erected here, that I can 
take any cognisance of it in a paper on the parish of Campsie. 
Elena, the second daughter of Finii de Camsi had thus a third of 
the lands of Camsi, and of her estate, which was probably of much 
greater extent then than it is now Cragbernard, formed a portion. 
Elena married Bernard de Erth, from whom a part of her estate 
was called Crag Bernard. Nisbet on Ragman Roll says of 
Alexander de Erth (129G) — an ancient family in Stirlingshire, 
that had the baronies of Airth, Carnock, Playne (Plean), which 
in the reign of James I. came to heir's female, and by marriage 
to the Bruces, Drununonds, and Somervilles. 

The succession was as follows : — Bernard de Erth (1271-1300) ; 
Elena, daughter of Finli had a son Bernard de Erth (1280- 
1340); this Bernard had a son, Malcolm de Erth (1320-1375) 
who married Annot Sproll. Their daughter, Alicia de Krth (1400) 
married Gilbert de Buquhanne or Buchquhanan. Their daughter 
and heiress married Gilbert de Strivelyn, a younger son or brother 
of William de Strivelyn, eighth lord of Cadder f 1408-34). 
The Laird of Cadder was a man of great position, he had 
been one of the hostages chosen among the foremost men of^ 
Scotland for the ransom of James I. For his services in that 
capacity he might consider himself entitled to ask the hand of an 
heiress for a near relative, a sou or brother, and Cragbernard was 
then in the hands of the Crown during the minority of the heiress, i 
In this way a member of the Cadder Stirlings became the first 



177 

Stirling of Cragbernard.* Gilbert de Strivelyn the first of 
Craigbernard died a young man, before 1424, leaving a son ,and 
heir, who became John de Strivelyn of Cragbernard, who died 
about 26th July, 1497, and was succeeded by his son. Sir John 
Striveling third of Cragbernard. King James IV. visited Sir 
John at Cragbernard in 1507, as the accounts of the Lord High 
Treasurer for that year, 9th Feb., bear. ** Item, that nycht in 
Craigbernard to the King to play at cartis xxiiij. s." The King 
is said to have held a Court at the place still known as the Court 
hill. Sir John acquired the lands of Glorat in 1507 and obtained 
a charter from the superior, Mathew Earl of Lennox, in 1508. 
He died in 1510. He divided his estates among his three sons, 
George, the eldest, inheriting Cragbernard ; William the second, 
obtaining Glorat; and Walter, the third, getting Ballagaii. 
There was another son, Robert, and there was a daughter, who 
was married to John Lennox, fourth of Balcurtach. I aim 
indebted for most of these details to ** The Stirlings of Ct-aig- 
bernard and Glorat," &c., by Joseph Bain, F.S.A. Scot. ; 
privately printed for Sir Charles Elphinstone Fleming Stirling, 
the eighth and present Baronet of Glorat, who, in 1885, presented 
me with a copy; and also to **The Lennox," by Sir William 
Fraser. 

It thus becomes evident that the Stirlings of Craigbarnet and 
Glorat and the M*Farlans of Ballancleroch have a common 
ancestor in Earl Allan, the second Earl of Lennox. The Wood- 
head family branched off the same stock about 200 years later, 
the Kincaids of that ilk obtained a charter for their lands in 
1280, a fourth part of which, hoWever, passed out of theii* family 
in 1350, and which was successively owned by Galbraithp ^nd 
Hamiltons of Bardowie, and the Montrose family got' their 
Torrance lands in 1400. It is no wonder, therefore, that the 
Rev. James Lapslie, in his statistical account, remarked ori' the 
little change that had taken place in the ownership of land in the 
parish, estates having been transmitted from generation to gener- 
ation in the same families. 

* The family of Stirlings of Cadder were a branch of the Comyn family 
who were hereditary Sheriffs of Stirling. William the Lion gifted the lands 
of Cadder to the Bishop of Glasgow, in order that prayers and masses might 
be said for the good of his soul, and for the souls of his relatives. Lands 
like Cadder piously dedicated to the church soon passed away into the hands 
of laymen and Sir Alexander de Strireling became first a feuar under the 
Bishop and ultimately proprietor of these church lands. Bruce, when he 
became King, caused Comyn's estates of Kirkintilloch, Cumbernauld and 
others to be forfeited, he could not interfere with church lands, and it has 
been conjectured that the Comyns who had been hereditary Sheriffs of 
Stirling, then for political reasons dropped the Comyn from the name and 
adopted Striveling. The Bishop of Glasgow's connection with these lands 
is commemorated in the nnme of Bishop's Brig, Bishop's burn, and Bishop's 
Moss, the bridge over the burn at Bishopbriggs having been erected by the 
Bishop of Glasgow. The Bishop's effigy used to stand at one end of this 
bridge, ^he effigy disappeared when the road was raised the first time. 



178 

CBAQBERNABD, 

Alicia, lady of Cragbernard, had for her residence a tower or 
castle, the exact site of which is now unknown. Judging from 
the old course of the turnpike road, the trees, and other land- 
marks, the site must have been in very close proximity to the 
present mansion house. It would be in this old tower that Sir 
John Striveling entertained King James IV. in 1507. When the 
building at last required to be renewed, owing to its age, John 
Strivelinff the ninth laird decided to erect for himself a new 
mansion, and he decided to change the site to one whioh he must 
bave fancied to be more eligible. The spot he selected and where 
he commenced his building operations was nearer the Fiiiglen 
Burn than the old house, on a mound or knoll known as Keir 
Hill. Miss Spence, in her sketches, tells how the building opera- 
tions, as soon as they had been commenced, were interrupted by 
brownies, little fairy elves, who issued from their subterranean 
abodes and demolished in the night what had been built during 
the dc^y. While this was going on, nothing could be seen,, but 
frequently a warning voice was heard to repeat — 

" Burry, big your house in a bog, 
And you'll never want a fu' cog." 

The laird listened to the admbnition, and altered the site. Taking 

the hint from the fairies, he built it in the bog, on the opposite or 

soutli side of the turnpike road between Campsie and Strathblane. 

There 18 a clump of trees existing very near the old site. The 

new house was a substantial square building, with a pepper-box 

turret at each corner. It was surrounded by a wet ditch or moat, 

and defended by a drawbridge and gateway. The gables may 

have been corbel steps, called popularly now-a-days corbie or 

crow steps. Dressed stones, bearing the initials of the laird and 

his wife, Mary Stirling, youngest daughter of Sir Mungo Stirling 

of Glorat, whom he had married in ' J656, have been removed 

when it was demolished in J 786, when the present mansion house 

was built. These stones now surmount the Mains of Craigbarnet, 

immediately to the^ west of the modern house. The initials and 

dates are — , .:. 

J. S. M. S. 

16. 62. 

Whether the prophetic instinct of the fairies foresaw the fu' cog, 
or it was owing to good luck, the builder's descendants emerged 
triumphantly from the dark days which overwhelmed thena in the 
following century, when the Laird like the Prince for whom he 
risked so much— 

On hills that are by right his ain, 

H« roams, a lonely stranger ; 
On ilka hand heV pressed by want, 

On ilka side^ by danger. 



179 

Good fortune again smiled upon them, what had been scattered 
and lost by their adherence to a failing cause was more than 
regained by commercial enterprise, and James Stirling the eleventh 
laird, the famous Burry of the '15 and '45, who had to convey his 
patrimony to his kinsmen when political troubles engulfed him, 
was enabled to clear off all the encumbrances and debts upon his 
patrimonial estate and was once more reinvested in it in 1768, 
having made a fortune in the tobacco trade. An incident of the 
'45 occurs to me now. Burry, in his desire to get arms where- 
with to equip those who were about to join the rising under 
Prince Charlie, one day invaded the Manse of Campsie in search 
of these, intending to requisition whatever he could find. Mrs. 
Warden was displeased at his unceremonious raid, and said so. 
Burry was determined and not to be put off, and was perhaps 
rather brusque to the lady. Her husband was absent, but on his 
return he, a minister of the gospel, who had thrown himself with 
great enthusiasm into the great religious revival at Kilsyth, in 
his indignation at the treatment giv^n to his wife in his absence, 
at once sent a challenge to the laird of Craigbarnet. Burry, 
however, had his scruples about fighting a duel with a minister. 
Had it only been a layman he would have given him satisfaction 
to his heart's content. So he apologised rather than accept. 
His remark was — '*The deil tak' me if I meddle wi' ane of the 
Xiord's corbies." Burry's son John, the twelfth laird, built the. 
present Mansion House in 1786. He deserted the fairies' lucky 
site in the bog, for a more convenient one in every way, and 
nearly identical with that of the original castle or tower or Peel 
of Cragbernard. The mansion then erected is the one we are 
acquainted with as Craigbarnet. 

Before concluding the notice of this family, let me revert to an 
old endowment in 1508: — Sir John Striveling of Cragbernard, 
on 6th June, 1508 (just ten days after he had acquired Glorat 
lands), founded a chaplainry in the church of Campsie. He had 
previously erected a private chapel at his place of Cragbernard, 
and he of this date granted to the ministering priest an annual 
rent of twelve marks and ten shillings Scots money ; payable, six 
marks and ten shillings from his lands of Cragbernard, and six 
marks from his lands of Glorat, — until the founder or his heirs 
found a sacellum or chapel in honour of the Virgin Mary in said 
church, and in his chapel at Cragbernard. 

Mathew, Earl of Levenax, &c. Greeting ; has seen the following charter 
by his beloved Sir John Stirling of Cragbernard, knight, &c., whereby the 
said Sir John, for the glory and honour of Almighty God, . . . and for 
the safety of his [the said John Stirling's] own soul and that of his 
wife, Margaret Abirnethy, and of their fathers and mothers and their own 
offspring, and of all those to whom he was a debtor in this world and 
whom he had any ways injured. Gave and Granted to a chaplain, perpetu- 
ally to serve God in the Parish Church of Campsy, and in his chapel, 
erected and founded in honour of the Most Blessed Virgin Mary, within 
his place and manor of Cragbernard, an annual rent of 12 marks 
and 10. shillings Scots money, at the terms of Pentecost and St. 

N 



180 

Martiii in winter, by equal portions, viz., six marks and ten shillings 
from his lapds of Cragbernard, and six marks from his lands of Glorat ; to 
be held by the said chaplin and his successors celebrating divine offices at 
the altar of Our Lady in the parish church of Campsy, always until the 
granter or his heirs found a ** sacellum " or chapel in her honour in said 
church, and in his chapel of Cragbernard, in pure and perpetual alms. The 
granter binds the chaplain to continual residence, and should he absent 
himself fifteen days, he is to vacate his benefice ; and he is daily to cele- 
brate as follows : viz., thrice in each week in the parish church, and four 
times in the chapel of Cragbernard each week, all the year for ever, and at 
the first *^ lavatorium," he shall be bound at each mass to exhort the people 
that they say a ^* Pater Noster,' with the angelic salutation '* Ave Maria," 
for the aforesaid souls ; nor shall the said chaplain for the time have, or keep 
" continuously," a concubine or attendant [focaria] ; if this be " notourly ** 
known, he shall vacate the chaplaincy and service ; the granter's heirs being 
bound within twenty days thereafter to nominate and institute a fit successor 
to him ; the said chaplain for the time further being bound. every ** Feria 
sexta ** [Good Friday] each year for ever, to pray and say a " Placebo " and 
** Dirige " with the usual collects, for the foresaid souls, as he shall answer 
before the Supreme Judge. The granter further directs the foresaid 10 
shillings to be expended on bread, wine, and wax candles, for the sustenta- 
tion of the masses of said service. 

In the Diocesan Registers of Glasgow (vol. ii., page 413), Sir 
John's successor had Sir George Mason, late Vicar of Drymen, 
inducted to the chaplainry in the Parish Church and in the private 
chapel of Cragbernard. The Reformation came in 1560, and the 
chapel at Cragbernard seems to have fallen into disuse; for, 
when John, the ninth laird, was building his new house in the bog, 
he unceremoniously took the stones of this ** consecrated " chapel, 
and used them in the new building ; and thereby hangs a tale. 
These chapel stones would be brought back again in 1786 ; and there- 
by hangs a continuation of the tale. Many clergymen of the Church 
of Rome are thoroughly conversant with the Scottish ecclesiastical 
history of pre-Reformation times. The late Rev. John H. Magini, 
although an Italian by birth, was well acquainted with the early 
ecclesiastical history of the parish ; and one day he enquired at 
the present proprietor of Craigbarnet about the old endowment 
for the priest. But the laird laughed good-naturedly, and told him 
that since the year 1560 a great many changes had taken place. 

In my lecture to the Campsie Mechanics' Institution in 1 886, 1 re- 
ferred at some length to the relics of Prince Charlie, which are care- 
fully treasured at Craigbarnet ; to the relics brought by Bell, the 
traveller, from Russia ; and to that distinguished soldier and native 
of the parish. General Stirling, who was in command of the 42nd in 
Egypt, where he captured the eagles of the French " Invincibles." 

In the present paper, I confine myself to the genealogies and 
mansions of the old landed families. On another occasion I may 
deal at greater length with their family histories. 

GLORAT. 

An early notice of Glorat is made, in the Chamberlain's Bolls 
in H. M. Register House, Edinburgh. This records that a precept 



181 

of sasine which had been issued from chancery for infefting the 
heir of the lands of Glorat in the earldom of Lennox had not 
been executed and the heir entered, though the relief duty had 
been paid ; and that the old Countess of Lennox continued to 
receive the farms of these lands, and not the King, in regard to 
which his Majesty was to be consulted. • Isabella Countess of 
Lennox died in 1460, and in the next notice in the chamberlain's 
accounts his account is not charged with the farms of the earldom 
of Lennox, inasmuch as the King had assigned them for the 
building of Stirling Castle ; King James II. on the death of the 
Countess having availed himself of his feudal casualty of non-entry. 

Sir John Striveling of Cragberuard acquired the lands of 
Glorat from Matthew Earl of Lennox by charter dated 27th May 
1508, which was confirmed by James IV. by charter dated 31st 
May, where he is styled the King's familiar knight. Sir John 
Striveling married Margaret, eldest daughter of James third Lord 
Abernethy of Saltoun, by whom he had at least four sons and one 
daughter. As stated on page 177, he divided his estates among 
his sons, William, the second son, getting Glorat as his portion. 
Sir John died in 1510, when William would enter on possession 
of Glorat, where he would find an old tower or peel then existing, 
some remains of the foundations of which can still be traced to the 
north-west of the present mansion house. This William Striveling 
of Glorat seems to have been a man of energy and resource, for 
on 3rd February, 1514, we find the Earl of Lennox acknowledg- 
ing his services in the following abstract of obligation, quoted on 
page 84 of The Stirlings of Craighemard and Olorat, The 
Earl in the narrative says, " that f orsameikle as our traist cousyng 
and familiar servitor William Strivelyng of Gloret has be his 
labouris, travellis, costis and expensis, gotten and opteuit to us 
the Castale of Dunbertane," therefore, and for other faithful 
services made and to be made by him, binds and obliges himself 
within a year after the date of the letters, to inf ef t him by charter 
and seisin of the £5 lands of Keppoch of old extent in the 
earldom of Lennox and shire of Dumbarton," fre for a penny of 
Bleachferme." This William Striveling first of Glorat was 
married before 20th April, 1517, to Mariota Brisbane, a daughter 
of Brisbane of Bishoptoun and Balnaclerroch. He again married, 
before 1527, Margaret, a daughter of Houston of that Ilk, a 
barony that was anciently called Kilpeter, from the church being 
dedicated to St. Peter. In the middle of the twelfth century the 
barony passed from Baldwin of Biggar to Hugh of Padvinan, and 
came to be called Hugh's town, corrupted into Houston, well 
known as a parish in Renfrewshire. The Houstons retained the 
barony till 1740. William Striveling of Glorat was murdered on 
Good Friday, 1534, when going from Striveling to Dumbarton, 
on King's business. 

Sir John Striveling of Cragberuard had obtained a grant from 
James FV, on 26th July, 1497, for the keeping of Dumbarton 



182 

.Castle for nineteen years. William his son seems to have acted 
as his father's deputy in Dumbarton before 1510. William seems 
to have been a busy man, and his duties would require him to 
reside at Dumbarton. This explains why he was evidently quite 
content to inhabit the old peel at Glorat, which he would find 
there as when it came into the possession of his father. 

William, the first laird of G-lorat, was succeeded by his son 
George, who succeeded his father in the captaincy of Dumbarton 
Castle, having had that office continued to him by King James V. 
The ratification says : — 

** The king having consideration of the thankful and true service done to 
himself and his most faithful father, by the late William Stirling of Glorat, 
and his father ; and that William was cruelly slain last Good Friday, acting 
in the king's service, ratifies to George Stirling, his son and heir, the 
assedation of the said office of constabulary and keeping the said castle and 
lands and emoluments thereof, given by him to the said William for the 
years contained therein. Subscribed at Stirling, 18th April, twenty-first year 
of the king's reign (1534). 

" Jambs 22." 

In the following month, King James V. in a letter writes : — 

, "Wherefore we thank you greatly, praying you to oontinew in your 
dilligence and gud service in time coming." 

The story of his keepership of the castle cannot be gone into 
here. 

It was not until the time of John Striveling fourth of Glorat, 
that a more commodious residence was built. John succeeded 
to the estate about 1613, and died about 1642. In the tower of 
the present mansion house there has been built the old memorial 
stone of this building. It bears the initials, not of the Laird, 
but of his son, Sir Mungo— 

M S 
1625 
18 Rebuilt 79 

There is also a stone bearing Sir Charles Stirling's monogram and 
the year 1869. 

Sir George the sixth of Glorat, like his father Sir Mungo, was 
a strong Royalist, but the only reward they received was the 
dignity of knio^ht baronet, and an honourable augmentation to 
their armorial bearings. Sir George, who was already a knight, 
was created a baronet of Nova Scotia, with limitation to the heirs 
male of his body, by patent dated at Whitehall, 30th April, 1666. 
It narrates : — 

'< The good and faithful services, great sufferings, and losses, through 
several imprisonments, fynes, and other prejudices sustained be Sir Mungo 
Stirling of Glorat, and Sir George Stirling, his sone, for and in His Majestie's 
service, and his Majesty being no less sensible thereof, as desyrous for there 
encouragement in the future, to put ane mark of His Majestie's favour upon 
that family," 



183 

Sir George married Marjorj, a daughter of Sir William Purves 
of Woodhouselee, Baronet, who was the prototype of Allan 
Ramsaj's " Sir William Worthy " in the Gentle Shepherd. Sir 
George's third son, John, married Elizabeth, eldest daughter of 
Sir Alexander Home of Rentou, Baronet, and his son eventually 
succeeded to the estate of Renton, and transmitted with it to his 
descendants the representation of the historic houses — Hepburns, 
Earls of Bothwell, and theii' successors, the Stewarts of 
Coldinghame; and also George Home, Earl of Dunbar, the 
trusted councillor of James VI.* 

Sir Samuel Home Stirling, seventh baronet, died on 18th Septem- 
ber, 1861, without male issue, but left two daughters. The elder, 
under the entail of Renton, by her great-grandfather, succeeded 
to the Renton estate, while under the entail of Glorat by the 
third baronet in 1765, her uncle, Sir Charles, succeeded his elder 
brother in it, as also in the baronetcy under the patent. 

Sir Charles Elphinstone Fleming Stirling, the eighth and pres- 
ent baronet, has rebuilt the mansion house of Glorat, which is 
now a handsome building in the Scottish domestic baronial style 
of architecture. It is beautifully situated at the bottom of the 
Campsie Fells, with a southern exposure, sheltered by fine old 
timber and surrounded by thriving young plantations. Glorat 
was rebuilt in 1869, and the tower was added in 1879. 

KYNCADE8 (LATTERLY KINCAIDS) OF THAT ILK, 

In 1230, when Alexander III. was king, Earl Maldwin, by 
charter, granted to Maurice Galbret, son of his senescallus, 
Gilespie Galbret, the lands of Cartenbenach. We first hear of 
Kyncade in 1238, when a Galbraith got a charter of these lands. 
The Galbraiths were at one time a very powerful family in the 
Lennox, and proprietors of Mains, Garscadden, Balvie, Gartconnel, 
Graigmaddie, Bardowie, &c. Their principal castle was originally 
at Craigmaddie. The name disappeared owing to the failure of 
male heirs, and the estate was partitioned as tochers amongst 
three sisters, co-heiresses. In 1381 one of these, Janet Keith, 
married John Hamilton of Cadzow, from whom are descended 
the Hamiltons of Bardowie, <&c., and brought with her the lands 
of Easter and Wester Bathernock, &c. Another co-heiress 
married Nicholas Douglas, and brought him the estate of Mains. 
The third married a Logan, and brought with her the lands of 
Balvie, then a large estate. The Galbraiths parted with their 
Kyncade lands after having possessed them for forty-two years, 
and we next find that another family then acquired them by a 
charter from Maldwin, fourth Earl of Lennox, in 1280, and this 
family then took their surname from their property. These 
Kyncade lands extended from the Glazert to the Kelvin. 
Considerable portions have been parted with from time to time, 

*Th§ Stir lings of Craighamet and Glorat, pages 29-30. 



184 

the family, while respectable, having never been affluent Miss 
Lennox's claim to the ancient earldom of Lennox brought this 
family into prominence, owing to a Kincaid being heir presumptive 
to the Woodhead estate, and genealogists such as Burke and 
others applied to them for their family tree and history. It then 
transpired that many of their family papers had been destroyed 
by a fire at Cannerton, where they had been stowed away while 
tradesmen were in possession of Kincaid House, engaged in the 
building of the new mansion. 

This family have not made any great mark in history, but one 
of them distinguished himself for gallant conduct against the 
English, and for his valiant services in recovering Edinburgh 
Castle from the English in the time of Edward I. the then laird 
of Kincaid was made Constable of Edinburgh Castle, and his 
posterity enjoyed that office for a considerable period. He had 
the castle on the Kincaid shield granted as an honourable augmen- 
tation to his armorial bearings. These were — Gu. a fess. erm. 
betw. two mullets in chief, or., and a castle triple towered in base 
ar. masoned ssu Crest — ^A castle, as in the arms, and issuing 
therefrom a dexter arm embowed, grasping a sword ppr. Sup- 
porters — Two Highlanders, armed with ctiirasses, each grasping a 
Lochaber axe, all ppr. Motto— I'll defend. This shield may be 
seen on the tombstones at Clachan churchyard, and above the 
Lennox Arms Inn, Lennoxtown, where it is quartered with the 
Lennox furms, which are — Ar. a sal tire gu. between four roses of 
of the last, barbed vert. Crest — Two broadswords in sal tire 
behind an imperial crown all ppr. Supporters — ^Two savages, 
wreathed head and middle with oak, holding in their hands clubs. 
Motto— 1*11 defend. In Nimmo's History of Stirlingshire . there 
is mention made of an old broadsword belonging to a branch of 
the family, upon which are the Kincaid arms as given, with these 
words — 

" Wha will pursew, I will defend 
My life and honour to the end.'' 

The Kincaids appear in the parochial records through squabbl- 
ing with the Lennoxes and Stirlings. The parish landowners 
were not a very harmonious lot, and the Kincaids and Lennoxes, 
Kincaids and Stirlings, and Stirlings and M^Farlans wrangled 
and quarrelled and fought with each other to the effusion of 
blood and even the taking of life. There is one amusing 
instance in which they took the law into their own hands, and 
surprised the laird of Wodheid while he was engaged saying his 
prayers, treated him very roughly, and finally carried him off 
with them to Kyncade, where he was kept for some time a prisoner. 
The case as quoted is taken from the Register of Privy Council, 
vol. ii., page 82, where there is a complaint at the instance of the 
kin and friends of Johnne Levenax of Woodheid makand 
mentioun— That quhairupon the seventene day of September 



185 

instant, he being solitar at his prayers beside his dwelling-place of 
Woodheid, belevit na evill of ony person, but to have levit under 
Godis peax and the King's, nottheles the sounes and brethir of 
James Kincaid of that Ilk, upon set purpois, cruellie invadit the 
said Johnne, and woundit and hurt him in diverse partis of his 
body, to the effusioun of his blude in great quantitie, and maister-^ 
fuUie and per force tuke him with thame to the place of Kincaid, 
quhair they detene him captive as yit in hie contemption of our 
Soverane Lord and his auchoritie. The Stirlings attacked the 
Kincaids in June, 1581, when Malcolm Kincaid, a son of the laird 
was slain. This brought the Stirlings into trouble. In the local 
feuds this family stood by one another shoulder to shoulder, and 
the whole clan of them are included in the charge of murdering 
young Kincaid. The case is mentioned in Fitcairn's Criminal 
Trials, December 9, 1581 : — Johnoe Striveling of Glorat, Johnne 
Striveling younger of Craigbernat, Walter Striveling of Ballagane, 
Louke Striveling of Baldorane, Alex. Abernethie in Strablane, 
and John Striveling servitor to Glorat, dilatit of airt and pairt of 
the crewall slauchter of vmgle Malcum Kincaid, sone to (James) 
Kincaid of that Ilk, committed in Jun ij last bypast. The pannell 
askit instrumentis, that young Kincaid, being requyrit gif he wald 
persew thame of thaer lyfis ; ansueris that he wald. Replegiated 
the pannell to the Regality of Lennox and assigned 24th March 
following for administration of Justice. 

In 1604 James Kincaid of that Ilk and James Kincaid his son 
were bound in 500 merks not to slay salmon in the waters of the 
Clyd, Lewin, Blanis, Kalvin, or branches thereof. 

When the Kincaids obtained their lands in 1280 they would 
have to get a suitable residence, and they seem shortly afterwards 
to have built 

KYNCADE TOWER. 

The original tower of Kincade has disappeared so completely 
that there is uncertainty about its site. 

The modern mansion was erected at three different times. The 
oldest portion, where the kitchen is, was built about 1690 ; the 
next oldest about 1750 ; and the modern large square portion, 
with its central staircase, its tower, and its four corner turrets, 
about 1812. The main idea of this new portion was taken from 
the Castle of Inveraray, which was destroyed by fire a few years 
ago. Kincaid was the first dwelling-house of any considerable 
pretentions which the late David Hamilton, architect, Glasgow, 
designed and carried forward. His later works were the Parish 
Church, in 1827, and Lennox Castle. From an examination of 
the foundation walls of the cellars under the south-west corner of 
the modern building Mr. Galloway formed the opinion that part 
of these must have been part of the old tower. The late J. L. 
Kincaid Lennox, however, always said that his father alleged 
that the site of the original tower was a few yards west from the 



186 

range of the one-story building forming the stables, or about fifty 
yards west from the cellars. 

John Eincaid, the Laird who died in .1835, was not the eldest 
son. Father and mother and brothers had been rather unthrifty, 
and John saw that it would be necessary to do something for 
himself, if he was to maintain the respectability of his family, so 
he took to farming and lime-burning at Auchinairn. He occupied 
the mansion-house there, and being of good family, respectable in 
personal conduct, and a good business man, he was made a Justice 
of the Peace in 1793. In course of time his elder brothers died, 
and he married Miss Cecilia Lennox of Woodhead, by whom he had 
a son, John Lennox Kincaid, who succeeded to the Woodhead 
estates on the death of his aunt. In his younger days he had 
often held the plough, and was a first-rate ploughman. He 
seemed to have been passionately fond of ploughing, and even 
when well up in years and Laird of Kincaid, he could never resist 
an opportunity of taking the plough for a few furrows, just to 
keep in his hand. This Laird always called a field to the west 
of the mansion-house, " The Law Park," as being where, in olden 
times, the barony courts were held. 

In the historical MS. there is a charter by William Galbraith 
to Sir Patrick de Grahame, Knight, and his heirs, remitting to 
him 2^ merks, payable annually from the lands of Kincade, and 
granting to him the Mill of Kincade. The charter is not dated, 
but was probably granted about 1 285. The old Mill of Kyncade 
is, I presume, what is now termed French Mill. This name is 
said to have been given to it, either from its having been recon- 
structed by French Huguenots or from the millstones there used 
having been brought from France. The French burr stones have 
a close grit, adapted for grinding, and the best quality is got at 
Andernack on the Rhine and in Auvergne in France. 

THE TOWER. 

The Tower would appear to have been one of the oldest peels or 
castles in the parish, but there is now to be seen only remains of 
,what were probably foundations of the outhouses. It has given 
its name to the Tower Burn, which since 1649 has formed the 
boundary between the parish and Baldernock, and the farm stead- 
ing retains the name of Tower. The names of the burn and the 
steading alone remain to perpetuate the memory of the old mansion 
house of the proprietors of the Balegrochyr and Lethad or Lechade 
lands.* The tower existed in all its glory before 1400, when the 
laird, having become embarrassed, took to borrowing. He gave 
his lands as security under a bond to the lady of Craigbernard. 
Little is known of this individual except that his name was G iles, 
son of Donald, and that he had been proprietor of the lands of 
Lethad and Balegrochyr. The Lethad lands probably comprised 
B«w5k-o'-hill, Bargeny Hill, and the Tower. All of these were on 



1^7 

one side of the Tower Burn, and the Balegrochyr lands were on 
the other. The name of Lethad seems to have become obsolete, 
as when Mr. Maitland, the present laird, was pointing out the site 
of the old tower to me in 1890, in reply to my enquiry, he men- 
tioned that he had never heard the name, although his father was 
proprietor of the Tower. On 13th Feb., 1400, Giles resigned his 
patrimony to the bondholder, Alicia de Erth, lady of Craig- 
bernard, who the same day granted a charter of the lands of 
Lethad and Balegrochyr to Sir William Graham, Lord of Kyn- 
cardine, who shortly afterwards acquired the castle of Mugdoch. 

In 1458, Patrick Graham obtained from James II. a charter 
whereby the lands of Ballingrothaue (Balegrochyr), Caristoune, 
Dougalstouue, Barloch, and various others, were erected into the 
barony of Mukok (Mugdoch). The old mansion house of Tower 
seems then to have gradually fallen into ruin. Not being inha- 
bited, it would soon become a quarry for stones. Mugdoch Castle 
became the residence of the Earls of Montrose, and of the old 
tower not a stone remains above the ground. What remains were 
probably the foundations of outhouses forming a court in rear. 

BALLYNCORRAUCH (BALCORRACH). 

The charter in which Duncan Earl of Lennox granted these 
lands to his son Donald designates them as Ballyncorrauch. The 
name Bal^ hallyn^ implies a building then existing, but of what 
nature — whether this was one of the earl's minor castles or only 
a farm town— it is impossible now to determine. There is nothing 
which connects the old earls with this place ; there are no charters 
extant which had been signed here, as they had been at the earl's 
residences at Strathblayn or Fyntre. The probabilities are that 
Donald would have to get a dwelling-house erected for himself. 
Such residences took then the form of castles or peels. Accom- 
modation was required not only for the residence of the lord of 
the manor, but it had to be of sufficient strength and size to afford 
shelter and protection to his dependants in time of danger — 
whither his vassals and their followers (and perhaps their cattle) 
could resort in dire extremity. In a letter to Mr. William Brown, 
Mr. Galloway thus describes the site : — 

"SITE OP BALCORRACH TOWER.' 

" A long straight line of stone dyke passes from the glen, a little 
north of the Bleachwork* buildings, eastwards, dividing the hill 
from the arable ground. In the first field, about half-way east- 
ward, and near the dyke (opposite a lot of old thorn -trees growing 
in the hill ground), you will come on a plateau, upon which, I 
believe, the Tower stood. Near to the centre of it you will see a 
depression of the surface, curving down towards the site of the old 
church, which I think was the course of the access road. In 
front of the site there is still a sudden descent, where I fancy 



188 

there had been a retaining wall which formed the face of a terrace 
plot and protection to the buildings. Other walls on the west 
and east sides and on the higher ground behind would enclose 
offices and garden. The position corresponds in a general way 
with the sites of all or nearly every one of the towers and castles 
within the Earldom at the beginning of the loth century." The 
trees and terraces still to be seen on the hillside to the east of the 
Glen are all that remains now of Ballyncorrach Tower. 

As 500 years ago every considerable barony had its meeting 
place, where the vassals assembled to have justice dispensed, we 
must look about us for the Law or Mute Hill. The Mute Hill, 
or Midge Knoll, would likely be the Court of the old Balcorrach 
barony. This mound has been spread to make arable ground, and 
is hardly distinguishable in time of growing corn crops, but its 
outlines are perfectly marked at other times, especially when the 
sun is low on the horizon and shines out brightly. The Law 
Mound was sometimes used as the hanging or gallows hill, and as 
we know that Highland reivers sometimes made a raid into the 
parish when engaged in cattle-lifting expeditions, we can easily 
conceive that where some of these depredators were caught, the 
owners of the cattle would be of opinion that hanging was the 
only cure, and their bodies might be left suspended from a gal- 
lows on the Mound here as a terror to evil-doers, the news of 
which would soon spread towards the head of Loch Lomond. 
There is, however, no record of a gallows hill at Balcorrach. 
The Midge Hole is a name which is full of perplexity to 
etymologists and archaeologists. According to one version this is 
Image Hole, from a cross or image which stood on the roadside 
here in the old Roman Catholic times. Others laugh at this as 
very far-fetched, and say it is the Midge Hole ; that there used 
to be a small pond for steeping lint, and it got the name owing to 
the swarms of midges which abounded here. 

' TOWER OF BENCLOIOH. 

Maldwin the Earl of Lennox granted by charter the lands of 
Giasskell, Monaebroch, with the patronage of the church of 
Monaebroch, to Malcolm, as detailed in page 174. The Kilsyth 
Livingstones were thus detached from the Livingstones of 
Callendar about 1450, and they held their Kilsyth lands for more 
than two centuries and a half. But they only gained a footing 
in Campsie shortly before 1660, when the proprietor of that time 
entered in possession of the lands of Bencloich, part of the lands 
of Easter and Wester Muckcroft, Tamfin, Carrower, Tambuy, 
which had all belonged to Lennox of Woodhead, having formed 
part of the family estate since 1421. Livingstone accompanied 
the Duke of Lennox on an embassy to France in 1601. He was 
knighted and made a Lord of Session, 1609, was sworn Privy 
Councillor and made Chancellor of Scotland in 1613. In this 



189 

year 1613, through his influence at court, he obtained a charter 
from the King, which conferred on him the ecclesiastical patron- 
age of the parish of Campsie. In 1621 he was made a Commis- 
sioner for the Plantation of Kirks. He died in 1627, and is 
supposed to have left behind him a considerable sum in hard cash. 
Son, grandson, and brother succeeded in turn to the estates. 
When his brother succeeded to the Kilsyth estates he was Sir 
James Livingstone Barncleugh, or Bally ncloich, or. Bencloich. 
During the minority of his grandnephew. Sir James had carefully 
nursed the Kilsyth estate. This, with the savings of the 
Chancellor, he carefully used to advance his interests, lending 
money to Royalists to defray the expenses of the army under 
Montrose. When ruin overtook them after Philiphaugh he lent 
money to enable them to pay the fines levied on them. He took 
care to have ample security for his advances by wadset bonds over 
their estates. Under these bonds the lender had immediate pos- 
session as security. If at the end of twelve years the borrower 
had not repaid the money, the lender could then apply to the 
Court for declarator that the lands given in security had now 
become his. Sir James was grasping and ambitious, and he made 
the lending of his ready money on wadset bonds a means of 
i*apidly extending his possessions, and obtaining a preponderating 
influence over the impoverished lairds who were now suffering 
severely for their loyalty and attachment to the Stuart or Royalist 
cause. The Earl of Montrose then of Mugdoch, Lennox of 
Woodhead, Stirling of Craigbarnet, Hamilton of Bardowie, ' and 
Napier of Culcreuch all suffered terribly at this time, and in their 
extremity they got into Sir James' hands. When Livingstone 
became proprietor of Bencloich, through Lennox's inability to pay 
the bond at the end of the twelve years, he proceeded forthwith to 
build for himself a tower on his newly-acquired possessions. 

The Tower of Bencloich was erected on a site which had been 
well selected. The tower and offices occupied what was then a 
level platform of sufficient size to accommodate them all. Thcfe 
was a gorge on either side, formed by the Ferret or Glorat Bum. 
There appears also to have been a level field or lawn just below 
the house, while the gardens occupied the lower ground in front 
of this. There was an abundance of growing wood on the slope 
behind. There are trees still growing on the Ferret Brae, near 
the site of this tower, which at first sight may appear that these 
could not possibly have been planted in Livingstone's time. A 
close inspection will remove this impression, for it will be found 
that some of them may have been even older, for what are growing 
now have in some cases sprung from stocks of older trees and not 
from young transplants. 

Bencloich Tower must have been a great eyesore to Glorat. 
Besides, a field belonging to Bencloich came far too near the doors 
and windows of Glorat to be agreeable to the inmates there. 
This field was afterwards excambed for a piece of Glorat ground 



190 

tiear to Rowantreefauld. I am aot aware of any representations 
of Bencloich being in existence. The style of the period in which 
it was erected was that of an ordinary square building about 35 
by 25 by 30 high, with the pepper-box turrets projecting at cor- 
ners. The ground floor was used for kitchen cooking and stores. 
The upper floor contained the family parlour, dining-room, and a 
small service room ; the upper flat would be divided into apart- 
ments for sleeping, the access to these bed-rooms being by a screw 
stair. Small buildings adjoining would give the other needful 
accommodation. Debris from the lime workings about the end of 
last century and beginning of the present one covers over irregu- 
larly portions of the platform where the tower stood, especially 
at its sides and behind. These dirt hills, as they have been called, 
or mounds thrown up by mineral workings, have altered the sur- 
face so much as to make the place look utterly unsuited for the 
site of a tower. The tower would stand close to the old pit, 
which is situated a little to the west of the Ferret Bum, and which 
would be sunk after the tower had been swept away. The site is 
very near a small reservoir which was constructed by the Alum 
Company about 1856. 

David Miller, or '* Old Mains," as he was called, who died in 
Lennoxtown in April, 1851, has informed Mr. William Brown, 
my correspondent in Johnstone, that he had a distinct recollection 
of the tower and the gardens and pleasure-grounds by which it 
was surrounded. The tower continued pretty entire till about 
1804. The late John Stewart, shoemaker, born in 1797 — whom 
I remember as working with Mr James Glen — had no recollection 
whatever of ever having seen any tower, but he remembered the 
gardens very well. He had frequently pulled gooseberries and 
also plums from the bushes and trees growing therein. At a 
more recent date he remembers seeing an old plum tree growing 
in the precincts of an old lime kiln, in close proximity to what has 
now been ascertained to have been the site of the old tower. 

The estate of Bencloich had been purchased in. 1783 by Sir 
Archibald Edmonstone, who had sold his estates in Ireland and 
had been created a baronet in 1774. The new proprietor found 
the small farmsteads and cottages on the estate almost in ruins. 
To save the expense* and trouble of quarr3ring at the Ferrets and 
parting the stones to the new steadings and cottages, Mr. Alex- 
ander Mackenzie, contractor, received orders from the proprietor 
to tear down the tower. It was thus ruthlessly swept away, and 
the stones were used to build the farm steading of Mains, which 
is just a little to the west of it. The year 1805 is cut on the lintel 
of the south door at Mains. New steadings were erected between 
1804 and 1812 at Drewmillan, Middle Muckcroft, West Muck- 
croft, and the Mill of Bencloich. George Brown entered on the 
occupancy of Mains Farm in 1821, and he had a distillery erected 
at the Mains about that time. Any stones then remaining about 
the site of the tower would be used up for this. 



191 

The tower was onoccupied after the forfeiture of Viscount 
Kilsyth's estates. The estates were sold, and were acquired by 
the York Buildings Company, who sadly neglected them. Old 
Mains had heard his father say that he had in severe snowstorms 
collected his sheep and put them into the kitchen of the old tower. 
This place was swarming with rats, which, however, did not 
prevent an old woman taking up her residence in it as a squatter. 
Strange to say, the rats, although very numerous, became very 
tame. The old woman learned to know them and actually gave 
them names. One in particular, which she called '* Rumpy," would 
hasten to her whenever she called it, and for prompt obedience 
the rat was always rewarded with something to eat. People in 
the neighbouring farms did not care to pass near the old^ tower 
after nightfall. There were local traditions that the ghosts of the 
Livingstones, its former occupants, still haunted the scenes of 
their bacchanalian revelry. 

The mineral workings, which have so completely effaced the 
old Bencloich Tower, were carried on at the end of last century. 
They were in the blue limestone seam, which there was about 
four feet thick. This lime was worked by a level, or mine, or 
ingoing e'e. After the portion of the outcrop was worked by open 
cast till the depth of the material above, called the tirring or 
baring, became 8o deep as to be expensive in removing, then 
another level had to be opened. The coal seam was from twelve 
to fifteen fathoms below the limestone. This had to be worked 
by pits, as coals were necessary to calcine the limestone, and the 
calcining kilns were between the tower and the limestone outcrop 

ANTERMONY OR AUCHTERMONY. 

The family of the Flemings of Biggar, Kirkintilloch, and 
Cumbernauld acquired the Antermony lands shortly after 1424. 
They then had built upon the site of the present mansion-house a 
small tower or substantial dwelling-house for the tacksman, who 
was usually a relative of the proprietor. The site then selected 
was about one hundred and seventy yards north of the public 
road, and this house in its various rebuild ings and enlargements 
was henceforward the mansion-house of the ' estate. The Flem- 
ings became Earls of Wigton in 1 606, They retained possession 
of their Antermopy lands till soon after 1 700, when they parted 
with them, and the Rev. Patrick Bell, minister of Port of 
Menteith, became the possessor. In all probability the Bells; 
would take down the old house and re-erect a new house for 
themselves. The house then built by them forms the central 
portion of the present mansion, which has been very greatly en- 
larged by the present tenant, Mr Charles Macintosh King, and 
the house of the Bells is now flanked on both sides by extensive 
wings. The Rev. Patrick Bell married Annabel Stirling, 
daughter of John Stirling the ninth Laird of Craigbarnet, ar^ 



192 

grand daughter of Sir Mungo Stirling of Glorat. Their son John 
Bell, bom in 1691, became the celebrated traveller, and was one 
of the most distinguished of all the natives of Campsie. He 
adopted medicine as his profession, and having passed as a 
physician in 1713, he went to Russia in the following year, when 
only twenty-three years of age. His first appointment was that 
of physician to a Russian Embassy to Persia, where he was away 
for three years. He was then appointed to an embassy to China. 
What he saw and learned during his residence at the Court of 
China is perhaps the most valuable part of his book of travels, 
a book which when published made its readers acquainted with a 
country hitherto but imperfectly known. It was said of it that 
it was the one of the best and most interesting relations ever 
written by any traveller. Bell had abundant opportunities of 
acquiring information that was full of interest and information to 
his countrymen. 

He accompanied Czar Peter the Great, his Empress, and a 
Russian army that went to the assistance of Persia, whose terri- 
tory had been invaded by Afghans. He describes Circassia, and 
vividly pourtrayed the character of Czar Peter, whose habits and 
manner of life he had abundant opportunity of studying. When 
Russia and Turkey were at war in 1737 he went to Constanti- 
nople as a confidential agent of Russia on a secret mission. He 
returned to Russia the following year. He then lived in Con- 
stantinople as a merchant for several years. Being then 55 years 
of age, in 1746 he married Mary Peters — whose sister, Jane 
Vigors, Lady Hyndford, died at Craigbarnet while on a visit 
there, and is interred in the Clachan churchyard — and in the fol- 
lowing year settled at Antermony, where his subsequent life was 
passed in ease and affluence. He is described as a warm-hearted, 
benevolent, sociable man, and he obtained from his friends and 
neighbours the appellation of Honest John Bell. It is a tradition 
in the district that he sometimes rode out attired in oriental 
costume. His memory is perpetuated by his book of travels, but 
his memorial in Campsie is the avenue of lime trees along the 
public road in front of Antermony and in the avenue to the 
mansion-house, the seeds of which he is said to have brought 
from abroad. In his travels abroad he had seen much distress 
from want of water, and finding the little hamlet of Aulton indif- 
ferently supplied with that necessary of life, he had a well built 
near the Waltry Burn to ensure a domestic supply to the cottagers 
in the summer droughts. A proposal, having for its object the 
restoration of this well by new cradling and cover, as a memorial 
of Bell, was not regarded favourably, the objection taken to it 
being that it might annoy the tenant of the farm by bringing 
idle people into his field. Having no issue, he sold Antermony 
to Captain John Lennox, reserving his own life-rent. This ran 
on till he was 89, and the captain seemed to think he was linger- 
ing on life's stage too long. Many of his most valuable effects 



193 

were bequeathed to the Stirlings of Craigbarnet, where they are 
carefully treasured and highly prized. Aunexed is an advertise- 
ment of 1827 :— 

TO BE LET. 

THE MANSION HOUSE OF ANTERMONY.— The house, which 
stands in a pleasant situation, amid fine old timber, consists of dining 
room, drawing room, five bedrooms, laundry, kitchen, &c., with good accom- 
modation for serTants and suitable offices, and there is a good garden with 
a fine south exposure. 

Antermony is distant from Glasgow ten miles, two miles from the post 
town of Kirkintilloch, from which there is daily communication to Glasgow 
by coaches, and the great canal is within the same distance, where passage 
boats betwixt Edinburgh and Glasgow also pass within a mile of the house. 

Woodhead House, 1st March, 1827. 

Alton, Aulton, or Auldtown of Antermony exists now only as 
a farm steading, but down to the beginning of this century there 
was a little hamlet, which in the 17 th century was even larger. 
It seems to have formed one of those village communities of 
small farmers, who for mutual protection and convenience had 
their dwellings and byres near each other. They would have 
their common barn and kiln, just as the Birdston feuars had. 
The conjecture of its etymology is that when the Flemings built 
their house at Antermony, the hamlet on the south side of the 
road would thenceforth take the name of the Auld town. It is so 
written in the titles when acquired by Captain Lennox. The 
houses of the hamlet were between Alton f armsteading westward 
and northwestward towards the road and Waltry burn. In old 
M^Kerroch's time, who was tenant of Alton before the Stevensons, 
a number of these old houses were pulled down and their stones 
used in helping to build the dyke along the south side of the road 
between Alton and the *' castle." Other old cottages were pulled 
down about 1887-8 within the memory of men still living. Some 
of these had probably been built about 1778, and it was to give 
them a water supply Bell dug the well. 

With a hamlet here from a very early period we are not sur- 
prised to find burying-places. The grant erecting the parish 
church, mentioned " the churches of Campsie and Altermurrin," 
and in another charter besides the parish church and *^ all adjacent 
chapels." It has been conjectured that at one time a chapel of 
some kind had existed probably in the vicinity of these burying- 
places. The late Mr. William Stevenson of Alton informed me 
that in his father's young days the old people then living about 
Auldton had seen people buried in two separate burying-places on 
Alton farm. The burying-place for the well-to-do people was a 
mound nearly opposite Antermony gate. There was another 
mound for the poor east from that about half way between Alton 
and Lochmill. Thefarmers before his grandfather's time did not 
plough over the mound opposite Antermony gate, and his grand* 
f ather always respected its sanctity. His father first threw it into 
the field and ploughed over it, and there is now no indication 



194 

where it was. When it was first ploughed a number of human 
bones was disturbed. These Stevenson was alleged to have 
gathered together and burned. A report to this effect was current 
in 1836, but Stevenson did not wish the subject dwelt on. The 
terra ** castle " as applied to one cottage on the roadside near the 
bridge over Waltrj Bum was used as a jibe when it was a-building, 
and had reference particularly to the high south wall. There is 
a King's Hill near Antermony Loch. This is an old local name 
and is given in the Ordnance Survpy maps. I have never been 
able to ascertain how this name was bestowed in old times. 

BALLANCLEROCa 

The earliest mention of Ballenacleroch is in a charter, given in 
extenso, No. 215, pages 411-3, of "The Lennox." The charter is 
by Sir William de Grahame to John Brisbane of a quarter of 
land in Campsy, called Ballenacleroch, 11th August, 1423. This 
is the year in which Sir William de Grahame parted with his 
lands of Ballegrochyr to Donald de Levenax of Ballecorrach. 
In the deed Donald was explicitly styled filius legitimus Duncani 
Comitis de Levenax. In the charter granting Ballenacleroch to 
John Brisbane the witnesses are — Hiis testibus nobili domino 
nostro et potenti, domino Duncano comite de Leuenax, Malcolmo 
Thoma et Donaldo filiis suis naturalibus, Johanne de Buchanne, 
&c. — Duncan, Earl of Lennox, Malcolm, Thomas, and Donald, 
his natural sons. The Brisbanes of Bishopton, who were owners 
of Balnaclerroch from 1423 to 1642, had obtained possession of 
their lands of Bishopton in 1332. They parted with this estate 
in 1671, and after passing through a number of hands, it is now 
the property of Lord Blantyre. 

In 1481 we find a Thomas Brisbane infeft in the lands of 
Balnacleroch in virtue of a precept of sasine from William Lord 
Graham as superior. The next infeftment is in 1547, and is in 
favour of John Brisbane of Bishoptown, from William, Earl of 
Montrose; and so generation after generation of Brisbanes 
succeed as proprietors of the lands of Balnacleroch, with miln, 
miln lands, and pertinents. In 1639 John Brisbane, contemplating 
a sale, went to the Crown and obtained confirmation of his rights 
by royal charter. On 22nd October, 1642, John Brisbane of 
Bishopton seems to have consi<lered himself now a Crown vassal, 
for of this date he sold the lands of Balnacleroch to Patrick 
M'Farlan of Keith ton, to be holden of himself for 100 merks 
Scots for feu-duty; and on 27th August, 1652, Brisbane of 
Bishopton sold the superiority of said lands, and the 100 merks 
of feu- duty payable for them, to Sir Mungo Stirling of Gloratfor 
no less a sum than £2500 Scots, a further proof of Brisbane now 
holding immediately from the Crown. 

In 1 652 Sir Mungo Stirling took out two charters, and in 25th 
November, 1653, he was infeft, so that he was Bishopton's 



195 

immediate vassal ; but in 1656 the property of these lands came 
into the person of Isobel M*Farlan, daughter of Patrick M*Farlan, 
the original purchaser, and sister to James M*Farlan, to whom the 
fee was provided, and ^yhose heir in general she was. In 1657, 
charter of resignation by Sir Mungo Stirling. In 1664, Isabel 
M'Farlan, with consent of her husband, Rev. Benjamin Burns, 
sold the lands to Mr. James M'Farlan of Kirkton or Keith town. 
Sir George Stirling, in 1667, disposed of the superiority to James 
M*Farlan, who, having now acquired both the property and the 
superiority, instead of going to the Crown, applied to and obtained 
from the Marquis of Montrose, as superior, a charter, &c. 1703, 
a judicial sale brought about. Hugh M*Farlan, the son of the 
laird, became purchaser at the sale. 

In the days of the Brisbanes there would be a mansion house 
or tower of some kind, and it has been said that the arch above the 
present kitchen court entrance was part of the refectory or kitchen 
of the older building, which some have fancied from the name, 
might have been a monastery. Local traditions linger about 
the Clachan to the effect that Ballancleroch, as the name was 
held to mean **town or building of the clergy," was church 
land, and that there resided in a sort of monastery here some 
of the clergymen connected with the church, or monks, and 
there is also a tradition of a subterranean passage between the 
house of Ballancleroch and the old church. I am bound to say 
that neither in the charters founding the church and endowing it, 
nor in the extant records of the diocese of Glasgow in pre-Refor- 
mation times have I seen anything to warrant such a conjecture. 
There are charters extant since 1423 in which this is never 
alluded to. There is no record of any monastery having existed 
here, and if the assumption is correct, that the arch is part of an 
older building, it must have been part of Brisbane's tower or peel. 

The Patrick M*Farlan who purchased the lands in 1642 was a 
son of the M'Farlans of Arrochar. His grandfather had been 
knighted by James IV., and was also slain at Flodden. His 
father, George, went to Aberdeenshire and acquired some property 
there, but Patrick, wishing to be nearer his kindred, sold his 
Aberdeenshire lands and purchased Balnacleroch. He was 
succeeded in Balnacleroch by his daughter Isabel, who married 
the Rev. Benjamin Burns. Isobel, with the consent of her 
husband, sold the lands to her brother, James M*Farlan, who also 
acquired the rights of superiority. James married Mary Keith 
of Invermay, neice of the Earl Marischal of Scotland, and he 
built a new mansion-house, which now forms the northern wing 
of the present mansion and faces towards the glen. Above the 
entrance door may still be seen the armorial shield, party per 
pale, with the M*Farlan and Keith arms, and the initials under- 
neath : — 

I. M. M. K. 

1665. 
O 



196 

In connection with this Mary Keith there is in posBession of 
the family a silver-mounted Malacca cane, with the inscription, 
"Innermay, 1709," which, nearly fifty years after her marriage, 
was presented to her by her family in the north. The M^Farlans 
were Whigs, the Keiths Tories, and the tradition is that when 
the cane was presented it was accompanied by the jocular remark 
that " The best use it could be applied to was to lay it across a 
Whig's back," looking laughingly towards her husband. 

James and Mary had a son named William, who was assassin- 
ated just outside the door of Cadder Kirk,* but the circumstances 
under which this took place have now passed into oblivion. The 
importance of the family in the eyes of the Government of that 
day may be inferred from the fact that, on hearing of the sudden 
death of their son. King William III. wrote to the laird a letter 
of condolence and sympathy, in which he stated that the deceased 
had ever been a good friend of the king's, and that no efforts 
would be spared to bring the assassins who had perpetrated the 
outrage to justice. Unfortunately, what a few years ago was a 
historical fact, has now become mere tradition. In an old oaken 
cabinet in Ballancleroch were preserved many treasured family 
documents. Among these were this letter, signed William Kex. 
When the present laird was serving with his regiment in India, 
Ballancleroch was let furnished. One of the tenants,' neither 
valuing the old oak cabinet nor the family treasures which it 
contained, and evidently considering it old-fashioned for his 
refined tastes, had it removed from Ballancleroch and stowed 
away with other lumber in his Glasgow place of business, where 
it was unfortunately destroyed by fire when the Tradeston Flour 
Mills were burned down. The loss to the family was simply 
irreparable, and could not be replaced by silver or gold. 

James M'Farlan and Mary Keith had another son, Hugh, who 
suddenly left home, and was heard of as serving as a subaltern 
officer under Marlborough. The reason of his flight was that, in 
a duel fought beside the old chesnut trees at Clashmore, he had 
unfortunately killed his opponent, a son of the Glorat baronet, 
and had also hastily buried him on the spot. A rusted rapier 
and a short dirk were found in Mr. John M*FarIan's time, near 
the spot where the encounter is believed to have taken place, and 
these were supposed to have belonged to young Stirling. As has 
been mentioned, the M'Farlans were Whigs while the StirlingH 
were Royalists. In the time of the Commonwealth the Cavaliers 
or Royalists had been in the cold shades of opposition ; but their 
turn came at the Restoration in 1660; and a few years after- 
wards King Charles IT. had acknowledged the services of the 
Glorat family by conferring a baronetcy of Nova Scotia on the 

* John Calboune or Colquhoun, of Konmore, and James Wallace, 
younger of Possill, were the parties charged with having killed William 
M'Farlan, younger of Keithtown, in a most barbarous manner at Cadder. 
This was about 1687. 



197 

Laird. ' The torn of the Whigs came again at the Revolation in 
1688. The polities of the M'Farlans were of service to their 
family on the occasion of this unfortunate duel. The slain man 
belonged to the side which had been dished by the advent of 
William of Orange ; the slayer was of a good Whig family, 
whose influence was exerted on the side of the government ; so 
the family were informed that no proceedings would be taken 
against the young fugitive. When the Glachan was a populous 
hamlet, and before its inhabitants were nearly *' a' wede away," 
it was firmly believed there by the young and by the superstitious 
among the old, that young Stirling's ghost was to be seen wander- 
ing about Clashmore in the moonlight. In other parts of the 
parish there are stories of houses haunted by visitors from the 
unseen world, stories known in very limited circles. I refrain 
from giving any particulars of these, as it might be the means of 
putting certain families to inconvenience and perhaps be the cause 
of preventing young, timid, nervous female servants from taking 
situations. The age of superstition is not yet past. Hugh, who 
so suddenly became a fugitive, and in consequence a soldier, had 
an eye for the beautiful in nature. While with his regiment in 
the campaigns on the continent he must have admired the fine 
trees he would see. He brought home with him a number of 
young trees, which he had planted about the Ballancieroch 
grounds and in the approach to Campsie Glen. They were 
planted with care, and throve and grew till some of them became 
the finest and most beautiful of their kind in the west of Scotland. 
Very few in Campsie arc aware that those beautiful beeches that 
used to grow at the foot of the glen had been brought from the 
continent and planted there by a soldier laird of long ago, shortly 
after the Union of England and Scotland, completed under Queen 
Anne. Some have been recently cut down at the entrance to the 
Glen, and this clearance has entirely changed its aspect.* 

The tombstone of Laird Hugh and his wife, Elizabeth Doig of 
Ballangrew, is still to be seen in the Clachan church-yard. It 
has the M*Farlan and Doig arms. The M*Farlan arms are-^ 
Ar. on a saltire wavy betw. four roses, gu. a crescent of the field. 
Crest — A naked man holding forth a sheaf of arrows ppr., a 
crown or., standing by it. Motto — "This I'll defend." The 
Doig arms are — Gu, a chev. ar. betw. two cinquefoils, erm. in 
chief and a sword paleways in base of the second. Two of the 
oldest stones of the M'Farlans were lifted to make room for 

* It was one thing to throw open the Glen and make all visitors welcome, 
but surely the privilege is abused by the Railway Company bringing great 
crowds of excursionists and pouring them into the Glen and on to the hill 
sides without any acknowledgment to the proprietors, whose trees are 
frequently injured, and damage caused to fences and lands by the noisy 
crowds on Glasgow holidays. If the people of Campsie are to retain their 
privileges they should see to it lest inconsiderate excursionists endanger free 
access to the Glen. 



198 

interments of tenants on the estate, ad I have been told by one 
who has actually seen fragments of ihese stones, commemorating 
the old lairds, lying near the west wall of the graveyard. The 
late Miss Catherine M^Farlan, as long as she lived, cared with 
affectionate solicitude for her father's monument. When I 
referred to this on page 68 as evidently well cared for, I was not 
then aware by whom it was kept in such beautiful order. Laird 
Hugh and Elizabeth Doig had a son, William, who married Hume 
Robertson, of Fermeside, but had no issue ; also a daughter, Anne, 
who married the Rev. John Warden, minister of the parish, but 
who afterwards was translated to the Canongate, in Edinburgh. 
When William was in possession of the estate, having no family 
of his own, he settled the estates of Ballancleroch and Dalgowrie 
by entail on the eldest son of his sister Anne, the Rev. John 
Warden M^Farlan, who succeeded in due course. He married 
Helen M^Dowall, and their son, John M'Farlan, advocate, 
Edinburgh, was laird from about 1785 till his death in 1846. \ 

I find that I have made a mistake on page 173. It was not 
Colonel M^Farlan, the present laird, but his grandfather, Mr. 
John M'Farlan, advocate, who was sent for by Miss Elizabeth 
Margaret M^Farlan of Arrochar, the last of the race of the old 
M^Farlans, and the undoubted head of the clan. Some time 
before her death she had caused the message to be sent to him, 
and when he responded to the invitation and went to see her, she 
solemnly and with due formality handed over to him the cairn- 
gorm, the ring, and the seal of the chief, telling him that at her 
death he would inherit the headship of the Clan M^Farlan. 

The house erected by James M'Farlan in 1665 had various 
modifications made on it from time to time, but was substantially 
the mansion-house till 1852. The late Miss Catherine M^Farlan, 
who only died in 1890, aged 83, recollected an older and smaller 
house that joined on to the older part of the present old house 
This was beginning to fall down, when her father, Mr. John 
M^Farlan, cleared it away entirely, and erecteff a plain square 
building across the large court, on the front of what would be the 
old peel in the times when the Brisbanes were the owners of the 
lands. There is still a very old ivy-covered arch at the entrance to 
the small court at the back door. This was taken out of the 
kitchen of the Brisbane house. The garden used to be on the north 
side of the house, on a slope down to the burn. It had grassy 
walks, and quaint cut yews and shrubs, and a sun dial stood on a 
pedestal. This was thrown into lawn about the beginning of the 
century, and the present walled garden nearer the glen was then 
formed. 

Between Ballancleroch and the road to the Clachan there is a 
small field on the east side of the burn, which formerly belonged 
to the Lairds of Woodhead. This bit of ground is called " Crof t- 
an-righ " the King's Field. Now, unless when James IV. visited 
Cragbernard in 1507, there is no record of any royal personage 






199 

having been within the boundaries of the parish to give the name 
either here or to the little hMlock at the west end of. Antermony 
Loch, which is called "The King's hill" in the Ordnance Survey 
map. The field of " Crof t-an-righ " was exchanged by ex- 
cambion, the Laird of Ballancleroch giving a piece of land 
beyond Haughhead for it, thus improving the amenity of Ballan- 
cleroch, and giving greater privacy to the grounds. In some 
way this field has got associated with the letters INRI perhaps 
from these letters having been used as phonetic abbreviation of 
the an-righ. 

John M^Farlan, advocate, died in 1846. He was succeeded by 
his son John, a surgeon in Edinburgh. The Edinburgh doctor 
looked forward to following the example of his father and retiring 
to Ballancleroch to spend his latter days on his patrimonial 
estate. In view of this he planned a reconstruction of the 
mansion-house, the erection of a large addition, with Mary Keith's 
house converted into a north wing. This was commenced in the 
spring of 1852 and completed in the summer of 1853. The 
extensive additions completely altered the aspect of the house and 
left it as we see it now. The old entrance was closed and a new 
avenue formed with gates and entrance lodge, at the west side of 
the bridge over the glen bum. The Doctor's dreams were how- 
ever never realised. He died on the 6th July, 1852, while the 
building operations at Ballancleroch were in progress, and was 
succeeded by his son, John Warden M^Farlan, the present laird, 
who was born in 1824. The heir-presumptive to Ballancleroch 
and to the chieftainship of the M^Farlans is Lieut. -General David 
M'Farlan, C.B., who resides in London. He was in the Bengal 
Artillery, and served through the Indian Mutiny. He was 
engaged in the defence of Lucknow, and was twice wounded. 
He also served in the operations on the North- West frontier of 
India, and in the Afghan War under Sir Donald Stewart. His 
services were such as to obtain for him three medals for these 
campaigns and 'the Companionship of the Bath. He commanded 
a division of the Bengal army. Even when only a young subal- 
tern, during the days of the Mutiny, he showed great courage 
and presence of mind in some of the most stirring episodes with 
the mutineers. 

. AUCHINRKOCH. 

The etymology, achadh^ a field ; reigheacM, level ; or ach-an- 
reid'hmchd, "Field of the plain," indicates the level meadow land 
in which this old house has been built. It stands with the outer 
walls still intact, although the western gable is bulging out. 
The roof of the front or newer portion has partially fallen in, 
carrying away the dining-room ceiling, &c., and so has the roof 
over the kitchen. There are no dates on any of the lintels, and 
little information can be gleaned as to when it was first built. 



One of the Buchanan lairds is credited with having enlarged it 
by building the front portion. It fell into a delapidated condition 
while the Laird Buchanan who died about 1823 was proprietor, 
and was abandoned by him when he had Woodburn built. The 
tenant of the Mains of Auchinreoch has occupied it sometime 
since, but it is now a ruin and deserted, and is popularly known 
as " The Haunted House." The situation is rather low perhaps, 
because only about 130 feet above the mean sea level, but it is 
beautiful in the extreme, the pasture is rich, the trees are fine, 
and the whole scenery suggests peaceful pastoral life. The lands 
at one time were owned by the Kincaids, and there is frequent 
reference to the lands and the proprietors in the ecclesiastical 
Records, as, for example, the following : — 

" Jul. 2, 1594. — The Presbiterie ordenis Johnne Kincaid of Auchinreoche, 
for byding fra his parroche kirk and f ra the communione, remaining etubb- 
nrne to the citationis and admonitionis of the kirk, and not presenting his 
barne to baptisme, to confess his offens the nixt Sondaye in his paroch kirk, 
standing in sum part of the kirk, as he salbe callit upone be his minister. 
And siclyk ordenis the said Johnne, under the pane of twentie lib money, to 
find souertie that he sail cum to his paroche kirk heireftir, salbe present at 
the communione, sail nocht byd admonitionis and citationis of the kirk, 
and sail present his barnis that God sail send to baptisme. Dec. 2. — The 
Presbytery ordains the minister of Campsie to baptize the laird of Kincaid's 
bairn next Sunday, on that condition that the laird presents it ; if not, he is 
neither to baptize it that or any other day.'' 

THE PARISH VALUATION ROLL IN 1691. 

In 16.49 the parish of Campsie was considerbly reduced in 
area, probably at the instigation of Sir James Livingstone. A 
considerable portion was taken off its eastern part and added to 
Kilsyth, and a large slice was taken off its south-western part and 
added to BaldernoCk. After it had been thus docked of the 
Kilsyth and Baldernock portions, the total valuation in 1691 was 
£6437 2d., and the heritors and their estates were entered in the 
County Roll as under : — 

1. Laird of Glorat for Glorat and Cragbernard, 

2. Viscount Kilsyth, 

8. Laird of Woodhead, 

4. J. Macfarlane of Kirktoune, 

6. Feuars of Mugdock (formerly Mar.of Montrose), 11 ploughs, 

6. Auchinreoch,T Earl of Wigton's then under forfeiture, ... 

7. Antermony, > Earl pleading to have them restored, 

8. The Laird of Kincaid, 

9. Balquharrage, (under bond, fell to W. Lindsay af terwaMs), 

10. Birdston Feuars, 

11. Laird of Keir for Hayston lands, 

12. Birbeston, Woodhead, but under bond, 

18. Cappieston, „ „ 

14. Balglass, Woodhead, then Cunningham's, recovered by 

uj Cw A rxcwiCw y ••• ••• ••• ••• ••« ••• 

15. Ellishaugh, part of Birdston lands, 



£1336 


15 


2 


1173 14 


6 


805 


5 10 


536 


17 


4 


8, 518 


5 





402 


13 





402 


13 





416 


6 


8 


290 


16 





244 


12 10 


178 


9 


4 


6^ 


9 





82 


4 


4 


32 


4 


4 


13 


13 10 


je6487 





2 



THE ELEVEN PLOUGES OF BALGROCHAN. 



THE ELEVEN PLOUGHS OF BALGROCHAN. 



On the southern border, or **laigh side," of the parish, the noble 
family of the Grahames of Montrose have held lands since 1400, 
as has been stated at page 187. This is not the place to enter 
into great detail, but as the genealogies of the other old landed 
families have been mentioned I may briefly give that of the ducal 
house of Montrose. 

The first Graham of whom there is authentic record was a Sir 
William, who was one of the witnesses to David the First's 
charter erecting Holyrood Abbey. The king gave this Anglo- 
Norman knight the lands of Abercorn and Dalkeith. A Sir 
David obtained the lands of Clifton and Cliftonhall, and from 
William the Lion the lands of Charlton, Barrpwfield, and the 
lordship of Kinnaber, all in Forfarshire. In the reign of King 
Alexander II. another Sir David gave certain lands he had in 
Galloway in exchange for those of DundafiP in Strathcarron. 
There is still a ruined fortalice called Sir John de Graeme's castle, 
about three and a half miles east of Fintry, associated with the 
Sir John the friend and supporter of Wallace, whose " right 
hand " he was called. His son, another Sir David, obtained from 
Malise, Earl of Strathearn, the lands of Kincardine, on the east 
border of the parish of Blackford. " Of Kincardine " now 
became one of the principle designations of the family, and the 
Castle of Kincardine was the principal dwelling-place, until it 
was demolished by the Earl of Argyll in 1 645, when Mugdoch 
Castle became the principal seat of the family. Another Sir 
David had several grants from King Robert the Bruce, with 
whom he exchanged his property of Cardross for the lands of Old 
Montrose, in Maryton parish, Forfarshire. The titles of Earl, 
Marquis, and Duke of Montrose are taken from these lands of 
Old Montrose, in Maryton, and not from the town of Montrose, 
with which the estate had no connection whatever. This Sir 
David died in 1827. Patrick Grahame of Kincardine was made 
a Peer of Parliament in 1451, under the title of Baron Grahame. 
William the third Lord Grahame was created Earl of Montrose 
in 1 504. He fell at Flodden in 1 5 1 3. It was while this William , 
the first earl, was living at Mugdoch that the incident occurred 
which I mentioned in my lecture of 1886, and which I now repeat. 

One day, in ascending the hill from Torrance, past Barraston 
Farm, the late Mr. George Miller of Acre Valley pointed out to 
me, cut in the lintel of the door, initials and a date, thus: — 

A. H. 1609. A.B. 



204 

As we went leisurely up the hill, I learned the story of these 
initials. It is this. Once upon a time, or, to be more precise, in 
the year 1508, an Englishman arrived at the close of the house of 
Mugdoch. He had a great opinion of his own prowess, and was 
in quest of adventures. The Earl of Montrose was residing at 
Mugdoch, and having enquired what was the object of the 
Englishman's visit, he expressed a wish to have some one to fight 
with, on whom he could show his powers. The Earl was in the 
humour to gratify him, and he mentioned that he had a shepherd 
on the hill whom he thought would be quite willing to accommo* 
date him if he wanted " fechtin'." The shepherd was «ent for, 
and in due time appeared, but when the Englishman surveyed 
him, it occurred to him, rather suddenly, that he was out of 
condition, that travelling had put him out of his usual form, tmt 
a few days* I'^st would soon restore him. This seemed quite 
reasonable, and a week's delay was arranged, the Englishman, in 
the meantime, to be provided with lodgings and plenty of meat 
and drink. At length the day came when the parties were to 
engage. The combat began, when the Englishman was not ooly 
thrashed, but killed outright by the shepherd. The Earl was 
highly gratified that his champion had come off victor, and in 
token of his gratification asked the shepherd what he could give 
him to show his appreciation of his pluck. The shepherd was 
quite prepared, and rather toc^ the Earl aback by saying that be 
would like a charter of the Barraston land at George Maclom's 
back-door. The Earl granted the request, made a gift o{ the 
lands, which extend to 110 acres, the reddendo of the lands in the 
charter being a white rose, si petitur tantum *(if asked), the 
superior to personally liave this, he riding out of the plaoe of 
Mugdoch on a white horse, with a cocked hat on, and ciad in gilt 
spurs. The holding is, therefore, really a blench one, the vo&e 
having never been asked for. This is the story of Abraham 
Hannay and Ann Blyth, his wife, whose descendents still possess 
the land acquired in so strange a manner by their resdiute and 
courageous ancestor. 

The barony of Mugdoch marches with the baronies of Wood- 
head, Bardowie, Livingstone's old barony of Campsie, and others. 
There is an extant agreement, of date 1587, between the then 
" Erie of Montrose and John Lennox of Woodheid," settling the 
boundaries of their respectivs estates, which they had defined by 
the erection of an earthen ridge. This archaic march " dyke " 
may still be seen stretching across the Clochcore Moor, sometimes 
in a straight line, sometimes in a crooked one. In one place there 
is a rectangular diversion, intended to exclude what had ap- 
parently been a hut. This ridge is about four feet wide by two 
feet high, and in it there is inserted at intervals large stones. It 
can be seen best between Newlands or Gock-ma-lane fcurm and 
Mount Hooly, immediately overlooking Clo^l)^^'!'^. Its existeaoe 
is almost unknown in Campsie, but its existlince and history is ^ 



205 

known in the Torrance district, where all the abtiquitieB of the 
laigh side of the Parish were well known to the eleven plough 
lairds, especially to the late Mr. James Maitland of Ba)gTO(;han, 
the late Mr. James Ferrie, and the late Mr. George Miller. Mf. 
John Buckie now remains the chief depository of local traditions. 
On the 10th November, 1587, there was an agreement between 
the Earl and Laird of Woodhead setting the marches of the lands 
of Lethad, which the Earl's ancestor had obtained from Alicia, 
Lady of Cragbernard, in 1400. The career of James Graham, 
Earl and first Marquis Can only be referred to briefly. Born in 
1612, he succeeded to the title and estates in 1626, and three years 
afterwards, when only 17 years, he married a daughter of Lord 
Carnegie of Kinnaird. He first joined the Covenanters, then 
deserted them and became a supporter of the Royalist caus&. 
After a short but brilliant campaign his army was defeated at 
Philiphaugh, and he left Scotland a fugitive in disguise. Some 
of the Campsie lairds actively supported the Royalist side. The 
son of the laird of Woodheid was serving under Montrose, and died 
shortly after the battle of Auldearn, probably from wounds or 
injuries received there. Being in urgent need of money, the Earl, 
as early as 1630, sought to raise funds by feuing off the Bal- 
grochan and Balraore lands to those who were willing to give a 
grassum on condition of small feu-duty. There is some doggerel 
on this subject, which the late laird Maitland quoted one evening 
in my presence. I asked him to try and recollect it, but his 
memory failed him. All I could get was — 

Twa centuries syne the Marquis o' Grabanie 
Gaed oot tae the wars at the held o' his men ; 
His income was sma*, tho' h'ed titles enew, 
And great part o' his Ian' he had then to feu. 

The eleven ploughs o' Bo'grochan were acquired at that time 
By eleven sturdy carles, as they ca'ed them lang syne. 

Fdr the chiefs o' the borders at that time did keep 
As mony blue bonnets as noo they keep sheep ; 
An' Marquis o' Grahame, Montrose, and Dundaff 
Had naething before him but feu the Ian' aff. 

The term plough, ploughgate, or ploughland requires a word of 
explanation. From a charter by William the Lion we gather 
that a ploughgate or carucate of land in Scotland contained 104 
acres.* An oxgate contained 13 acres. A merkland was about 
one-third of a ploughgate. Converted into money value a 40s. 
land of old extent was in some parts of Scotland 104 acres. 
Cosmo Innes expressly limits this to Merse and Lothian. In this 
district a ploughgate is a 6s. 8d. land of old extent, and varies 
from 60 to ^10 acres, according to the situation and the 

*Notes-^Lindores Abbey, p. 77 



206 

barrenness or fertility of the soil. It is one thing on Clochcore 
moor and another in the richer lands near the Kelvin. 

The eleven ploughs contain the lands of Easter and Wester 
Balgrochan and Carlston, and extend from the march across 
Clochcore Moor to the river Kelvin, the southern boundary of 
the parish. The lands are differently valued, regard being 
evidently had to situation and fertility. Wester Balgrochan is 
assessed at £48 Scots per plough, Easter Balgrochan at £44 10s. 
Scots, and Carlston at £39 Scots. The original feuars holding 
of the Earl of Montrose were as under : — 



No. 


Amoant 
of land. 


Original Feaar. 


Date of 
Fen. 


Present Proprietors. 






Lands of Cahls 


TON (3 P 


loughs) — 


1 


6/8 


William Reid, ... 


1630 


Thomas Reid. 


2 


6/8 


Thomas Gray, ... 


9} 


Hon. Mrs. Lennox. 


3 


6/8 


William Angus,... 


}» 


William Simpson. 






Easteb Baloroc 


HAN (4 P 

1630-1 


loughs) — 
G. Miller Trs., Hon. Mrs. 


4 


6/8 


Mungo Stirling,... 










Lennox, M^Niool's Heirs, 










and R. Watson. 


5 


6/8 


Richard Turner,... 


}) 


J. Buckie and Hon. Mrs. 
Lennox. 


6 


6/8 


William M<Ildowie, 


}} 


J. Buckie, J. Ferrie's Trs., 
and Hon. Mrs. Lennox. 


7 


6/8 


John Charity, ... 


1631 


J. Ferrie's Trs. and M'Far- 
lan's Trs. 






Wester Baloroc 


HAN (4 P 


loughs) — 


*8 


6/8 


John Blair^ mer- 
chant, burgess 
in Edinburgh. 
His wife in life- 
rent and son 
George in fee,... 


1643 


Hon. Mrs. Lennox. 
Reprs. of late Jas. Maitland 

and J. Ferrie's Trs. (a 

pendicle). 


9 


6/8 


John Marshall, ... 


1632 


Hon. Mrs. Lennox, J. Mait- 
land's Repr., Trs. of H. 
and C. Alum Co., Trs. 


















of J. Morrison, Trs. of J. 










Buchanan, J. Howie, 










Mrs. Baird or Morton. 


10 


{8/4 
13* 


Robert Wilson, ... 


:} 


Ferrie's Trs. and M*Far- 


W. Buieor Bowie, 


lan's Trustees. 


11 


(8/4 
t8/4 


Allan Marshall, ... 


1631 


J. Maitland's Reprs. 


William Blair, ... 


1643 


Hon. Mrs. Lennox, Mait- 










land's Reprs., H. and C. 










Alum Co.'s Trs., Agnes 










Peat, John Robertson 










SteTcnson. 



* In the titles of No. 8 6/8, called « Collier's Acre," from George Blair by 
George Maiklam (Maitland), in Barraston, in 1671, the original feuars, in 
1648, are mentioned as AUan Blair and George Maiklam in Barraston. 
The probability is that John Blair was a creditor of theirs. 



207 

The foregoing are the eleven plough lands proper, bat along 
with them there is also : — 

Balgrochan miln, miln lands, and multures, feued in 1631 by 
Robert Farie miller, and Janet Brash, his spouse, in liferent. 
Now held by Ferrie's Trustees. 

Poffle of Wester Balgrochan, called Sandyhole. Robert Imbrie 
f 1630). Now held by Ferrie's Trustees. 

Po^e of Wester Balgrochan, called Guildie Acre. Marista 
Marshall (1630), relict of John Angus at Gadder Bridge, in life- 
rent, their daughter in fee. Now held by Ferrie's Trustees. 

The Temple of Balgrochan. Richard Turner and Janet 
Provan, his wife in liferent, and W. Turner, son in fee (1632). 
Trustees of late 6. Miller. 

The eleyen plough lairds of Balgrochan pay a somewhat archaic 

reddendo for their lands, each 6/8 land of old extent being a 

ploughgate, paying sundry sums for ferme meal, multer meal and 

bier, lyme craig, and coal, sheep, poultry, coals, &c., the whole 

amounting in money to £69 6s. 8d. Scots for each ploughgate or 

6/8 land of old extent. Besides these payments they were bound 

to render certain services, such as a certain number of creels of 

peats from Craigallion Moss to the outer close of the place of 

Mugdoch. In cais of failzie, to pay 8s. Scots for ilk creel leiding 

yrof. They were bound to help to carry the '* Erie's " furniture 

from Dundaff or Glasgow to Mugdoch. Ilk ane of the feuars was 

taken bound to cart coals from his place to Mugdoch. This 

used to be regularly performed. Although only entitled to cart 

to Mugdoch they went cheerfully to Buchanan. The procession 

of cart«, with coals, &c., to Buchanan House was a red letter 

day for the plough lairds. Their prdcession was headed by a 

piper, and the refreshments given were so heartily partaken of 

that they had a wonderfully elevating effect on the lairds or their 

deputies. The Balgrochan eleven lairds' coals were not of good 

quality, and the supply was discontinued on this account. 

Collectively, they were likewise bound to supply one carriage 

horse to take Montrose from Mugdoch to Edinburgh. The 

feuars were bound to have their corn ground at the ** Erie's" mill, 

and to wait twenty days for water if that was scarce. After the 

twenty days they could take their com to any mill they pleased, 

they paying the knaveship for sae muckle as they can transfer. 

This knaveship is a sequel of thirlage, and is the '* niefou' " given 

to the mill servant by whom the work is perfonned. By a feu 

charter of part of the Balgrochan lands, dated in 1631, the vassal 

in that part (Mr. James Maitland claimed this) was accorded the 

privilege and liberty of ** hostelries and brewing, and making of 

banquets and bridals, but any wraith or stolen goods found upon 

his land " were to belong to the superior, the Earl of Montrose. 

A family named Winning were the proprietors of the Tower 
farm at one time, but they sold it and emigrated to America 
about 1820. They had acquired the Tower lands from the 



^08 

Montrose family, and all that they bad to pay for them under 
their reddendo was a pound of black pepper, which was only to bo 
given to Montrose himself, if he came to the farm riding on a 
white horse, and made the demand. The Winnings used to pride 
themselves on this, claiming that they, owing to services rendered 
in past times, probably in the wars under the Marquis, were the 
only lairds among the eleven ploughs who were really free lairds, 
as the pound of black pepper had never been asked for. 

The result of the campaign in favour of King Charles II. by 
the Marquis of Montrose is well known. His army was surprised 
and completely routed at Philiphaugh in 1645, and he himself 
was executed at Edinburgh in 1 650. His estates were forfeited. 
The Committee of Estates granted a Commission on 18th Apr., 
1644, to George Buchanan, younger of that Ilk, to repair to the 
house and fortalice of Mugdoch, break open doors, break down 
the iron gates, and intromit with the cannon, powder, ball, 
matches, and other warlike furniture therein, for the use of the 
public— ^T^Afi Lennox, vol i., p. 164. 

The Committee of Estates granted a disposition, dated 17th 
Aug., 1647, to Archibald Marquis of Argyll and to his heirs of 
the lands and barony of Mugdoch, and ordained a charter of said 
lands be passed under the Great Seal in favour of the Marquis of 
Argyll. This was done, and he was infeft in November, 1647. 
The Marquis disponed the barony of Mugdoch to his second son, 
Lord Neil Campbell, who was duly infefted in them. The Barony 
was now called Neil's-town. 

The castle of Mugdoch, with the lands of the barony, were 
restored to the Marquis of Montrose in 1656. The Marquis of 
Argyll waa executed at Edinburgh 17th May, 1661. 

It is well known that King Robert the Bruce granted a charter 
of the lands and barony of Lenzie, which comprehended Kirkin- 
tilloch and Cumbernauld, separating these lands from the shire of 
Stirling and annexing them to the county of Dumbarton. It is 
not so well known that, in 1388, King Robert granted to Sir 
Patrick Graham a warrant separating various lands belonging to 
him from the shire of Dumbarton and annexing them to that of 
Stirling. These lands were the carucate of Kilminevane and the 
lands of Clockbar, Dougalstoun, Barloch, Hayston, and the two 
Tavnachis, with the pertinents. The charter authorised the 
Sheriff of Stirling to compel, should it be necessary, the said 
Patrick and his heirs and possessors of the same lands to render 
the service due to the king for the said lands, and to receive these 
things, as was wont to be done within the shire of Dumbarton. 

In 1 839 the Duke of Montrose proposed to convert the services 
exacted by the original charters into an annual money payment, 
but the feuars did not then look on the Duke*s proposal favour- 
ably. As far as I can learn an arrangement has since been 
carried out whereby all these services have been commuted for a 
sum of about 28. per acre on the more valuable ground. The 



209 

feuars of the eleven ploughs originally held their lands in run-rigs, 
which ran down in long strips from the march near Mount Hooly 
to the Kelvin; but on 27th May, 1735, it was divided up, under 
the act of 1695, amongst the various proprietors, by consent of 
the superior. In the original deeds the superior had given liberty 
to work the coal and lime in common, throughout the whole 
eleven ploughs, and this common right was not divided in 1735, 
nor has it been since. As there was no reservation of the iron- 
stone in the lands, it appears that each proprietor of the surface 
is entitled to the possession of the ironstone underlying that 
surface, but quoad the coal and lime they still remain pro rata as 
common property among the vassals inter se. On the south brae 
of fialgrochan, below the Clochcore ridge, the coal and lime crop 
out in horizontal strata, and for many years previous to, and 
even in the present century, each individual plough laird worked 
such lime and coal as he could then lay his hands on, for his own 
individual use and profit ; but afterwards better times came, and 
a peaceable arrangement was made, whereby one man under a 
pecuniary consideration worked for all, the proceeds being divided 
pro rata. The late Mr. James Maitland became the tenant of 
the minerals in the first instance. Afterwards, at a meeting of 
the plough lairds, he asked their permission, as he put it, to take 
in a partner, and this having been agreed to, he sublet to the 
Hurlet and Campsie Alum Company for 15 years. On the 
expiry of this the Alum Company leased the minerals direct, the 
lordship on the coal and lime being divided among the proprietors 
in proportion to their interests in the lands. 

The sums derived from the lordships varied considerably under 
the lease to the Alum Company. 1 have obtained a copy of the 
statement for the year 1877, which I give as showing the 
proportions of the various proprietors. In that year a sum 
of £155 9s. 5^d. fell to be divided, being the monies obtained 
from the Alum Company under their then current lease of the 
minerals. This was divided as under. Their lease expired in 
1881, and has not been renewed by them. The minerals are not 
worked at present, which must be matter of regret to the " lairds." 

CAKL8TON (3 ploughs) — 

Hon. Mrs. Lennox, W. Reid, and W. Simpson, each £14 28. Id , £42 6 3 
East Balobochan (4 ploughs) — 

Valae. Bent. 

Mn. Hanbury Lennox, £55 15 £17 13 4 

John Buckie, 45 10 14 8 5 

A. Clark, Meadowbank (now 

Macfarlane's Trustees), 25 1 7 18 7]^ 

J. Ferrie (now Ferrie's Trustees), 19 7 6 2 6t 

Trs. of Hurlet and Campsie Alum Co., 1 8 17 6 19 4^ 

a. Miller, 8 10 2 13 10 

Nicol's Heirs, 3 19 

D. Watson, 2 12 8 



56 7 9J 



Carry Forward, £98 14 Of 



210 



Brought forward^ 


• • • 


• • • 


• • • 


... £98 14 


Of 


Wbbt Baloroohan 


(4 ploughs) — 










^K 


J. Maitland, 


••• «•• ••■ 


£88 





£25 17 


M 




Mrs. Hanbury Lennox, 


55 





16 14 




J. Feme, ... 


••• ••• ••• 


16 





4 15 


8 




Buchanan, Leitchbank, 


12 10 





3 13 


2 




A. i^iaric, ... 




8 





2 6 


10 




Alum Company, 




5 15 





1 13 


7| 
5| 




Howie, 




3 10 





1 




J. R. Stevenson, 




10 





2 


11 




Downie's Heirs, 




10 





2 


11 




Peat's Heirs, 




5 





1 


5i 




Balance, 




• • • 


• • • 


6 


41 














56 15 


4f 




£155 9 


^ 



In the earlier days of the working of these minerals the difficulty 
of getting rid of the water which collected in the workings was an 
almost insuperable difficulty. The Rev. Mr. Lapslie in his 
•Statistical Account says their manner of working was to advance 
their ingoing e*e mine or day level as far as they could and then 
put down an air shaft. They mined across to the rise from their 
e'e, proceeding on the stoop and room system, the "rooms" 
averaged about seven feet square, and the " stoops *' about the 
same. Generally they did not manage to get further than the 
first air shaft, as they then preferred to shift to a new entry from 
the surface where they could find water level. 

The well-known Mr. Charles Macintosh, at one time partner 
with Charles Tennant of St. RoUox, and of the Alum Co., in his 
young days went to France, where he acquired a knowledge of 
the French process of tanning leather. He started works for 
tanning, according to this French process, near Barrastone, above 
Torrance. He also leased the ironstone there and after com- 
mencing to work the minerals, discovered the alum schist. There 
was not, however, as much water as he required, and so he fol- 
lowed the alum to the northern slope of the bill. Mr. Macintosh 
had become a partner in 1797 of a firm who started a work at 
Hurlet, for the manufacture of alum. When he had discovered 
the schist to be abundant in Campsie, an alum work was started 
there in 1805, by the same firm who were established at Hurlet. 
The style of the Hurlet firm was Macintosh, Knox, «fe Co., and 
the partners were Mr. Macintosh, Major Finlay, R.E. (a brother 
of Kirkman Finlay of Toward Castle), Mr. John Wilson of Hur- 
let, and Mr. James Knox. Mr. Charles Stirling (brother of the 
Laird of Keir) afterwards became a partner, and remained in 
both firms till 1829. Mr. Macintosh bought the lands in 1835 on 
which the Alum Works had been erected. This had formed part 
of Viscount Kilsyth's forfeited estate. 



BUKSTON, BURDSTON, NOW BIRDSTON. 



BtJBSTON, BTJEDSTON, NOW BIRDSTON. 



This little hamlet is not without an interest of its own in parish 
history. ' It has no great claim to antiquity, for the lands were 
only feued off between 1653 and 1658, the feuars forming them- 
selves into a little community, after a fashion very uncommon 
nowadays. The families of the little hamlet had many vicissi- 
tudes, and an unusual number among them lost their lives by 
sudden and violent deaths, such as murder, suicides, drown- 
ing, and by other accidents. The families of the original 
feuars have now nearly all ceased to have any connection 
with the lands, with the exception of Mrs Forrest, nee 
Mary Muir. She alone remains of the old stock in the old 
home. One cannot help being struck with one thing that 
is continually recurring again and again, namely, the failure 
of heirs male in the succession, as exemplified in the Galbraiths, 
Donaldsons, Grahams, Grays, Samsons, Laings, &c. The names 
of old proprietors, and also of some of the feuars, have in this 
way become changed. 

The lands of Burston were included in the Kincaid lands, which 
have been already referred to on page 183. The Kincaids of 
that ilk possessed the Kincaid lands in their entirety from 1280 
till 1350, when " that fourth part of Kyncade which lies near the 
Kelvin in the County of Lennox " was carried away as her por- 
tion by a female Kincaid, who was married to a Galbraith of 
Craigmaddie Castle. Reference has been made already on page 
183 to the once powerful family of Galbraith and the extensive 
estates owned by them. But of the marriage of 1350 there was 
no male issue, and, as already mentioned, the three daughters, co- 
heiresses, had the lands portioned among them. 

A younger member of the Hamiltons of Cadzow was fortunate 
in wooing and winning Janet Keith Galbraith, one of these 
heiresses, and by his marriage with her he became laird of 
a third of the fine estate of the Galbraiths and also of the 
fourth part of Kincaid, which had been rent off in 1350. Their 
residence was Craigmaddie Castle, and this remained their 
dwelling-place till 1531, when the eighth Hamilton laird 
abandoned the old residence of the Galbraiths and his own 
Hamilton predecessors, and had then rebuilt for his own 
residence the old fort of Bardowie. The building of the new 
mansion-house seems to have run the Laird of Bardowie short 
of cash, for in 1534 he sold .part of Ballindrocht, the lands of 
Hayston, Balquharrage, and others to John Stirling of Keir; but 



214 

his son, the ninth Laird Hamilton, re-acquired them from Sir 
James Stirling of Keir. John Hamilton, the eleventh laird of 
Bardowie and Birdston, succeeded in minority to a fine unencum- 
bered estate. In 1616, when very young, he married Mary Doug- 
las of Mains, and by charter, dated 22nd May, 1616, with consent 
of his curators, he granted to his wife in life-rent the lands of 
Birdston and Bankier. John, the eleventh laird, heartily espoused 
the cause of Charles. He sadly embarrassed his estate by raising 
money to pay the troops serving under Montrose and fines levied 
on the defeated leaders by those who had triumphed in the civil 
strife. 

Financial embarrassments, resulting from the political misfor- 
tunes connected with the losing cause he had espoused, placed 
both the Laird of Bardowie and also his eldest son, who had 
been out serving in person under Montrose in the Civil War, at 
the mercy of Sir James Livingstone, who constituted himself chief 
creditor, and also assumed the superiority in ward. In this 
capacity he endorsed the charters granted by John Hamilton 
to his Birdston feuars. It was probably well for the laird that 
he was related to Livingstone, as this may have saved him from 
losing his lands altogether. Sir James, however, took advantage 
of the position he held to advance his own interests, here as 
elsewhere, with the other estates on which he had made money 
advances. It has been alleged that he compelled the eldest son 
of the Laird to marry his sister, Anne Livingstone, under what 
he called ** virtue of power of avail." At the same time, he is 
said to have made the wife of the then laird accept an annuity 
over Fluchart, an already overburdened part of the property, and 
renounce her life-rent interest in Birdston and Bankier, in order 
that it might be feued ofP and that he might get the grassums. 
This was the expedient resorted to by the Earl of Montrose 
with his Balgrochan lands, as has been mentioned on page 205. 
Hamilton of Bardowie decided to feu off that fourth part of 
the Kincaid lands that had been detached from that estate since 
1350. Accordingly, he had them divided into eight lots, and 
parted with them to five feuars, between 1653 and 1658. 

For information regarding these Birdston feuars I am greatly 
indebted to Dr. D. P. Stewart, Kirkintilloch, who was at one time 
an ardent archaeologist, and is still a member of the Glasgow 
Archaeological Society. While he was making enquiries into local 
history he obtained a memorandum from the late Mr Alexander 
Galloway, entitled, ** Notes for Dr Stewart as to the lands of 
Birdston, and the families of the Muirs, portioners thereof. 4th 
December, 1 860." The Doctor was aware that I was hunting up 
information about Campsie, and finding Mr. Galloway's memoran- 
dum one day among his papers, when looking for something else, 
he, with kind consideration, sent it on to me, and I have been greatly 
indebted to it for many of the details which have been embodied 
in the following paper. The names of the feuars and the dates 



215 

of the feu-charters are : — 1. William Muir, then in Bogquharrage, 
charter dated 21st October, 1653. Finding a small bit of haugh 
intervening between Hamilton's Birdston land and the Kelvin, 
this William, in the same year, acquired from James Fleming the 
lands of EUishaugh, which in 1649 were bounded on the north by 
Mr Hamilton of Bardowie's lands of Redheuche ; on the east by 
the lands of Goyle, hence the name of the bridge over the Kelvin, 
Goyle bridge, and Adamsheugh or heuche, belonging to Lord 
Fleming ; on the west by lands of Fleming of Waddilee and by 
Hayston lands; and on the south the Kelvin would be the bound- 
ary. William Muir aforesaid and his son Robert, 1658. 2. 
John Muir in Burston, charter dated 1656. 3. James Donaldson, 
charters dated 1656 and 1657. Donaldson also acquired the 
Wetshod poffle, charter dated 1657. 4. James Muir, 1658. 5. 
David Calder, 1658. Of these lands, James Donaldson held one 
half and the remaining half was held in the proportions of one- 
eighth by each of the three brothers Muir, and one-eighth by 
David Calder. The brothers Muir were said to have come from 
the neighbourhood of Rowallan Castle, between Kilmarnock and 
Stewarton, in Ayrshire, and were connected by lineal descent 
from the Mures, Barons of Rowallan. A member of this family, 
Elizabeth Mure, was first wife of King Robert II. 

Donaldson, Calder, and the three brothers Muir had feued off 
the lands between 1653 and 1658. Each of them had small 
portions called crofts, or infield lands, as individual proprietors, 
and the outfield, or pasturage lands, were at first held in common. 
Instead of erecting their farm -steadings in the isolated fashion 
almost universally prevailing, they formed themselves into a little 
village community, in the old manner of this and other countries. 
They built their dwelling-houses in a cluster, for their mutual 
convenience and protection. They used a common barn, kiln, 
and stackyard. For domestic water supply they had the Easter and 
Wester Wells, which still remain, and a bit of bleaching- green 
around each of them. On the wester green may be seen still the 
large stone on which they beetled their lint. 

In 1731, when the proprietors were Marion Donaldson, spouse 
of Archibald Graham ; James Calder, and the three Muirs, 
they, being all the partners, divided and disponed to one another 
the town and lands of Birdston, according to their interest and 
for their mutual convenience. Again, in 1773, the division of 
the common lands was agreed on and carried out, all the pro- 
prietors for the time being agreeing to this. 

The great drawback to all these lands, then and now, was the 
frequent flooding by the Glazert and Kelvin overflowing their 
banks. To remedy this the courses of the rivers have been 
straightened and embankments formed to prevent the crops or 
cattle being swept away. During the years of his tenancy — 
1810-1820 — Mr Fergus, who was then tenant of EUishaugh, had 
the embankment constructed which still surrounds it. 



216 

The anxiety with which the floods in autumn were regarded is 
evidenced in Muir's poem — 

KELVIN, KEEP LOW. 

(An invocation to that river, written daring a heavy fall of rain, 13th 

August, 1809.) 

Thy banks crowned with plenty the valleys adorn, 

Thro' which thou oft leisurely strays, 
Thy margin is fringed with fields of rich corn, 

The husbandman's happiest bays. 
Then think what a pity a prospect so fine, 

That heaven hath thought fit to bestow, 
Should fall to the ground by a mischief of thine — 

Then Kelvin, I pray thee, keep low. 

How oft have I seen thee in years that are past 

The sickle in harvest deceive. 
And all the fond hopes of the husbandman blast, 

And drown them in thy muddy wave. 
Repenting thy crimes, as true penitents should. 

To-day be thou placid and slow ; 
For ruin attends thee when swelled to a flood — 

Then Kelvin, I pray thee, keep low. 

At present the peasant in peril beholds 

Hid all uninsured in the field, 
His cattle at home, and his flocks in the folds, 

Expecting what autumn will yield ; 
Disappoint not their wishes, inundate them not 

(If Providence orders it so), 
The wealth of the peasant is painfully got — 

Then Kelvin, I pray thee, keep low. 

Owing to the drainage which exists everywhere in the valleys 
of the Glazert and Kelvin, the waters now rise very much more 
quickly than formerly, but they fall also much sooner than they 
used to do. The deepening of the River Clyde has had an 
influence in lessening the duration of the flooding of the Birdston, 
Hayston, and Balmore haughs. Two hundred years ago Birdston 
haughs were impassable in winter, but about fifty-five years ago 
the late Mr. J. L. Kincaid Lennox had a thorough system of 
drainage effected by deep ditches led into the Kelvin. This 
greatly improved the lands for cropping, but they still continued 
liable to flooding. When the Roman officers selected the line for 
the Antonine wall they would appear to have decided to make as 
much as possible of the streams on the northern front of the wall 
— the Kelvin, Bonny, and Carron. These streams and the 
haughs through which they flowed were utilised as an outer or 
first line of defence. Mr. Galloway hazarded a conjecture that 
by an embankment extending from below the Kirkintilloch fort 
across the haugh towards Hayston the Romans raised the level of 
the Kelvin and Glazert nineteen feet above their present levels. 
This would practically throw the haughs under water, the higher 
points would appear as islands, and the names of the farms to the 
eastward bear names which, according to their etymology, 



217 

corroborate this theory. The names are Inchbelly, Innis-bal, 
the building or farm on the island ; Inchterf, the bull island ; 
Inchbreak, Inch wood, Netherinch. If such an embankment ever 
existed, all traces of it have long ago disappeared. 

Without giving the details that might be expected in a process 
of writs, the history of the connection of the families of the five 
feuars of Birdston may be briefly narrated. 

1. William Muir, Etlishaugh, 21st October, 1653. Birdston, 
^th part. Crooked ridge poffle by said William Muir and his son 
Robert. In 1752, by contract of excambion, John Muir, then 
owner, and Malcolm Brown, Kirkintilloch, some small portions 
of land are interchanged for mutual convenience, probably in 
consequence of a change in the bed of the Kelvin. The lands 
of Wester Aulton were acquired by one of these Muirs. Another 
of the Muirs went to Glasgow, from whom sprang the famous 
Thomas Muir of Huntershill. Part of these lands was sold in 
1825 to Robert Ferric, after whose death this portion was bought 
by' James Laing, flesher in Glasgow. Other portions were sold 
in 1815 by James Muir to John Morrison of Craigend, who again 
sold them, in 1834, to the Laird of Kincaid. 

2. John Muir (feuar of 1G56). In 1819, his descendant, 
William Muir, sold 10^ acres to Miss Lennox of Woodhead 
and John Kincaid. In 1837, 18 acres, called Hogsandy and 
Skimmerhill, were sold to R. Ferrie, who, in 1846, sold about 14 
acres to Mr J. L. K. Lennox, and 4 acres to Mr James Laing. 
The remainder, after these sales, has now passed to the heirs of 
David Smith, Calfmuir. 

4. James Muir (1658). Held by descendants till 1826, when 
trustees sold 5^ acres to J. L. Kincaid, and, in 1828, remainder 
to Robert Ferrie, who had married a Margaret Muir. In same 
year Mr Ferrie sold 9^ acres to Mr Kincaid. The remainder was 
acquired by Mr Laing, after Mr. Ferrie's death. John Muir was 
born in 1720, the same year as Prince Charlie. In 1746 he went 
over to Kirkintilloch, where he saw the Highlanders, with Prince 
Charlie at their head, on the march from Glasgow to Falkirk. 
This John Muir was vested as heir of his father in 1794. He died 
in 1808. His eldest son John, the elder brother of the poet, had a 
sequestered corner consecrated as burial-place for his family in 
1805, when he buried his wife. The poet wrote lines on the 
consecration of his burial-place, which are given on page 223 of 
his poems. > A wall was subsequently built to enclose this tomb. 
There are four people buried here, viz., John Muir, the laird ; 
Robina Baillie, his wife ; Mrs Baillie, his wife's mother ; and 
Mary Muir, his daughter, who died unmarried. William 
Muir the poet was the second son of John Muir, who 
died 21st October, 1808. The poet was born in 1766, 
and died in 1817. David Muir, a younger brother of the poet, 
married a Jeanie Gray, who, with her brother, was brought from 
America to live with her uncle, Mr John Gray. With her portion 



218 

David built a cottage, on which Mr Laiog afterwards put a storey, 
and which is now known as Birdston Bank. His daughter Mary, 
Mrs Forrest, is the only one of the old stock of the Muirs now 
resident at Birdston. 

In the early part of the century there were living here a 
number of families who were all descended from the original 
feuars. The name of Muir was so common that nicknames had 
to be had recourse to to identify the various individuals. A 
stranger asking for John Muir would be asked whether it was 
Farmer John or Printer John he wanted, and so one William was 
Nat'ral Willie, another William was the Poet, while a Muir who 
had gone through the curriculum at Glasgow College to qualify 
for the ministry, but who had lacked perseverance and become a 
stickit minister, was known as the Divine. It was not a little 
awkward for the young female Muirs, where Mary and Jeanie 
were the favourite names. There is an authentic story of a 
young love-lorn swain coming to see the Mary Muir by whose 
charms he had been smitten. Unaware of the number of Marys 
when directed to where Mary Muir lived, he asked, when the door 
was opened by the father, ** Does Mary Muir live here?" " Yes, 
but which Mary are ye wanting ?" He didn't know. What was 
she like ? He could only describe her as pretty. *' There's nae 
pretty Mary here." There were three Marys and three Jeanies. 
The Marys were named after the fathers and the Jeanies after the 
mothers where the names were different. There were Farmer 
John's Mary (who died unmarried, and was buried in the tomb 
already referred to). Printer John's Mary (Mrs Cunningham), 
and Dauvid's Mary (Mrs Forrest). Farmer John's Jean, or wee 
Jean, became the wife of Bailie Wallace, coalmaster. The others 
were Kate's Jean and Bell's Jean (Mrs David Smith). Farmer 
John's Mary had a sad disappointment, and died of a broken 
heart. She was getting ready to be married to the Rev. William 
Craig, a Relief minister in Dalkeith, but circumstances emerged 
which showed he had been a general lover and a very gay 
Lothario. The marriage was broken off ; Mary fell into a decline ; 
and Craig himself went down to a premature grave. 

5. James Calder's one-eighth was possessed by his descendants 
till 1836, when David Calder, sometime weaver in Kirkintilloch, 
thereafter farmer at Inchbelly, Bridge-End, and then farmer at 
Millersneuk, sold them to R. Ferrie. Mr James Laing acquired 
them in 1846, after Mr Ferrie's death. 

3. James Donaldson, the original feuar, per charter of 1657, 
does not seem to have lived long at Birdston, as in 1669 the 
owner is called Robert Donaldson. He was murdered one even- 
ing at his own road-end by a man whom he had met at an inn 
in Edinburgh, with whom, on being overtaken by him, he had tra- 
velled to his own dwelling. He is reported to have invited him to 
stay over-night in his house, but this was declined, and he was 
saying, " We part here, as I see my ain lum reeking," when the 



219 

stranger suddenly stabbed him with his rapier. He fell off his horse, 
which the stranger seized ; then taking Donaldson's pocket -book 
and a cape he had been wearing, he rode off. Tradition has it that 
his dog, then inside the farmhouse, was greatly excited while this 
tragedy was being enacted, and his wife asked the servant to let 
it out Shortly afterwards Donaldson was found lying dead on 
the road. There is conflict of testimony as to where Donaldson 
was killed. The bulk of the evidence points to it having taken 
place quite near his own house, but Mrs Forrest tells me her 
father David Muir always told them that it was on the Inchbelly 
Koad just where it crosses the Woodburn. The Rev. Mr Ander- 
son took for his second wife a Jean Muir of Birdston, and Mrs 
Forrest and her sister were often at the Relief Manse of Kilsyth. 
When returning home, if in the gloaming, the girls always ran 
past the brig where they had been told Donaldson had been 
murdered. 

The story is told by Law in his Memorials as follows : — 
" November, 1669. — ^In this month did one Thomas Scott, 
ane English borderer, murder Kobert Donaldson, of Birdston in 
Campsie, by cutting of his throat with his rapier, and then thrust- 
ing him off the horse, fell upon him and cutt it through and 
through with his knife, the man not being able to defend himself, 
though a strong man of body, his cloke being at that time so far 
buttoned down and he vie with the great rains he had received in 
his journey. This villan and incarnate devill did pretend great 
friendship to him in Edinburgh, and perceiving he had received 
money, pretended an errand to Glasgow, to whom the said Robert 
was very courteous, finding him a stranger and in the equipage of 
a gentleman, prooffered him lodging at his own house, having 
before dyned with him at Falkirk, and in the very rod that led 
into his house he surprizes him with this stroke, and murders him, 
carrying away his horse and money. Who afterwards was mar- 
vellously discovered in the search of Robert's servants after him, 
by his hood, which they knew that he had taken, which he had 
given to a carrier, and the day being rainy the carrier put on the 
hood, which the servants when they saw it quarrells it, and the 
carrier told it was such a man's ryding before (that was near to 
Haddington), whom they instantly surprise and apprehend, and 
he being struck with a terrible fear and horror confessed the fact, 
is hanged at Edinburgh, and his carcase hung up between Edin- 
burgh and Leith. This Robert Donaldson was a good man and 
courteous to all." 

I applied to a legal friend in Edinburgh to see if he could 
verify the alleged facts. He wrote in reply — " 1 find the case in 
the Justiciary Clerk's Office amongst the criminal records. The 
facts you give are mainly correct Donaldson had come to 
Edinburgh to get money due to him, and he put up at the 
* Salutation.' Scott also came there, from England, and heard 
what Ponaldson's business in Edinburgh was. On 4th November 



220 

1669, Donaldson started for home, with £50 in his pocket. Scott 
overtook him on the road, both being on horseback, and they rode 
together to near Donaldson's house, when between 6 and 7 p.m. 
Scott killed Donaldson and took his money and his horse, and 
immediately rode back to Edinburgh ; but he was pursued and 
apprehended. On 5th November, 1669, Scott was taken before 
the Lord Justice-Clerk, when he made a declaration before him, 
admitting his crime, and giving all particulars of it. He was 
forthwith placed before a jury, his declaration was read, and the 
evidence of Donaldson's nephew given, to the effect that he had 
seen his uncle's dead body. Scott was at once found guilty, and 
sentenced to be hung on the 12th November current, at the usual 
place in High Street. Edinburgh, his body to be afterwards hung 
in chains at Gallowlee, between Edinburgh and Leith. The 
record does not say whether the sentence was carried out, but 
there can be no doubt that it was." 

This case is referred to as unique in our criminal annals, where 
a man was hanged on his own confession, with no legal evidence 
being adduced in proof of his guilt. The old road at this time 
followed the line of the trees going down towards the Muir tomb. 
The turnpike was made straight hero afterwards. The next event 
in Donaldson's records is Wet Shod conveyed to James Marshall 
and Marion Donaldson, his spouse, in 1698. In 1747, Marion 
Donaldson, wife of Archibald Graham, in Birdston, is vested in 
these lands, as nearest lawful heir of her deceased brother, James 
Donaldson. In 1768, William Graham, grandson of Marion 
Donaldson, is vested as heir of the toun and lands of Birdston. 
In 1775, Marion Graham, wife of John Orr of Barrowtield ; 
Christian Graham, and Helen Graham, wife of Thos. Buchanan, 
succeed their brother, and in 1 776 sell to Thomas Buchanan. In 
1782 Thomas Buchanan sells to John Gray, late of New York. 

The lands now passed away from the descendants of the original 
feuar. Mr Gray, the new proprietor, had been in America and 
made money there, with which he now purchased Donaldson's 
half of Birdston. Mr Gray had only a daughter, Jeanie, who 
married a son of Bailie Morrison, Glasgow, who was also pro- 
prietor of the small estate of Craigend, in the east of Glasgow, 
near Shettleston. When his daughter got married Mr Gray 
built a cottage for himself immediately behind the farm. Into 
Birdston Cottage he retired, leaving the farm to be managed by 
his son-in-law, who lived in the farm-house. Morrison, who now 
farmed it, latterly became addicted to drink, and in a fit of 
jealotisy committed suicide by taking laudanum. His widow 
then married a Dr Paterson, a medical practitioner in Kirkin- 
tilloch, and shortly afterwards they went to live at Dunoon, 
where the Doctor built one of the early houses. At the time 
of the first cholera Mrs Paterson was going to Glasgow, and 
went bn board the steamer at Dunoon, in her usual health. She 
was attacked by apoplexy during the passage, and either died on 



221 

board or immediately on being carried ashore at Glasgow. 
Morrison's son, Andrew, committed suicide at Birdston, and 
a married daughter, who lived at Lamlash, contracted smallpox, 
when returning in a steamer from Rothesay, where she had been 
visiting her husband's friends. The seats in the steamer were all 
taken up, and she sat down on a box, unaware that it con- 
cealed a coffin containing the remains of a person who had died 
of smallpox, and, as a result, she sickened and died in a day or 
two. On Mr. Gray's death his property was vested in trustees, who, 
in 1827-8, sold it to Mr. J. L. Kincaid, younger of Kincaid. 

It is amusing for us of the present day to see the importance 
attached eighty years ago to proximity to the Forth and Clyde 
Canal as a means of access to Glasgow. The following adver- 
tisement appeared on 1 9th July, 1827 : — 

• 

LANDS IN CAMPSIE FOR SALE. 

THE Lands of Birdston, which belonged to the deceased John Gray, con- 
sisting of about 120 acres. . . . The situation of these lands is 
otherwise extremely convenient, from ready access to Glasgow by stnge 
coaches and the canal passage boats, and they are distant only about half a 
mile from Kirkintilloch. 

Birdston Cottage, which Mr. Gray had built, was afterwards 
fitted up by Mr. Galloway for his residence when he came to 
Birdston. Early in the fifties, the late Mr. Robert Cowan, 
merchant, Glasgow, who was tenant of old Ballancleroch House 
for some years, took this cottage on a long cheap lease, and 
greatly enlarged it, at his own expense, as a residence for 
himself. Mr. Cowan was an elder in Campsie Church, where he 
sat in the front of the gallery. I can recall the pew, with 
Mrs. Cowan and her two sisters in it. At that time an old Mr. 
Campbell resided at Viewfield. Mr. and Mrs. Campbell and 
Mrs. Campbell's brother lived at Kincaid ; the Middletons, who 
went to Kinfauns Castle, near Perth, were in Antermony, where 
they were succeeded by Monteiths, M'Farhines, Readmans, &c., 
all of whom sat on the minister's left hand in the front of the 
gallery in Campsie Church. I can easily bring before my mind's 
eye the occupants of these pews from 1855 to 1864. 

It is rather singular to notice that of that fourth part of 
the Kincaid lands that was parted with in 1350, by far the 
greater portion of it was regained by purchase, after having 
been out of the family for nearly 500 years. 

One of the Calders, then tenant of Inchbreck Farm, when 
riding home by the Falls of Inchbelly Road, took the near road 
by Inchbreak and the Glazert Ford, opposite Birdston. The 
Glazert was in high flood, and the horse, having crossed the 
stream, slipped on the further bank, and both horse and rider fell 
back into the water, and were carried away, Calder being 
drowned before he could extricate himself. 

On 31st December, 1846, Mr James Stevenson, then tenant 
of Birdston farm, was accidentally killed in a sandpit quite near 



222 

bis house. He had gone into the pit to look at some work, when, 
owing to frost, a sudden fall of saod took place, and he was in 
this way accidentally killed. After her husband's death, Mrs. 
Steven&>on went to reside at Gateside with her family. Her son, 
Mr. William Stevenson, writer in Glasgow, was well known and 
highly respected in Campsie and Kilsyth. Birdston farm was 
then taken by a namesake, but no relative, Mark Stevenson, of 
the Boghead family, whose son, Mr. Robert Stevenson, has lately 
left the farm and gone abroad to the Pacific slopes with his 
family. A local newspaper intimates that recently 121 ploughs 
turned out to give a love darg to the incoming tenant, Mr. 
Prentice. 

In the lecture on the Clachan and district (page 88) I referred 
to the many families of tenant farmers in the western portion of 
the parish who have gone from the district without leaving any 
descendants now connected with it. The departure of the Steven- 
sons from Birdston brings prominently before me that this 
applies equally to this district. There have been Stevensons 
farmers in Birdston as long as I can recollect, now they have left 
like the Stevensons of Alton, Lyons of Balquharrage, Andersons 
of Inchbreak, and Marshalls of Bridgend. I wonder if in many 
parishes there has been such a complete change of tenant farmers 
as there has been in Campsie within the last generation. 

Some Roman urns have been exhumed in the vicinity of 
Birdston, and a number of coins of the time of Elizabeth, James 
I. of England, and Charles I. were dug up one day by Farmer 
John when he was casting peats. They were contained in a 
copper dish, which is likely still at Birdston in Mrs. Forrest's 
attic, but the coins have all been scattered. The conjecture is 
that these had been concealed by some inhabitant, fleeing from 
the troops of Montrose, at the time of the battle of Kilsyth, in 
1645, a few years before the lands were feued off as described. 

WILLIAM MUIR, THE BIRDSTON POET. 

How many in Campsie have read or even seen the poems on 
various subjects by the late William Muir, Campsie, published in 
1818? The answer must be, very few indeed. Born at Birdston, 
1766, he died on 21st October, 1817. Muir first tried a haber- 
dasher's shop, but disliking the confinement and being too shy in 
manner, he served an apprenticeship to saddlery, going up to 
London and working there to perfect himself in his trade. 
Keturning, he commenced business in Falkirk, but did not 
succeed, and was content afterwards to work journeyman. On 
Kirkintilloch Fair-day he went there and in the evening was 
calling upon a friend, who happened not to be in. On turning to 
come down the stair, it is supposed he had missed a step; as he 
fell to the bottom and was killed on the spot. He was interred 
in the family burying-place in Clachan church-yard, where a 



223 

number of his admirers have erected a monument to keep his 
name from being forgotten, as mentioned on page 72. The death 
of his father in 1808 broke up the old home, as his brothers were 
all married. He seemed to feel leaving the old home acutely, 
and this often appears in his poems. He was often restless and 
depressed by an enervating melancholy. He was never married, 
and his biographers say that it does not appear from his papers 
that ho ever felt the power of *' that most felicitous or most 
calamitous of all passions, love." This must have been a loss of 
the most prolific source of poetic afflatus, which often not only 
stirs the emotional nature but also awakens and quickens the 
intellect. There is, therefore, an absence of passion in all his 
writings, and as his muse, unlike that of Burns and other Scottish 
bards, did not run into songs giving expression to the hopes and 
fears and joys and sorrows which were the common experiences 
of all, his fame is local, and his poems have failed to attain the 
immortality predicted by an admirer in a few lines that have been 
adopted as the motto of the book — 

** The pleasing sweets and charms of poesy 
That g^ace the flowing numbers of thy pen 
Shall gain for thee, thro' Albion's farthest ken 
A name through ages that shall never die. " 

MR. ALEXANDER GALLOWAY. 

In connection with Birdston some reference is due to the late 
Alexander Galloway, who resided there from 1836 till 1844, in 
the cottage which Mr. Gray had originally erected for himself. 
Mr. Galloway was born in 1802, of a Lanarkshire family, who 
trace their ancestry back over four centuries. His father was 
bred a civil engineer, but turned farmer. He gained a practical 
acquaintance with agriculture in his ow^n home. After receiving 
a good education he became clerk to the factor on the Coltness 
estate. From 1826 to 1831 he was assistant to Lord Belhaven's 
factor, where he mastered the principles of levelling and land 
surveying. From this situation he passed to the office of Messrs. 
Dundas & Wilson, W.S., Edinburgh, the law agents of the Len- 
nox family. Here his duties led him to study the charters on 
various West Country estates, and this gave him quite exceptional 
facilities for obtaining a great deal of interesting information re- 
garding families and lands which was quite inaccessible to the 
general historical student. From among immense masses of de- 
tails he gleaned much that possessed a general or local value, and 
this he turned to excellent account, contributing out of the full- 
ness of his knowledge many papers to the Glasgow Archaeological 
Society, of which he was one of the founders, and at the time of 
his death the acting foreign secretary, and some of these papers 
have been published in the Transactions of the Society. He also 
delivered two lectures on local history in 1863 and 1864 in Len- 
Doxtown, under the auspices of the Campsie Mechanics' Institu- 



224 

tion. He spoke on Campsie antiquities when presiding at the re- 
union in Glasgow of the natives of Campsie and their friends. 
He prepared a memorandum on matters of parochial interest for 
Mr. Robert Blair, session-clerk, Clachan, for Dr. Stewart, Kirk- 
intilloch, and I believe also for others. But I have been mostly in- 
debted to his correspondence with Mr. William Brown, formerly of 
Westerton, now of Johnstone. This extended from 1868 till 
1883. It contains many facts which could only have been learned 
by one having access to the charter chests. I have gleaned much 
in these letters — sometimes a casual remark, a date, the name of 
an individual or of a book giving a clue — and I have pleasure in 
acknowledging this indebtedness to Mr. Galloway's letters and my 
obligations to Mr. William Brown, who has permitted me oppor- 
tunity of leisurely perusal. 

From the office of Messrs. Dundas & Wilson, Edinburgh, he 
was appointed resident factor to Mr. J. L. K. Lennox of Wood- 
head, and he also subsequently had charge of the Craigend estate 
until the death of the late Sir Andrew Buchanan. He was factor 
for the Auchineden, Duntocher, and Bencloich estates for many 
years. He was in his 35th year when he came to Birdston as the 
resident factor on the Woodhead estate. Possessing great mental 
activity, he was an ardent student of history and archaeology, of 
lands and the history and genealogies of their owners. Circum- 
stances now directed his mental energies into tracing the family 
history of the Lennoxes of Woodhead, which required the 
laborious perusal of old charters, titles, and writs. He had thus 
unusual facilities for becoming acquainted with the details of 
local history and the traditions that had been handed down in 
families long connected with the parish. It was his good fortune 
to become acquainted with all classes, and to hear these speak of 
old times, old customs, and events of great parochial interest; 
but while hearing these, he omitted to make notes of them at the 
time, which he afterwards greatly regretted. He confessed he 
did not then appreciate them enough, but preferred plodding 
wearisomely among old parchments and other records of the 
past. Indeed, he says again in one of his letters to Mr. William 
Brown, that he generally gave a small portion of each day to what 
might be called ** fancy " reading and writing, which was almost 
his only relaxation. He indulged in hardly any amusements, 
avoided all kinds of games, sight-seeing of ordinary kinds, or 
political meetings. One of his frreatest and most enjoyed recrea- 
tions was travelling abroad. He visited most of the countries 
of Europe, including France, Switzerland, Holland, Belgium, 
Austria, Germany, Italy, Denmark, Sweden, and Norway. He 
also travelled a great deal in Scotland, England, and Ireland. 
In this way he spent his annual summer holiday, and continued 
these excursions till within a very few years of his death. He 
had Studied the language, literature, history, and people of many i 

countries ; he had an excellent knowledge of painting and music, and 1 



J 



^ 225 



* 



paid many visits to the best picture galleries in Europe, as well as 
to the best collections of antiquities and other objects of artistic 
or scientific interest. He read much in science, especially chemistry 
and geology. His relaxations, foreign travels, good music, and 
historical study were taken, to some extent, from a sense of duty, 
as being, in his opinion, needful for keeping up his strength and 
relish for the daily routine of his regular work. 

He resigned the situation of factor on the Woodhead estate in 
1844 to commence business as land-agent, accountant, and pro- 
perty valuator in Glasgow. In the following year the railway 
mania gave abundant employment to certain professions. He 
was in great repute as a landlord's valuator, and was constantly 
retained in disputes about the value of land required for railway 
purposes. Mr. Galloway left Birdston in 1844, not intending to 
return to the parish, but he was induced to resume his former 
, charge of the estate in 1845. Stipulating that he should be free 
to reside in Glasgow, he fitted up Baldow farm steading as a 
dwelling-house, with a business office, and kept a housekeeper 
and a clerk there. Afterwards he advised Mr. Lennox to get a 
resident factor, and to employ him as a consulting land agent, an 
arrangement which continued till the death of Mr. Lennox. 

He gave much study and research to philology and etymology 
of place names, bringing much knowledge and great patience to 
these subjects ; he had a penchant in favour of Teutonic origins, 
and was fond of deriving from Danish or Norse roots, which 
sometimes led him to rather far-fetched conjectures. But 
apart from his Teutonic leanings, his distrust of monkish 
legends, and strong political and ecclesiastical antipathy to the 
Covenanters, he had accumulated, from his general reading, an 
immense mass of materials into which he strove to breathe a life 
that made their concentrated essence of great interest and full of 
information. He possessed great exactness in his writings and 
work, united with untiring industry and inflexible honesty, and his 
papers and notes were classified and arranged in perfect order, 
archaeological papers, &c., apart from his business papers. It will 
be a great loss to Campsie if his notes are not left in such a state 
of preparedness that they can be given to the public. His own 
letters tell the story of his literary schemes. 

In a letter to Mr. W. Brown, his correspondent at Johnstone, 
of date 11th December, 1868, he says — '* I have squandered many 
precious hours, days, weeks, months, in searching for such food 
and handing it to others who liked to have it without any trouble in 
seeking for it in the same way. Few months pass without demands 
upon me from various quarters for details about families, landed 
property, &c." He took the keenest interest in his investigations 
at Ballagan, drew elaborate plans, and intended publishing his 
discoveries, but from want of leisure was unable to accomplish 
this. Writing to Mr. Brown under date 31st July, 1883, less than 
a month before his death, he says — ** Several literary projects have 



226 

come under consideration as a means of filling up time profitably 
or otherwise. Most probably I shall not live long enough to 
mature any of them, yet I may be able to arrange thousands of 
memoranda I have written and put aside during the last half cen- 
tury that may be considered by others as worth printing. If I 
cannot carry any of these the length of the press, possibly someone 
into whose hands they have fallen may make use of a portion of 
them in that line. One of the series of collections relates to the 
Campsie district, and may be more easily framed up than some of 
the others. If I am enabled to prepare it for the public I believe 
no one will feel more interest in it than yourself." In a letter, 
dafed drd June, 1879, addressed to Mr. William Houston j he 
wrote—" My residence place during the last thirty years has been 
in big Glasgow, and in Campsie it was hardly ten years, yet 
Campsie is still vastly dearer to me than any other part of the 
world, notwithstanding that I am not known to five per cent, of 
its population, and cannot expect that after a few years, more or 
less, I shall be known or remembered by any of them. Mean- 
time, having pleasure in every contribution to true history, espe- 
cially of Campsie, I again thank you for your letter." 

Mr. Galloway died 14th, August, 1883, and was buried at Len- 
noxtown. A handsome tombstone has been erected by his daugh- 
ter, the design of it being that of an old cross in Cirencester, 
which was found among his papers. The plans from this drawing 
were prepared by Mr. John Honej^man, architect, and the stone 
was put up by Mr. J. Mossman. It bears this inscription : — " In 
memory of Alexander Galloway, factor for many years on Wood- 
head, Craigend, and other estates. Born near Symington, 13th 
June, 1802; died in Glasgow, 14th August, 1888. And of his 
children, William, born 11th July, 1840, died 24th July, 1840; 
Alexander William, born 28th February, 1845, died 8th March, 
1845: Eliza Margaret, born 10th October, 1846, died 18th 
February, 1855." 



^ 



THE REV. JOHN GOVANE 



AND 

ii 



SESSIONAL AFFAIRES." 



f 



THE REV. JOHN GOVANE 

AND 

SESSIONAL AFFAIRS. 



The ecclesiastical records of the parish, from its formation up 
to his time, were carried off or destroyed by the Rev. George 
Milne, when he was expelled in 1688. Milne was a zealous 
Episcopalian, and the people would not tolerate him after the 
Presbyterian party had got the upper hand at the Revolution of 
1688. But from a collection of Diocesan records and muniments 
connected with the see of Glasgow, which had been removed for 
safety to France at the Reformation, stored partly at the Scots' 
College and partly in the Chartreuse of Paris and, as far as they 
had not perished, restored to this country in 1798, by the patriotic 
exertions of Abbe Macpherson, and published under the editorship 
of Joseph Bain, F.S.A. Scot., and the Rev. Charles Rogers, 
LL.D., we obtain many incidental references to Campsie. 

The records of the Glasgow Presbytery contain notices of 
Campsie, over which the Presbytery exercised the spiritual over- 
sight which formerly belonged to the office of the bishop, and 
directed the minister, or dealt themselves with grave cases of 
discipline, and insisted on the minister getting his rights with 
dilatory heritors, giving their counsel when asked by minister 
or session. Extracts from the Registers of the Presbytery 
of Glasgow, 1592 to 1601 and 1603 to 1626, have been 
published by the Maitland Club. The original records were 
nearly destroyed and have been much injured by fire. I have 
been privileged to obtain from Sir Michael Connal, on loan, his 
MS. copy of notes of the Presbytery minutes, taken by the Rev. 
Dr. Porteous, Glasgow, before they were injured, a volume which 
will be of great service should I ever deal with the Church history 
of the parish as a whole, by re-writing and extending my lecture 
of 1886 on that subject. 

The ecclesiastical history of the parish is full of interest. 
From the Reformation in 1560 to the Revolution in 1688 Roman 
Catholicism, Prelacy, and Presbyterianism contended with vary- 
ing fortunes for ascendency. The parishioners took sides 
keenly in the great conflict, and the depositions, imprisonment, 
banishment, and expulsion of the clergymen who were acting as 
parsons- or ministers attest the earnestness of the parties and the 



230 

ductuatiDg success that attended the course of the prolonged 
struggle. 

In 1688 Fresbyterianism obtained a complete supremacy, and 
became the established religion of the country, and since that 
time the story of the succession of ministers, while lacking much 
of the excitement of the former period, attains interest from the 
personalities of the various ministers,' their different methods of 
work, and their gifts as preachers, the causes and results of dissent 
in the parish. From 1661, when, rather than conform to 
Prelacy, many ministers were ejected from their livings by the 
then dominant Episcopal party (Mr. Law, the minister of Camp- 
sie, being among those deposed), up till 1688, a period of twenty- 
one years, there had really been two clergymen ministering in the 
parish, one (Mr. Milne) in the church, who also occupied the 
manse, and the other (Mr. Law), who, notwithstanding his minis- 
trations were proscribed, his attached people erected for him, near 
the Burn House, a dwelling-house and little meeting-place. The 
existence of these was brought before the notice of the Duke of 
Lauderdale, and on 26th March, 1678, the Council *^ expect that 
they will cause demolish the meeting-house in that shire erected 
for Mr. Law, as they did for those in the shire of Ayr." Not- 
withstanding, he continued to meet with his own hearers, preach- 
ing to them in conventicles, in the glens, on hillsides, or by night 
in the friendly shelter of some barn or farm outhouse. Meeting 
under circumstances such as these both preacher and hearers wei*e 
in earnest, and the people were edified, and their numbers were 
not only not diminished but actually were multiplied. 

The Revolution of 1688 gave the parish peace, and when Milne 
had been got rid of the people called Law, who, however, was 
then engaged, as one of the leaders of the Church, in attending to 
the interests of the Church and of the Scottish people in the 
settlement then being made by William and Mary, and he could 
not come. He was afterwards called to Edinburgh, accepted the 
call, and became one of the leading ministers in Edinburgh. 

The Rev. John Govane was next thought of. He had only 
been licensed in June, 1688, and was ordained minister of 
Campsie in December of same year. Govane came from a true 
blue Covenanting stock. It was said of him that he was present 
at Both well Brig. He had suffered imprisonment in the Bass 
Rock for attending field meetings and conventicles. He had 
actually been seen speaking to his own brother-in-law the Rev. 
F. Forrester, who was, however, then a proscribed preacher 
For no other offence than merely speaking to his brother-in-law 
(according to Wodrow) he was incarcerated for two years in the 
prison of Stirling. He was therefore a man of strong convictions 
and had the courage of his opinions. In regard to scholarship he 
had been an earnest student and had gained a bursary at Glasgow 
College, which was held by him for three years. He took his 
degree in 1676, and was Preceptor of Hutchesons' Hospital in 



281 

1679. He was strongly, attached to Presbyterianism. "What 
was unusual in those days, be bad studied medicine, perhaps 
having intended at first to become a medical man, and had 
changed his mind during bis curriculum, and had finally chosen 
the ministry. In Campsie be threw himself heartily into his 
work, he was an excellent preacher, and Wodrow refers to him in 
his Church history as " the present worthy and useful minister of 
Campsie." He was also a popular pastor, and, what soon made 
his visits more appreciated, be was always ready to impart the 
benefits of his knowledge of medicine. In time, no matter what 
was the nature of the trouble or the social condition of the patient, 
all classes easerly availed themselves of his medical skill, which 
was ever freely at the call of rich and poor alike. To the latter 
this was indeed a great boon, as when he prescribed for his people 
he never charged any fees for his visits, but gave his advice 
always and sometimes even the medicine gratis. He made his 
people welcome to his medical and surgical knowledge, and re- 
joiced at being able to relieve their physical ills as well as minister 
salvation to their souls. In his personal habits of life he was 
most abstemious. He is said to have lived at his own home like 
a hermit, and must have been in practice a vegetarian, as *^ he 
lived narrowly, and except at the Sacrament flesh was not in his 
house throughout the year." No wonder, says "Wodrow, that he 
left £6000 sterling. He was ordained in 1688, and he died 17th 
Sept., 1729, aged 71, after having been minister of the parish 
for a period of 41 years. It seems tp be assumed that the sum 
of money left at his death had not been acquired by inheritance, 
but was the accumulated savings of his lifetime. Now, while 
I admit there would be many in the parish who would take his 
services without any recognition, yet, on the other hand, there 
would be sufiicient independence and gratitude among his 
parishioners, the heritors, farmers, cottars, &c., as to make them 
readily send him presents of farm produce, peats, cloth, &c., in 
return for his medical services. • These presents, extending over a 
period of forty years, would help to account for the large sum he 
had amassed, and which he left at his death. 

A careful perusal of the records of the kirk-session will impress 
on the reader that Mr. Govane was a man of God, of sincere piety, 
devout, and with a strong sense of duty. As Moderator he was 
calm, impartial, clear beaded, and of strong common sense, always 
averse to precipitate action, always ready to put a fair or chari- 
table construction' on questionable conduct. As long as he was 
Moderator rich and poor were dealt with alike — there was not 
one law or practice for the big landed proprietor and another for 
his ploughman or dairymaid. The Laird of Dumbiedykes need 
not have asked him *' wad siller do naething ? " if that meant 
passing the session without the usual routine. 

The ecclesiastical records of the times after the Reformation 
disclose many singular memorials, cases of discipline which appear 



3d2 

very strange in the present day, and much that, if not useful or 
instructive, is at least curious and amusing. One thing is quite 
clear, there was no regular civil administration of justice or 
steady universal enforcement of the criminal laws. Murders, 
riots, and feuds were common, and even those who had committed 
murder were left unpunished if they were not dealt with by the 
Church courts. It thus came about that the Presbyteries took 
upon themselves the administration of both civil and criminal 
law. They prosecuted murderers and all kinds of criminals, and 
took cognisance of brawling in families and breaches of the 
peace. In every church the kirk-session exercised peculiar 
jurisdiction as well as dealing with breaches of the moral law. 
Delinquents had to appear at the pillar of repentance in the 
church or at the church door, sometimes bareheaded, barefooted, 
and barelegged, or clothed in sackcloth or the penitential white 
linen sheet. The church was not only a house of prayer, it was 
a place of preaching the gospel and of explaining to the people 
the principles at issue in the civil and ecclesiastical questions 
occupying the public mind. But it was far more. "Within the 
walls. Sabbath after Sabbath, delinquents performed penance, 
and were rebuked and admonished before the congregation. The 
work of the " serker " or searcher, in the first minute of the kirk-^ 
session under Mr. Govane's moderatorship (page 233) points to 
duties almost equivalent to those of a Roman Inquisitor, while 
many of the cases dealt with by the session would now be brought 
before a police or sheriff court. Culprits had to appear for three 
several Sabbaths, and on the third occasion absolution was 
formally pronounced. Very frequently the devout-minded would 
be grieved and the frivolous entertained by such appearances. 

In Mr. Govane's time the session were most assiduous in the 
discharge of their duties. The cases dealt with are given some- 
times in great detail, but the whole tone of meetings is most 
creditable to the members of the session. A perusal of their 
records conveys the idea of men solemnly sitting as a judicial 
court, seeking to elicit truth and administer justice, and dealing 
with erring ones falling under the discipline of the church with 
an earnest desire that it should lead to confession, sincere 
penitence and repentance, and re-admission to church privileges, 
from which they had been temporarily debarred. When anyone 
was brought before Mr. Govane's session, charged with some 
transgression, the ^* Moderator entreated him to speak the truth, 
and not add sin to sin by covering it ; that he would consider he 
had to do with a heart-searching God, who would soon or syne 
discover the hidden things of dishonesty ; to be ingenuous in his 
confession of guilty, and to give glory to God." Witnesses when 
called were also warned. The formula in the minute bears — 
^* Called and compeared (so-and-so), and being purged of malice, 
partiall counsell, or good deed done or promised to be done, de- 
poned," diC Cases there were where the woman charged reused 



S33 

to attend when oiled, or when appearing refused to answer the 
questions addressed to her or to disclose the paternity, as« for 
instance, in August, 1690, one on being expostulated with about 
her disobedience in former citations, declared it was not her fault, 
for she was most willing but durst not, being severely threatened 
by the man who had got her into this condition, which was con - 
firmed by the elder of the quarter. Gentle remonstrances were used 
in the first instance, if these did not suffice pressure was brought 
to bear. Where the woman persisted in concealing the name of 
her partner in guilt through fear or from other causes, recourse 
was sometimes had to measures for wringing a confession which 
is calculated to shock public opinion nowadays. A surgeon 
giving evidence before the session, who, being in professional 
attendance in a case of child-birth, and his patient being in his 
judgment in pet^'culo mortis, stated that ** before I would deliver 
her, in the must solemn manner called upon her to declare who 
was father of the child." In another case a midwife in attend- 
ance had made a similar appeal, and she likewise testified before 
the same court. 

The Book of the Sessional Affaires commences with the 
first meeting at which the kirk-session met formally under Mr. 
Govane's moderatorship. The sederunt of 24th June, 1689, con- 
sisted of the Moderator, Mr. John Govean, John Buchanan, William 
Tournor, and D. Young, Elders. The first minute begins thus :— 
*' After prayer, it was thought fit to chuse John Young, in 
Muckcroft, clerk, and accordingly he was called for and unani- 
mously chosen, and the said John Buchanan, being the serker at 
the tyme, is appointed to continue, the rest being of great age and 
likewise at a great distance, till more elders be obtained." In 
regard to the Moderator's unacquaintance with the place it was 
recommended by the Moderator to the said elders that they have 
serious thoughts about some to be added to the eldership, and 
give in the report with all expedition. Then followed the arrears 
of cases of discipline that had accumulated during the vacancy. 
Also the said day Janet Cleg was dilated as guilty of fornication, 
&c. ; also Agnes Murray was delated the same day to be guilty 
of the like ; also Christian Crbm is delated as guilty of fornication. 
After conferring on the subject the elders agreed that Malcolm 
Brown, in Lennox Miln (then a meal mill), and John Shearer, in 
Capieston, were suitable parties for the office. The importance 
they attached to this may be inferred from their resolution that, 
in connection with the ordination of elders, 15th October, 1689, 
it was ordered that upon Thursday ensuing a *^ considerable tyme 
be set apart for prayer for ye Lord's countenance, direction, and 
assistance in that important affaire." In a few years the matter 
came up again, as will be seen from the following minute: — 9tb 
September, 1701.— The said day, in regard to the paucity of the 
number of the elders and the inability of some of them to attend 
the session, and upon the account that they had no deaoons,. 



234 

enjoyned the Elders to make enquiry in their respective districts 
and quarters, anent those persons that they think most fit and 
qualified, both in regard to their knowledge and Christian lives 
and conversation, to undertake such offices, viz., of an elder and 
deacon, and to give a list thereof against next session. 

In due course the elders reported on the most suitable individ- 
uals in their respective districts, and at a subsequent meeting it is 
reported of those designed to be ordained elders and deacons 
that their names were read from the pulpit, and nothing to this 
day objected. It is therefore thought fit that Sabbath next they 
be ordained, and, as previous and preparatory thereto, that upon 
Thursday ensuing a considerable time be set apart for prayer, for 
the Lord's countenance, directions, and assistance in that import- 
ant and weighty affair. 

On next Sabbath, 5th January, 1702, John Brown, William 
Miller, Alexander Miller, John Calder, John Blair, James Brown, 
and Robert Morrison were ordained elders, and John Young, 
Thomas Patrick, and David Robison were ordained deacons. 
It was arranged that the deacons should attend the meetings of 
the session, but only take part in the business that pertained to 
their office, and not vote in session business. 

At the meeting of elders and deacons, after the ordination, 
the sederunt was as follows : — On 5th January, 1 702, Mr. John 
Govane, modr. 

Elders, Elders. Elders. 

John Muir. Robert Reid. Andrew Fergus. 

John Bennie. John Brisbane. Patrick Macklom. 

Malcolm Brown. James Lennox. James Booll. 

William Muir. William Reid. William Muir. 

John Brown. John Blair. James Brown. 

William Miller. Alexander Miller. Robert Morison. 
John Calder. 

David Robison, Deacon. 

John Young, Deacon. 

Thomas Patrick, Deacon. 

Lyhel. — 7th June, 1702. — The said day James Lennox, elder, 
gave in a lybel against Janet Brown, for her scandalizing him 
and his family publicly, before many witnesses, saying that he 
was a covetous wretch, and that he had one face to God and 
another to the Devil, and that he was not worthy to be an elder, 
and that they that made him an elder might have made him a 
cowherd. Five witnesses were adduced to prove the charge. 
Called on to plead, Janet could not deny them altogether, but 
refused the greater part. She objected to some of the witnesses, 
and in reply to the Moderator challenged proof — **Let them 
prove it ; it would never be proved." Fresh witnesses were cited, 
further depositions taken, and the case is fully detailed. Libel 
found proven. 



235 

Alehouses, — April 15, 1690. — Also ye said day the elders are 
appointed to go through the alehouses in the Clachan and places 
adjacent, by turns, immediately after the ringing of the last bell 
(Sabbath afternoon), to see if any be found there drinking, or 
unnecessarily absent from ordinances during the summer time. 

This injunction is repeated again and again, and is carried out 

by the elders, as we find — Reported by the elders who went 

through the alehouses and places adjacent that they found James 

at home. Questioned him how it came he did not attend 

ordinances. Replied his cloathes were so ill he thought shame 

to come into the church, but he said he came ordinarily to the 

back window and heard. James and a number of others who 

were found not attending ordinances were duly cited to attend the 

next meeting of session, when they were dealt with. At that 

time and long aftei: wards ale was the universal beverage in 

Scotland. It was displaced by taxes imposed on malt in the 

end of last century, which were very unpopular at the time^ 

witness — 

We'll mak' our maut, we'll brew our drink, 
Well laugh, sing, and rejoice man. 

To obviate the increased cost of malt the ale was made weaker 
and less exhilarating, and was gradually superseded by the use of 
whisky. 

Testimonials, — On 4th June, 1690, public intimation was made 
to heads of families that no new servants be received into their 
houses from other congregations without testimonials. Elders to 
take notice of any such in their bounds. This is again repeated 
on the 17th May, 1691, with the addition, ** as they will be answer- 
able," addressed to the heads of families. 31 May, 1716. — In- 
timation from the pulpit that such as get servants from other 
congregations take care that they bring testimonials along with 
them. When a domestic servant was leaving the parish she 
applied to the minister or elder for her testimonial. The case 
was taken up at the session. 

25th July, 1691. — Janet Provan appeared and required a testi- 
monial. She being found free of scandal to our knowledge it was 
recommended to the clerk to give. Also a testimonial is ap- 
poynted to be given to Janet Gardner, in New Milne, being free 
of public scandal. 

Compeared Margaret Forsyth, Robert Provan's wife, demanding 
a testimonial to go to Ireland. The session taking into consider- 
ation that there was a surmise of their being guilty before 
marriage thought it fitt particularly to enquire yr anent. The 
sd Margaret being called in and interrogat she denyed yt there 
was any such thing. Ye dark is appoynted to give you a testi- 
monial!, mentioning yr marriage day. 

20th May, 1696. — It is recommended to the elders in yr 
several districts to make strict enqurie anent strangers come to 
the parish at the term, and require testimonialls. 



286 

1st February, 1697. — The same day called and compeared 
James Brown, and being enquired how he came to keep Joan 
McGregor, qo had no testimonial!, notwithstanding of publio 
intimation from the pulpit yt no servants yt. are strangers be 
admitted without testimpuialls, and yt the elders had required it 
once and again. He was appoynted to promise a testimonial!, 
and deliver it to ye elder of the quarter. 

William Fergus for keeping Margaret Knight lykways 
Margaret M'Farlan, and William Bryston for keeping on Mary 
Gordon without a testimonial. This had been done although the 
elders had once and again been at them requiring testimonials. 
Fergus and Bryston cited to appear and he dealt with. 

7th June, 1702. — Janet Somervell is sharply rebuked for her 
forgot testimonial. She was ordered to remove out of the parish 
and told that public intimation would be made from the pulpit of 
her carriage, that none might receive her, under pain of being 
proceeded with before the session. 

The ordinary mode of citation was by the beadle. In cases of 
persistent contumacy the elder waited on the employer and 
requested his influence to get a servant to obey the summons to 
attend the session. If this failed, the accused was summoned by 
name by the minister from the pulpit, in the face of the congre- 
gation. If this failed, recourse was had to the civil magistrate, 
which was always effectual. The censures of the Church in Mr. 
Govane's days were not an empty form that could be disregarded 
with impunity. 

1697.-T- William Lapslie was called before the Session in the 
usual manner by citation by the beadle, but disregarded his three 
warnings by that official. He was then summoned by name by the 
minister, in the face of the congregation, but remained persistently 
contumacious. The deposition of witnesses from the session of 
St. Ninian*s were publicly read before the congregation, and 
Lapslie was summoned to appear before the Presbytery of 
Glasgow. This citation he also disregarded. Reported to Sheriff 
at Stirling, who sent an order to imprison liim until he found 
bond and caution to be obedient to the session's demands, where- 
upon Lapslie got alarmed and caved in, and gave the required 
satisfaction to the session. In 1098, the year following, in a 
case that the Session had issued a citation, Janet Graham, the 
accused, was contumacious and ignored the Session. The case 
was taken before the Justices of the Peace, at Stirling, where- 
upon Janet came to the Moderator and entreated him that the 
session would free her at Stirling and she would give all obedience. 

Attendance at Chvrch and Sabbath Desecration, — In 1697 great 
activity is shown by the session in taking up the cases of those 
who had been irregular in their attendance at church. They 
were called upon by the elders and remonstrated with, and if 
they failed to amend were then cited before the session. The 
visits of the elders had apparently not met with much success 



287 

in some quarters, for, having heard their reports, the session 
appointed two elders to go to those residing at Balgrochan and 
other two to Baldow and expostulate with them ; to hold forth 
their sin and danger in slighting and contemning ordinances, 
withal certifying if they continue to absent themselves they 
will be called before the session. This formal call resulted 
in all of the defaulters promising better attendance in future. 
Some of the absentees gave as their excuse for non-attendance 
that they required to stay at home and attend to their cattle. 
This WHS stated at the meeting, where it is minuted : — Reported 
that some stay from ordinances feeding their horses and kynd on 
the Sabbath day, during the time of sermon. Elders to take 
notice of such and rebuke them ; and this failing, they were to be 
proceeded against in a public way. 

1700. — Reported yt Joan Matthed, servitrix to Alexander 
Miller, did always stay at home from ordinances on the Lord's 
Day, beariug companie to one William Livingstone, she is to be 
cited, and acknowledged yt she had been a considerable tyme 
absent from ordinances ; but yt it was not her dislyke of ordin- 
ances obliged her to stay at home, only she had been sicklie, and 
as for her frequenting the companie of William Livingstone she 
denies it. 

The foregoing refer merely to non-attendance, but breach of 
the Sabbath, by performing acts lawful on other days but not on 
the Sabbath day, was held as profaning the day by . . '* un- 
necessary . . works about our worldly employments." 

Nov. 19, 1691. — The same day reported that Thomas Bennie 
and Marion Brown are guilted of breach of Sabbath in coming to 
David Young's house, in Baldorrau, upon a Sabbath night, seek- 
ing cloves and clevers to guide their lint. They are appoynted 
to be cited to the next session. These two appeared and confessed 
their fault, and promised to have regard to the Lord's Day, and 
they appearing penitent were passed with a sessional rebuke, 
'^ Certifying them, if found guiltie of the lyk that they should not 
so easilie pass." 

On ^rd Sept., 1696. — Called but not compeared James Kipcaid 
and his servants, whereupon they are cited a second time to the 
next session. 10th Oct. — Called but not compeared James 
Kincaid, and his servants, wherefore, &c. 18th Nov. — Called 
and compeared James Kincaid and acknowledged that he had 
caused carry in and thrash some bear for straw to his horse that 
day. He is appointed to appear before the Congregation next 
Sabbath and receive a public rebuke. This was the Laird of 
Kincaid, and his servants having neglected to provide straw for 
his horses he seems to have sent them out either to the Held or to 
the stackyard for a few sheaves of bear, which he caused them to 
thrash on the Sabbath day. His punishment was standing on the 
stool of repentance, and receiving a solemn rebuke in public, 
because) according to one version, on his arriving home on 



288 

Sunday morning from a journey, and finding no food for his 
wearied horse, he sent the groom out to the next field, to cut and 
bring in some, which, by his master's orders, the groom thrashed 
on the spot, as it was entirely owing to his own negligence. 

23rd May, 1708. — James Book delated to be guilty of the 
breach of the Sabbath by taking a cow to the bill. 

22nd August, 1708. — Called and compeared John Buchanan. 
Being interrogated if it was true that he speaned his lambs on a 
Sabbath night, he said it was true, but he was obliged to do it, 
for be had no where to put them. Jt being the first fault, and 
promising not to do the like for the future passed with a sessional 
rebuke. 

Not only was the due observance of the Sabbath rigorously 
enforced, but the Fast-days had also to be kept almost as strictly. 
At the meeting of session 14th June, 1691, it was recommended 
to the respective elders to enquire how the last Fast was observed. 
On 28th June, 1691, it was reported by the elders that they 
heard nothing anent the breach of the Fast, but it had been 
observed. 

Matters evidently were not quite so satisfactory a few years 
after, as the following extracts show: — April, 1702. — Reported 
that John Scot in Balgrochan should have caston peitts the Fast- 
day before the communion, wherefore he is to be cited to the 
next Session. The maid servant was called to prove the charge. 
Being interrogated, said it was too true, and that it was against 
her will, for John Scot compelled her, which Scot admitted. He 
had to appear before the congregation, while the maid got off 
with a sessional rebuke. 

November 22nd, '92. — ^The same day Robert Dunwiddie 
delated as being drunk in Kirkintilloch upon a Saturday night 
and coming home in the Sabbath morning, wherefor he is 
appointed to be cited, <&c. 

8th May, 1697.— The sd day William Fergus in Royt Fair is 
delated as guilty of drunkenness in Kirkintilloch on ane Saturday 
night. 

24 th May, 1697. — Fergus compeared and confessed his drunk- 
enness, and professed sorrow for it, and promised he should never 
be found in the lyke, wherefore the session thought fitt to pass 
him with a sessional rebuke, it being the first tyme, certifying if 
he should be found in the lyke for the future he should not get 
so easilie past. 

October 28, 1697. — The same day "William Angus is delated 
for being drunk and swearing in Kirkintilloch ; William King is 
delated for drunkenness in Kirkintilloch on Saturday and coming 
home on the Sabbath morning with two horse and bringing meal 
in a sack ; William Bolloch, at same session, as to being drunk 
in Kirkintilloch upon Saturday and coming home on Sabbath 
morning with his meall. 

August, 1700. — Delated William Fergus for drinking to excess 



239 

in Kirkintilloch after two o'clock on the Sunday morning 
and wandering through the street wanting the bonnet, and 
vomiting. 

19th August — It was reported that James and John Ronald 
and Francis Calder should have been guilty of horrid swearing 
and cursing as they were going to Drumond with lyme. Cited, 
and passed with a sharp sessional rebuke. 

Another case is recorded wherein the parishioner is charged 
with fighting with his brother and being drunk in Kirkintilloch 
and with calling names. In some of the cases, when the language 
used is specified, it is evident that for coarseness and offensiveness 
it could hardly be surpassed at the present day. 

Not only were the parishioners strictly looked after, but when 
visitors from the neighbouring parishes of Kilsyth and Kirkintil- 
loch got too convivial when seeing their friends, the same was 
duly reported to their respective kirk sessions in order that they 
might be dealt with. 

1701. — Report was sent to the minister of Kilsyth anent Andrew 
Livingstone, James Gray, and John Buchanan, giving account of 
their being too late on a Saturday night about the Roit Fair and 
their being overtaken with drink. 

A charge is made against a female servant of the Lady Bal- 
qurage. Cited and before the session she pleads guilty, the other 
party being a Kirkintilloch man. '^ And ye clerk was enjoyned 
to signifye it to the session of the Lenzie." 

Enforcing attendance at church, and the production of ^* tes- 
timonials " by all incomers ; seeing to it that not only Sabbath 
day but also Fast-days were rigidly observed ; that none tarried 
in the alehouses while they should have been at afternoon church ; 
and the general cognisance of petty misdemeanours, drunkenness, 
and defamation of character — all of these put together did not en- 
gross the attention of Ihe session to the same extent as the con- 
stantly recurring breaches of the seventh commandment by all 
classes in the parish. The Campsie kirk session did all in their 
power to raise the moral tone of the community, with only partial 
success. Two cases might be cited to illustrate the method of 
procedure. 

20th November, 1702.— Isabel B., delated to be with child, 
wherefore she is to be cited to next session. 

13th December. — Being interrogated if she was with child, 
answered affirmatively ; being further enquired to whom, replyed, 
Malcolm Wilson in Killwonant. She is cited apiui acta, and the 
said Malcolm is cited to next session. 

3rd January, 1703. — M. W. appears and denies guilt. Intreated 
by the Moderator to confess and give glory to God by a free and 
ingenuous confession, and not to add sin to sin by a denial, he 
answered he was never guilty with that woman at no time nor in 
no place. Isobel is now called in and informed that Malcolm 
denied guilt with her. She says in his face he was guilty, and 



240 

that his conscience could tell him so much. As Malcolm still 
denied, the Moderator desired her to condescend, in order to fixing 
guilt on him, on time and place and other circumstances as far as 
she could. She then appealed to his conscience if he were not 
guilty on three several occasions which she minutely specifies— 
day, date, and circumstances — ^hut he still denies. After delibera- 
tion the elders of the district are appointed to discourse with 
Malcolm to see if they can bring him to confess if guilty, and they 
were then both called in and cited to attend next session. 

dlst January, 1703. — Reported that the elders appointed to con- 
fer with Malcolm Wilson discoursed him, but could gain no ground 
upon him in order to confession, and with all that he alledged that 
if the matter were thoroughly searched into others might l)e found 
guilty with her, upon which he was called in and questioned there- 
anent, answered she was intimate with George M^Farlan and 
John Ben, and that they had, as she said herself, given her gloves, 
or at least one of them, &c. The Moderator said, **Can you 
make these things good ? Ye would consider that ye are speaking 
before a Judicatory, and therefore would take heed that you say 
nothing save what you can make appear." So he replied it was 
reported him for a truth, and he names certain individuals whom 
he refers to as witnesses. Isobel is called in, denies the counter- 
charges, and asserts she bought the gloves referred to. After 
giving details as to time and circumstances, Malcolm again denies 
having had any dealings with her. He would declare this upon 
oath, though he were going to eternity the next moment. He 
and she are cited apod actci, and their respective witnesses are to 
be cited to the next session. 

21st February, 1703. — Witnesses examined. Malcom is told 
that his witnesses have not made good what he asserted. He 
could not help it, tho' belike it could not be proved, yet it was 
well known she was a light woman. The Moderator said he 
should be careful and take heed not to affirm anything to the 
prejudice of any person's good name but what he could make 
good, and that was not the way to clear himself by aspersing 
others, and therefore entreated him to be free and ingenuous in 
his confession if he was guilty. He replied he was ready to 
declare upon oath he never had carnal dealings with her. Isobel 
called and informed he still denied, said she could say no more, 
but God and his own conscience knew it was truth. The session, 
after deliberation, thought fit to give him the forme of an oath in 
formidable terms, seeing he professed himself willing to give his 
oath and referred it to the Moderator to draw up one against 
next session, and withal that the Presbyterie should be 
acquainted with it before it was taken. Malcom was cited to 
the next meeting. 

1703. — At next meeting Malcom called. Intreated by the 
Moderator to be free and ingenuous and not add sin to sin by an 
obstinate denial of the truth. Answered that though he were to 



24,1 

4ie in a hour he could say no more than he had said, that he 
was oever guilty. The Moderator then caused the Clerk to read 
this form of oath (the Presbytery allowing the same)— -'^ I, 
Malcom Wilson, does swear, by the great and eternal God, that I 
am not guilty of the sin of fornication with Isobel Boyl, and if I 
be, let me never find mercy, but be damned eternally, let me never 
thrive in this world, but some visible judgment be seen upon me." 
Enquired if he was ready to take that oath, he said he was just 
now if we pleased. The Moderator told him it was to be done in 
a more public way, and that he seemed too precipitate in ofiFering, 
yet they would allow him time to consider, and referred it to his 
serious consideration for a fortnight, and cited him to attend 
next session. 

10th April. — Malcolm appears but declines to take the oath. 
Said he was advised and now determined otherwise, because such 
who in like case had given their oaths, tho' never so innocent, 
' were by the most part reputed guilty and so their credit for ever 
broke. But if she would give her oath that she never had carnal 
dealings with any other than him, he would take with the child, 
and do all duty as if it were his own, and so would keep his 
credit. The Moderator told him it would be accounted odd and 
strange' if he were innocent to leave it to her declaration, especi- 
ally as he had asserted once and again she was of bad fame, but 
he adhered and referred it to her oath. She is cited to next meeting. 

30th April.^-Compeared Isobel, and being told the state of 
matters, expressed her willingness to purge herself by oath. The 
session delay till the Presbytery may be consulted. 

23rd May. — Presbytery judge it a matter for the oath to be 
taken before the congregation. Both cited to next session. 

7th June. — Malcom refuses. Refers it to her. If she will 
swear him guilty he will give his bond that he will satisfie the 
church and do all duty to her and the child. Isobel is willing — 
cautioned — the form of oath is read over to her and she is to 
consider it till next session. 

27th June, 1703. — ^Is willing to do it not only before the con* 
gregation but all the world. Is appointed to appear before the 
congregation on Sabbath first and give her oath of purgation. 

25th July. — Reported that she appeared before congregation. 
Oath was read over, and she answered the questions affirmatively* 
Has other eight days to consider oath. 

14th August. — Reported appeared. Moderator till that day 
eight days to consider and lay seriously to heart that oath. 

8th Sept. — Appeared and gave her oath. The minister told 
the people they might now judge charitably of her. Appointed 
to appear before the congregation Sabbath first to be rebuked. 
Malcolm is cited to next session. 

27th Sept — ^Isobel appeared and got her first rebuke. She is 
to confer with James Lennox and Robert Marshall, two of the 
elders, who are to report to next session. 



242 

17th Oct. — Elders reported her sensible of her sin, and she be- 
ing present and professing sorrow for her sin is appointed to appear 
before the congregation Sabbath first to be rebuked and absolved. 

This case was taken up on 20th Nov., 1702, and only concluded 
17th Oct., 1703, having occupied the anxious consideration of the 
kirk session for eleven months and a half. It illustrates the 
great patience and also the determination of the kirk session. 

23rd July, 1704. — Janet Paul delated as guilty of fornication, 
wherefore she is to be cited. 13th August. — Confessed was with 
child to one of the heritors, who is cited for 8th September. He 
compeared and confessed. Appointed to appear before the con- 
gregation Sabbath cum eight days, to be rebuked. It was not 
uncommon to deny stoutly charges which were afterwards con- 
fessed. ^' She thought shame " was the extenuation put forward. 

October, 1704. — ^The Laird appeared before the congregation 
and was rebuked for the first tyme. At interview with elders 
professing his grief for his sin he was appointed to appear before 
the congregation Sabbath cum eight days to be rebuked for 
the second tyme and absolved. Reported appeared, 19tb 
November, 1704. 

A great variety of miscellaneous business comes up from time 
to time, from which I quote a few typical cases. 

March 13, 1690. — The session, taking to their consideration 
that some had been proclaimed in order to marriage for the first 
and second tyme and no more, and nt. all that Justices of 
Peace being wanting in the parish, the penalties could not be ob- 
tained from those who were guilty of fornication before marriage, 
appointed that henceforward the parties to be proclaimed give in 
two dollars for consignation, and that cation be no more admitted. 

26th July, 1691. — The session, considering the mortcloath is 
old and torn, yt their is a necessitie to diminish the pryce, did ap- 
poynt yt henceforward ten shillings Scots be exacted for each time 
of its going out. 

12th August, 1691. — Such difficulty in obtaining the money for 
the mortcloath. Appoynted henceforward shoujid not be given 
out but upon ye receipt of readie money for it. 

1st March, 1699. — Cristan M*Lay is delated for using of charms, 
particularlie directing one Girzell Maiklom to get Sabbath meall 
to end or mend a child. She was cited, and being enquired anent 
her using charms, particularlie directing to seek Sabbath day's 
meall, she denyed yt she bade Girzell Maiklom seek it, only she 
told her yt she had heard of such a thing y t had done good. The 
Moderator told her the evil of using of charms or advysing any to 
use ym. And so she was past, she promising never to be found 
the lyke again. 

25th September, 1707. — Alexander Galbraith compeared 
desyring baptism to his child. The session, considering his 
irregular marriage in being married with a curat, appointed him 
to appear before the congregation Sabbath first to be rebuked for 



248 

the same, in order to his getting the benefit of baptism to his 
child. Alexander duly appeared and was rebuked according to 
church order for his being irregularly married by a curat without 
proclamation. 

14th September, 1788. — J. Carr. Irregular marriage with a 
woman named Clachars, in Kirkintilloch, who owned same. Was 
rebuked before Kirkintilloch session, and on that account only paid 
the kirk dues of this parish. Same meeting another couple sum- 
moned and appeared for an irregular marriage. Were sessionally 
rebuked, but on account of their poverty and on the promise of 
good behaviour in the future only ordered to pay the kirk dues, 
which they accordingly did. 

29th June, 1800. — Two women, as they were both desirous to 
leave the parish as soon as possible, the session allowed them to 
appear before the congregation and be re"buked twice in one day. 
The session, however, do not intend that this shall pass into a 
precedent. 

December 11, 1807. — C S , daughter of a farmer, 

owned her irregular marriage with a labourer in Glasgow, pro- 
ducing at the same time a certificate showing that they had been 
married by a Justice of the Peace, and stating that as she had re- 
turned to her father's house, with an intention not to cohabit 
any longer with him, and he was prohibited from coming into her 
presence, she would consider it a particular favour if Mr. Lapslie 
and the session would take the fine and accept of her acknow- 
ledgment, instead of requiring her husband and herself to appear 
together before them. Agreed to, from motives of delicacy, to 
authorise Moderator to receive her acknowledgment. 

26th August, 1800. — A couple appear and acknowledge an 
irregular marriage. Having owned one another as man and wife, 
and having paid a fine of seventy shillings, they were passed. 

1795. — John Lapslie, tenant of Inchterf, having left a legacy 
to the parish, which the former kirk-session had retained, the new 
kirk-session take steps to recover this, and the old session, now of 
the Relief Church, was found liable, and the treasurer had to 
refund the money. 

£55 of Lapslie legacy in Thistle Bank ; two years' interest at 
four per cent., £4 8s. Pious books bought with this, namely, 
two dozen Confession of Faith and 2 and 7-12 Testaments, which 
exactly exhausted it. 

1797. — Abram Angus, feuar, Balgrochan, called on David 
Gemmell, schoolmaster and session clerk, and asked for a sight of 
the register of baptisms. Was shown the same, in which he dis- 
covered the name of his son William, who, by his age, was liable 
to be balloted for under the Militia Act. He insisted on the 
Registrar altering the date or expunging his son's name, but this 
being refused, Angus forcibly seized the record and tore therefrom 
the leaf in which his son's and other names were recorded, which 
leaf he carried off and destroyed. The matter was reported to 

R 



244 

the Crown agent, who ordered a precognition. John Lennox of 
Antermony and John Stirling of Craigbarnet granted warrant, 
but the matter was settled extrajudicially by Angus offering to 
pay twenty-one pounds sterling as a fine. 

1809. — John Lennox of Woodhead, in celebration and perman- 
ent commemoration of this joyful and auspicious day, in which 
our gracious and beloved sovereign, King George III., enters on 
the 50th year of his reign, makes a donation of fifty guineas to be 
added to the poor's fund of the parish. Reported that the capital 
of the poor's fund of Campsie now amounts by this generous 
donation to £775 6s. 3d. 

1813. — On 28th November, Miss Lennox gave a donation of 
£117 10s. to the poor's fund, thus making up a capital sum of 
£300 to the fund from this family. 

1826. — ^Total stagnation of trade and manufactures and want 
of work for operative classes. Dr. Macleod, in the session, called 
attention to a numerous and distressed portion of the people, who, 
from the infirmities of age or bodily disease, are unable to avail 
themselves of the relief tendered ; especially of a numerous class 
of poor lonely females, many of whom are advanced in life, and 
whose ordinary means of industry, arising from pirn and bobbin 
winding, and also from muslin sewing, are entirely destroyed. 



1 

I 



NOTES AND CORRECTIONS. 



Page 3. Armorial Bearings on LapsKe* 8 Tombstone. — After his marriage 
Mr. Lapslie had so strong a desire to be able to subscribe Armigero that he 
obtained armorial bearings, which are registered thus :—" Lapslie. — Rev. 
James Lapslie, Campsie, Co. Stirling, 1797. Or, an eagle displ. gu. beaked and 
membered sa. surmounted by a fesse engr. az. charged with a bezant betw. two 
buckles of the field. Crest — a passion cross gu. Motto — Corona mea Christus." 

Rev. James Lapslie. — The late James Glen, shoemaker, Lennoxtown, was 
a good scholar and a beautiful writer, and acted as amanuensis to the Rev. 
James Lapslie for a long time, whose hand shook so much he was unable to 
write. His signature before his death was almost illegible. Mr. William 
Brown has informed me that James Glen had stated to him that Lapslie 
had written out a history of the parish going back 900 years, and all that 
he had written had been destroyed by some pranks of his wild sons. 

Page 11. Bats. — Mr. Lapslie used occasionally to hold meetings at Milton. 
On these occasions Forrest, the miller, had as many dead rats collected as he 
could obtain, and had them distributed where Lapslie was to hold his meeting. 

Page 44. Dr. Mdcleod of St. Co/umba's. — I learn on good authority that 
a memorial volume of Dr. Macleod's life and remains is almost ready for 
the press. ■ It will be printed for private ciraulation only. 

Page 59. ^ The Clachan. — Since the lecture on "The Clachan and 
District " was printed, through Mr. James Millar I have heard of a Mrs. 
M'Ewan, who has resided in the same house in Glasgow for nearly fifty- 
two years. Her father, who was named Barr, left Darnley to become 
foreman with Mr. M'Einlay at Glenmill bleachwork, where he had a free 
house and coal. Mary Barr (Mrs. M'Ewan) had been first a " tearer " 
at Lennoxmill, but she was afterwards employed at Glenmill. Her mother 
was a highland woman from Islay, and Dr. Macleod was therefore very 
friendly with the family, who lived in the house subsequently acquired 
by Sandy Norris, quite close to the manse. Mary romped with the 
manse children, and says she has many a time carried Geordie and 
Donald on her back. Norman was then too big for that sort of thing. 
She speaks familiarly of *' the boys with their bits o' kilts and bare legs, 
braw laddies. Donald was a real nice, wee, fat laddie." When the 
old church was dismantled she lifted a bit of wood one day, which she 
had made into a little box. It is in constant household use and was 
shown to me. Mrs M'Ewan is very intelligent, and has a splendid memory. 
She is full of anecdotes of ** Auld Eirkton," from whom she received a bible 
before he went to Rome on one occasion. On his return he made particular 
enquiry as to the use she had made of it. The bible is still carefully 
treasured. She was a great favourite with the Muirs in the inn, and was 
frequently requisitioned as an assistant. She remembers the arrival of the 
first omnibus that had been seen in the Clachan, and has seen as many as 
sixteen carriages standing at the inn, all out filled with people making 
holiday. Some of the visitors brought their own provisions, and the ladies 
of the party laid their table-cloth and picnicked in the glen, having tea only 
in the inn. But the greater part wanted dinner also. When the joints in 
the larder were unequal to the demands and no butcher meat could be got — 
on a Sunday, for instance — the Clachan poultry were killed, girls were set 
to pull the feathers, to pull and shell peas, &c. Being a bright, intelligent 
girl, she was often sent for to act as a guide to parties visiting the glen. 
Her instructions were — " Youll show these people the glen. Let them see 
» The Ladies' Linn,' * The Spout o' Craiglee,' « The Lover's Loup,' * The Bed 
o' Wild Leeks,' " Jacob's Ladder,' and ' The Covenanters' Cave.' " I asked 



246 

what story she told of " The Lover's Loop." Mrs. Muir's version was that 
two sweethearts were sitting at the turn in the road looking down the glen ; 
they had some difference, and the man threw himself over the steep descent. 
I replied the version I had heard as a hoy was that the lover had heen at 
the turn of the road, and that he had seen his sweetheart down below at the 
water side walking with a rival, and that he had, nnder these circumstances, 
taken the wild leap towards the pair at the bottom. The bed of " wild 
leeks " is a mass of garlic, the white flowers of which look beautiful, but let 
the admiring beholder beware of touching the flowers, which leave a strong 
and disagreeable odour on the hands. »*The Covenanters' Cave " is more 
popularly known as ** The Big Linn." The water falls over a projecting 
ledge, and one can pass under this projecting rock from one side to the 
other. This used to be a favourite bathing place, and diving under the 
fall added additional zest. Mrs. M*Ewan recollects the Besurrectionist 
times well. One morning, as her brother was going to his work at Glenmill, 
he saw Babbie Beid's body sticking half out of its grave in the kirk-yard. 
A tall farmer had recently' died, whose body was wanted, and the body- 
lifters had mistaken the grave, and whenever they had ascertained this they 
left the body half drawn out. The cause of the sudden cessation of opera- 
tions in the case of Babbie Beid's corpse was believed to be the knowledge 
of the fact that he had died of a contagious disease, and the Besurrectionists 
were afraid of touching the body, which they had lifted in mistake. Their 
operations were neither seen nor disturbed by any watch, if such had been 
set that evening. On another occasion, coming home along the Howe Loan, 
she heard on a frosty night a most unusual rumbling, crunkling sound. 
There was motion, but no sound of wheels. To avoid meeting those causing 
the noise, whom she considered to be Besurrectionists who had been lifting 
a body in the Clachan, she first thought of hiding in M'Farlan the carrier's 
hay rick, but bethought herself they might want hay, and what if they 
discovered her hiding there ? So she turned and posted herself below the 
Haughhead bridge, near the entrance to Ballancleroch, where she fancied 
she was sure of avoiding them wherever they turned. " And what do ye 
think cam' o'er the brig and splashed at ma very feet — me a bit lassie, 
cowering there in terror — what do ye think now ? " the recollection stirring 
her whole emotional nature. I professed to be unable to conjecture. 
** Weel, just the barrel o' ma ain father's sow. They had poisoned the sow, 
and had rolled the barrel along to the bridge and thrown it over, and me 
hiding there I " She ran through the Kirkton policies and got hpme, where 
she fainted. She had many stories about the kirk-yard. One of a farmer's 
wife, who had been driven almost to distraction by the stories about body- 
lifting. Her husband had been recently buried, and the thought that his 
grave might possibly be desecrated had caused such distress and nervous 
excitement that nothing short of actually opening the grave would satisfy 
her. One day Donald Blair and his assistants opened the grave in her 
presence. When they came to the coffin and struck it the sound indicated 
that the coffin was full. '* Take off the lid." This was done, and the body 
was declared to be there quite undisturbed. Nothing would satisfy 
her short of the evidence of her own senses, and she did not wish the 
coffin raised to the surface. A ladder was procured by which, with the 
assistance of the bystanders, she was enabled to descend into the grave, 
satisfy herself that the grave had been undisturbed, and actually identify 
the remains as those of her husband, besides whose remains she wished her 
own to lie. The mental distress and nervous excitement were at an end, 
and she went up with her mind at rest. 

A Mysterious Alurder. — Mrs. M*Ewan and her mother were one evening 
walking in the Ha' End. when they both heard faint cries of murder I 
mnrder I proceeding from up the Ward Brae or the glen. They were both 
frightened, and Mary caught her mother's arm and supported her till they 
got into their own cottage. She then raised an alarm in the clachan. A 
number of men got lanterns, and they went up the glen to the turn of the 
Craw Boad, but heard or saw nothing. A dog belonging to Ferguson the 



247 

shepherd, who resided at AUanhead, one day uncovered some human remains 
— the hair and teeth of a young woman. It then transpired that a strange, 
fair-haired young woman had heen seen leaving the Clachan in the com- 
pany of " Scufify " Brown the evening that the cries of murder had been 
heard, and the suspicion of some foul play having occurred took possession 
of the Clachan. Search was afterwards renewed and in a soft bit of marshy 
ground a box was discovered with the body of a young woman crushed into 
it. No leeral proceedings were taken beyond some enquiries, but the 
Clachan folks had no doubt in their minds, and this deepened their aversion 
to Scufify, who was regarded as the murderer. The young woman had been 
enquiring the way across to Fintry, and had incautiously mentioned that 
she was taking home her half-year's fee, which she had secreted in the 
" tourie " on her crown. Scufify, it was considered, having overheard about 
the fee had volunteered to shew her the way till she got on to the (^raw 
Road. No further tidings were heard of her till the dog discovered the 
spot where the body was lying concealed. The young woman had left her 
trunk at Bulloch's shop, Lennoxtown, where it lay long unclaimed. Mrs. 
M*Ewan'8 husband was a mason from Criefif, who came to the building of 
Lennox Castle, where he was employed for some years. The masons at the 
castle were paid 24s. per week, while in Glasgow the summer wages were 
only 18s. per week ; in winter less, with broken time when weather was un- 
favourable. Mary was married in 1837, and has lived in Glasgow, since 
about 1839. 

Page 68. Mr. John M^FarlarCs Inscription. — This inscription was written 
by Lord Jeffrey and his own son David, the father of Lieut. -General David 
M^Farlan, and not by Lord Brougham or Lord Cockburn. 

Page 78. Clachan Characters. — I have omitted Bettach Scott and Wee 
Black Meg, who lived with her. Mrs. M'Ewan says Bettach had a free house 
and other than visible means of support. Meg's father had been brought 
from India by Captain Lennox, as his servant, and then became the black 
footman at Woodhead. He was always called Lennox. Meg was therefore 
a Eurasian, her dark hair and dusky skin indicating Hindoo paternity. 

Page 81. Spots of White Paint symbolical of Tears. — The late Miss 
Catherine M*Farlan recollected the Auchinreoch pew in the Clachan 
Church being painted black after the laird's death, and white spots of paint 
dotted all over it, to symbolise tears. 

Page 83. The Craw Road. — The new Craw Road was formed towards 
the end of last century mainly through the exertions of Mr. Dunmore of 
Ballindalloch and Mr. Peter Spiers of Culcreuch. &c. The gradients were 
made so that wheel traffic could go over it. The old road, with its steep 
gradients, was made at a time when nearly all traffic across Campsie Muir 
was carried on horseback. The term a " load of meal," meaning thereby 
two bolls, is not yet obsolete, as in these old times two bolls were the load 
for a horse. Coals formerly were carried on horseback in sacks, and a load 
of coals was 3 cwts. 

Page 87. David WiMe. — The Rev. Norman Macleod knew Wilkie, and 
it has been daid that he was the prototype of ** Jock Hall," in his story of 
The Starling. 

Page 97. Parish Mills. — The dwellers in the barony were not only com- 
pelled to have all their grain ground at the barony mill, but the vassals 
were held bound under their charters to assist in bringing home the mill 
stones, in upholding the mill, and repairing the mill dam and inlaid, or mill 
lade. 

Page 101. James M'' Gilchrist in Portugal. — Mr. James M'Gilchrist has 
informed me that the incident did not happen to him. Though I am 
mistaken in the individual addressed the incident is a true one. 

Page 104. Jamie Foyer and the j^^nd. — The Campsie militia contingent 
were drafted into the Perth militia, and in the year 181 1 six hundred men 
volunteered from the Perthshire militia into the 42nd — 

From the Perthshire Militia to serve in the line, 
The brave forty-second we sailed for to join. 



248 

Mr Dayid Russell, of 175 Slatefield Street, Glasgow, an old sergeaat of the 
42nd, wrote in 1888 an interesting series of sketches in the Kirkintittoch 
Heraldi and compiled a most interesting chronological summary of the 
Regimental history for the Glasgow Evening Times on the eve of the 
unveiling, at Aberfeldy, by Lord Bredalbane, in 1888, of the monument to the 
Black Watch, with the object of interesting the present residents of Campsie 
and Kirkintilloch in the natives of these parishes who so gallantly served 
their country in the Highland regiments, particularly the 42nd and 71st. 
The Robert Perry in whose arms young Foyer breathed his last was said 
to have been a Campsie man. Mr Russell hoped thereby to have some 
suitable memorial erected to their memory. Up till the present time his 
good intentions have been without result. 

Pages 132-184. List of Ministers. — The list of ministers given does not 
profess to be complete. I have been reminded that Mr. Alexander Mac- 
kenzie, lime-work contractor, Lennoxtown, referred to on page 190. had a 
son, the Rev. James R. Mackenzie, who was minister of the Scottish 
Episcopal Church, Helensburgh, 1835-44. He died in the latter year, and 
was buried at Lennoxtown. The name of James Allan, who was a minister 
in New South Wales, has been added at foot of page 156. 

Page 169. Coal and Lime Woi'kings in the Parish. — Both coal and lime- 
stone were worked on each side of the Glazert, near New Mill Farm 
steading eastward, a century ago, on the estates of Glorat and Kincaid. 
The workings were resumed on the Glorat side, east of New Mill, about 
1860, but were- soon given up. The site of these lime kilns is now covered 
by the house and grounds of Fingarry. Campsie limestone has always had 
a good name. It is said that it was used in the erection of Glasgow 
Cathedral. At present sampled fairly and analysed carefully for trade 
purposes, it gives — 

Lime, ------- 91*45 

Lime carbonate, ----- 3-45 

Oxide of iron and alumina, - - - 4*10 

Insoluble matter, . . . - i 



100 

Page 179. James Stirling out in the '45 — "Burry" was in personal at- 
tendance on the Prince when he was in Edinburgh. In the Memoirs of the 
Jacobites of 17 J 5 and 1745, by Mrs. Thomson, vol. iii., it is stated that 
when Prince Charlie rode through St. Anne's yard into Holyrood House, 
*' he was joined upon his entering the Abbey by the Earl of Kelly, Lord 
Balmerino, Mr. Hepburn of Keith, Mr. Lockhart, yr. of Carnwath, Mr. 
Graham, yr. of Airth, Mr. Rollo, yr. of Powhouse, Mr. Stirling of Craig- 
barnet, and several other gentlemen of distinction." 

Page 183. Glorat. — The heir apparent to Glorat is Sir Charles Stirling's 
son, George Stirling, born 4th September, 1869, who was educated at Eton 
College and Sandhurst Royal Military College. He was gazetted a second 
lieutenant in the (56) Essex Regiment, November, 1889, which regiment he 
joined at Cyprus in January, 1890, and where he is now (May, 1892) 
serving. The portion of Glorat built in 1879 is named the Ladies* Tower. 

Page 193. Burying Places. — There is a tradition of interments having at 
one time been made in the Sterriqua Farm, on Kincaid Moor, and of some 
slight skirmish having taken place there when Cromwell's troops were 
quartered in Glasgow. The Kincaid Moor was taken in about the be- 
ginning of the present century, and divided between the farms of French 
Mill, Sterriqua, and Temple. 

Page 209. Rights of Pasture on Comriion Lands. — Many of; the lands at 
Torrance had rights of pasturing so many cows, or of pasturing and grazing 
cows and a horse, or a mare with a foal, on certain specified common moors. 



APPENDIX. 



CALICO PRINTING IN CAMPSIE, 



-^S^-^^^t^* *^ f* 



CALICO FEINTING 



IN CAMPSIE 



BEING 



SKETCHES OF ITS RISE AND PROGRESS IN THE PARISH, 



WITH 



JOTTINGS AND REMINISCENCES CONCERNING 

EMPLOYERS AND EMPLOYED, TRADES, 

STRIKES, FRIENDLY SOCIETIES, Sfc. 



BY 



JOHN CAMERON, v^.P., 



KIRKINTILLOCH. 



KIRKINTILLOCH: 
D. MACLEOD, HERALD OFFICE, COWGATE STREET. 

1891. 



< 



PREFACE. 



A PORTION of the following pages was read as the opening 
lecture of this winter's course of the Campsie Yoiing Alen's 
Association. At the request of the editor of the Kirkintilloch 
Herald the MS. was placed at his disposal. The copious 
notes published in that newspaper from week to week have 
awakened an unexpected amount of local interest, and have 
been the means of placing additional information within my 
reach. 

I have incorporated in the lecture some of the newly- 
acquired facts and anecdotes. I have also included extracts 
from some of the letters I have received. At the suggestion 
of a number of old Cauipsonians, who are no longer connected 
with the parish, but who still take the deepest interest in its 
concerns, I have been induced to publish it in a more compact 
form than the columns of a weekly paper. 

I am collecting information concerning the parish, and will 
be glad to receive notes on any matters affecting Campsie. 
I take this opportunity of cordially thanking all who have 
assisted me with materials for the present paper. 

South Bank House, 
Kirkintilloch, January, 1891. 



CALICO PRINTING IN CAMPSIE. 



INTRODUCTORY. 

Calico printing has been practised from time immemorial in 
India. In that country, it is alleged, manufacturing processes 
have undergone little change for nearly three thousand years, 
and not only was the art of using mordants well known, but also 
that of resist pastes, in order to preserve the cloth from the action 
of the dye-bath. 

Pliny, the Roman author, who lost his life at the ag€ of 56, 
owing to the eruption of Mount Vesuvius, in August, 79 a.d., 
describes in his " Natural History" the processes that prevailed in his 
time in Egypt. In Book xxxv. chap. ii. he says : " Robes and white 
veils are painted in Egypt in a wonderful way : being first 
imbued, not with dyes but with dye-absorbing drugs, by which 
they appear to be unaltered, but when plunged for a little in a 
cauldron of boiling dye-stufp, they are found to be painted. 
Since there is only one colour in the cauldron, it is marvellous 
to see many colours imparted to the robe, in consequence of the 
modifying agency of the excipient drug. Thus . . . the cauldron 
is made to impart several dyes from a single one, painting while 
it boils." 

About the middle of the Seventeenth Century commercial enter- 
prise made the nations of the West acquainted with the brilliant 
colours of the Orient, and attempts were soon made in Europe to 
imitate them. France lost much and this country gained im- 
mensely by the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes, in 1685, by 
which the French Protestants were obliged to flee to this and 
other countries for shelter. To their adopted countries they 
caiTied their intelligence and skill, introducing arts and manu- 
factures hitherto unknown amongst ourselves. The merit of 
originating calico printing in England belongs to a Frenchman, 
who commenced it in a small work on the banks of the Thames 
at Richmond, in 1696. Afterwards a large establishment was 
started at Bromley Hall in Essex. It was only in 1768 that it 
was introduced into Lancashire, where it has since developed to 
such a wonderful extent. 

When the chintzes of Malabar were first imported by the East 
India Company, the silk weavers of Spitalfields, roused by the 



fear that their craft was in danger, assailed in a notous manner 
the East India House. In deference to the clamour for protec- 
tion for the native industries, Government imposed heavy duties 
on the importation of Indian calicoes, and in 1700 went further 
and prohibited their importation altogether. But calico print- 
works were now erected, and their productions were finding 
their way to the home markets, to the dismay and alarm of 
those interested in the silk and woollen industries. These 
trades succeeded in persuading Parliament to pass a law in their 
interests, and in 1 720 the wear of all calicoes, foreign or British, 
was prohibited. This was going too far, so in 1730 a new enact- 
ment was made on the subject, whereby British calicoes, only 
made of cotton weft and liihen warp, were permitted to be printetl 
and worn, subject to an excise tax of 6d for every square yard of 
calico printed, stained, painted, or dyed. This tax was afterwards 
reduced to 8^d per yard, and subsequently repealed. It was not until 
1774 that cloth made entirely of cotton was allowed to be printed, 
although it whs known to be better adapted for taking in the 
colours equally than mixed webs of cotton and linen. Oppressive 
fiscal laws and stupid restrictions hampered this great industry 
till 1831, when they wei'e repealed. Its development has pro- 
ceeded by leaps and bounds ever since. 

CALICO PRINTING IN SCOTLAND. 

Calico printing was not introduced into Scotland until 1738. 
The Cart, the Clyde, the Leven, and the Glazert, and in later 
times the Blane, were seized on as affording the necessary water 
supply. The discoveries of James Watt and the steam engine 
gave other motive power than the fall of water, but a plentiful 
supply of pure water was indispensably necessary for the processes 
then in vogue, more particularly for bleaching, &c. These pro- 
cesses were extremely tedious. The cloth was spi*ead on the 
grass, and exposed to the air, light, and moisture. Weeks and 
even months were at first occupied in the various processes 
of bleaching. These consisted of steeping in alkaline lyes, 
which was called bucking, washing clean, then steeping in 
buttermilk. Afterwards it was discovered that bv substi- 
tuting water acidulated with sulphuric acid for the sour milk, a 
great saving of time was effected, so the sulphuric acid superseded 
the milk. Spreading it on the grass and watering it, and leaving 
it exposed to the atmosphere was called crofting. All this was 
changed mainly by the skill of two men — Charles Tennant, then 
a bleacher at Darnley, near Glasgow, and Charles Mackintosh, 
one of the founders of the Alum Company, and for some years a 
resident in Antermony House. They discovered that a weak 
solution of chloride of lime effected as much in a few hours as 
had, up to that time, required as many weeks or even months. 
The idea of saturating slaked lime with chlorine was suggested by 



f 

Mr Mackintosh, then at Crossbasket. Tennant took out a patetli 
in 1798 for a liquid compound of chlorine and lime, but this 
patent was set aside by a combination formed of almost all the 
bleachers in Lancashire. The case was tried before Lord Ellen- 
borough and a jury. The verdict of the jury and the decision of 
the judge was given on the ground that bucking with quick-lime and 
water was not a new invention, or, in other words, that because 
one part of the process was not new the whole patent 
should be set aside, a decision contrary both to law and equity. 
The following year Mr Tennant obtained anothor patent for 
impregnating dry hydrate of lime with chlorine gas. This inven- 
tion was not contested ; so the manufacture of solid chloride of 
lime, generally known as bleaching powder, was commenced at 
St. Bollox, Glasgow. It was found that this process combined 
economy, celerity, and safety ; and its use became universal. 

The cotton trade was the result of the inventions of Hargreaves, 
Arkwright, Crompton, Carpenter, and others ; improved and per- 
fected by other mechanicians. The use of cotton, for the pro- 
duction of tissues, was very limited before the time of Arkwright, 
whose first patent was only taken out in 1769. But from the 
discoveries in making cloth from cotton have grown up " the 
largest manufacture, the largest trade, some of the largest cities, 
the largest revenue, and the largest national prosperity in the 
world." They certainly have given rise to calico printing. Thc>e 
combined have created an enormous demand for cotton. When 
the Campsie Works were being erected in 1785-86, the total im- 
ports of cotton into this country was less than twenty million lbs., 
no part of which was furnished by America. The price of cotton 
yam, 100 hanks to the lb., was 38s per lb. When Dalglish, 
Falconer, & Co., restarted Lennoxmill, in 1805, the price of this 
cotton yarn had fallen to 7s. lOd. per lb. 

ITS BENEFITS TO CAMPSIE. 

Since the introduction of Calico printing into Scotland the 
whole practice has been changed £|^ain and again, in the methods 
of printing, bleaching, dyeing, and finishing, and also in the 
materials of the colours and dyestufPs. Yet in all these changes 
very little inconvenience has been caused to those employed. 
The parish of Campsie owed much to its printfields, and land- 
owners, farmers, merchants, and the working classes have all 
shared in the prosperity they have brought. Their introduction, 
progress, and success must possess interest to all natives of the 
parish ; and in Lennoxtown, in an association the great majority 
of whom are interested directly or indirectly with Lennoxmill, it 
seemed an appropriate subject for my lecture on the occasion of 
the opening of your winter course. After this lengthy introduc- 
tion, I shall take up the three Fields, in the chronological order 
of their commencing. But I shall linger longest on Lennoxmill, 



and give full scope to my own personal reminiscences or gleanings, 
gathered from many sources and from many old personal friends, 
who have kindly assisted me. The collecting of the details has 
been a labour of love and a source of pleasure, and I take this 
opportunity of thanking all who have so readily helped me. 



KINCAID, OR EASTER FIELD. 

A firm of Glasgow merchants, who carried on business under 
the style of Henderson, Scrapie, & ('o., were the first to introduce 
calico printing to the parish, in the year 1785. It would appear 
that they commenced operations at first in a very small way at 
Cannerton, and hence the name of the Cannerton Field was at 
lirst applied to Kincaid Printfield, where they proceeded to erect 
works on a larger scale. They feued the land required for their 
purposes from Mr. Kincaid of that ilk, on a 99 years' tack, paying 
for it at the rate of £3 per acre. They dug a reservoir 120 yards 
long by 70 yards wide for maintaining a supply of water in sum- 
mer, and also obtained a supply from the Glazert by a lade. 
Henderson, Semple, & Co., after carrying on business for a few 
years at Kincaid, gave it up, and the laird of Kincaid had the 
works, which they had erected on his land, thrown upon his hands. 

PIONEERS IN REFORM. 

It was while Henderson, Semple, & Co. were carrying on 
business in Kincaid that, after a meeting held at Milton, in 
November, 1792, at which Thomas Muir of Huntershill was 
the principal speaker, an association in favour of reform was 
formed, which was the first political organisation of the kind ever 
instituted in the parish. Its members were chiefly drawn from the 
workers in Kincaid and Lennoxmill printfields, to whom the 
honour of having been local pioneers in a great cause must be 
accorded. Their society was called the Friends of the People. 
When Thomas Muir was put on his trial for sedition. Rev. James 
Lapslie tendered himself as a witness for the prosecution, but 
among the witnesses for the defence I find the names of the 
following Kincaid people : — John Buchanan, foreman ; Robert 
Hendrie, Patrick Horn, James M^Gibbon, printers; Smollett 
M'Lintock, John Edmund, block-cutters, &c. 

DISCREET VALOUR. 

There is a story told yet in Milton of a great Radical 
gathering that was held at the top of the Cannerton Brae. 
The speakers strongly denounced the Government of the day, and 
appealed to their hearers to be up and doing, and these sentiments 
were greatly applauded. The applause was interrupted by a sound 



as of horses trotting briskly through the Birdston Haughs. The 
suspicion that the authorities might have heard of the meeting, 
and were sending cavalry to take the ringleaders, seized the crowd. 
There was no longer doubt that it was the sound of horses' hoofs 
coming from Birdston. Might there not be a party in the Nappy 
Loan or between them and Milton ? Acting on sudden impulse and 
panic, the crowd bolted through the fields, crossed the Glazert, 
and gained the Antermony Road by the " Castle," from which the 
approach of the troopers could be safely watched. Imagine their 
disgust when they saw the cause of their sudden flight, all uncon- 
scious of the commotion he had caused, riding on a bare-backed 
cart horse, leading other two horses, one on either side of him. This 
was Hetherington, the carter, who had been over at Kirkintilloch 
having the horses shod — horses well known to them all, being 
regularly employed carting coals from the pits at the " Derries " 
to the Wester Field, as Lennoxmill was then commonly called. 
The brave words followed by such a display was long a good joke 
at the expense of the extreme reformers. 

THE INGLIS FIRM. 

Henderson, Semple, & Co., had in their employment as clerk a 
young man named David Inglis, a native of Glasgow, who had 
been in his youth a clerk in a Glasgow warehouse, and had at 
one time occupied the same lodgings and slept in the same bed 
with Michael Rowand, afterwards the well known banker in 
Glasgow. Mr. Inglis' late employers had acquired the land 
and had then erected the works themselves, but he now obtained 
a lease of the works as they then stood from Mr Kincaid. Mr 
Inglis started under the great disadvantage of insufficient capital 
to carry on his work. He struggled on manfully, however, but 
with very indifferent success, as he was obliged to compound 
three times with his creditors, on the last occasion paying a 
dividend of 2/6 per £, which obtained for him the nickname of 
'* Half-crown Davie." In course of time Mr Inglis assumed his 
son Henry as a partner, changing the style of the firm to D. & H. 
Inglis. Henry did not remain long in the business, dying 
when comparatively a young man. After his death Mr 
Inglis obtained the assistance of his son David, who had gone out 
to Spain, where he was engaged in the wine trade. When carry- 
ing on business with his son David he had the good fortune to 
have a large legacy left him by a medical friend in Edinburgh. 
This, according to popular report, amounted to a sum of forty 
thousand pounds. In the midst of his embarrassments he was 
wont to say he had been born with a silver spoon in his mouth. 
When the good time came at last he retired from business, and 
built a villa at Ardrossan, where he died a few years afterwards. 

Mr Inglis belonged to the old school, now happily almost 
extinct, who interlarded conversation with habitual swearing. 



16 

lie was a vigilant critic of the doings of his work-people. One 
very decent man, very tall and very thin, married a bonnie little 
woman, who was comely in face, but very stout. This pair Mr Inglis 
characterised as *^ the kirn and the kirn staff." He had to let a 
worker, Kigg, but popularly called Raggs, know his opinion when 
at the Chartist Sunday meeting. Bob VVingate, a layman, had 
christened Riggs' child, " John Frost Raggs." Mr. Inglis declared 
it was a bad mixture, ** Frost" and " Raggs." 

Mr. Inglis kept a good table, dined at four o'clock, drank his 
pint of port every day, and when he came down to the work at 
five o'clock used stronger language and was niore exacting and 
difficult to please than in the forenoon. At his dinner parties he 
seems to have insisted on each of his guests finishing his bottle of 
old port. When Dr. Finlayson was one of the party this was a 
terrible ordeal for the doctor, who was a very temperate man, and 
he could not stow away a whole bottle with impunity. The cir- 
cumstance was the occasion of a good deal of chaffing among the 
circle who met round the dining table at Kincaid. Indeed, in 
this connection a wonderful change has taken place in social 
customs. In the first quarter of this century the doctors in the 
district were rather convival and too fond of whisky toddy. A 
shrewd local observer has said that the women in the parish were 
mostly to blame for this : their mistaken kindness fairly demoral- 
ising them, for they insisted on administering a dram at every 
professional call. They never grudged the whisky, but some of 
them looked rather blank when the doctor reminded them that his 
professional account was still unpaid, having probably been over- 
looked. 

After his father's retiral Mr. David Inglis, jun., obtained the 
services of Mr. Alexander Duncan, then of Ruthveniield, near 
Perth, as managing partner. On Mr. Inglis's death, Mr. Duncan's 
father and brother Archibald, and brother-in-law Pender, gave 
up their work at Ruthvenfield, and they all joined in carrying on 
Kincaid. I remember the brothers Duncan well, as they occupied 
the Kincaid pew in the Parish Church. They were tall hand- 
some men, with wavy raven locks, high foreheads, and gentle, 
refined manners. Hamlet's description could be applied to them 
both, particularly to the elder, Alexander: — 

See, what a grace was seated on his brow : 
Hyperion's curls ; the front of Jove himself ; 
Ad eye like Mars, to threaten and command. 

« * * « « * 

A combination and a form indeed, 
Where every god did seem to set his seal 
To give the world assurance of a man. 

The two brothers had married two sisters. The ladies were very 
handsome; indeed, the two couples reminded me of the **fair women 
and brave men " of the poet. A number of their work people 



11 

came with them from Ruthvenfield. While they took the greatest 
interest in all their workers, they regarded these with special 
interest, and this kindly feeling was cordially reciprocated. A 
female teacher was employed by the firm to hold a school in the 
Red Row for girls and little children. Mr. A. Duncan and Mr. 
Pender took great interest in the Sabbath school, in which they 
had classes. The Messrs. Duncan did business largely with 
Messrs. John Monteith & Co., of Glasgow. Some of my 
present audience will remember Mr. Monteith residing first in 
Antermony House and afterwards in Ballancleroch. Mr. Mon- 
teith's connection with the Western Bank of Scotland is well 
known. The large unsecured advances to his firm was one of the 
causes of its stoppage. When the bank closed its doors in No- 
vember, 1857, Mr. Mouteith's firm at once suspended payments, 
and this ruined the Messrs. Duncan, and caused the stoppage of 
their works. The Messrs. Duncan removed to England, and 
Kincaid was unoccupied for two years. 

During the block-printers' strike, in 1834, which I refer to at 
length under Lennoxmill, where the Enniskilling Dragoons were 
quartered, a detachment of twenty men from the 82nd Regiment 
was protecting Kincaid ; and a similar number of the 68th Regi- 
ment had Lillyburn under their care. These soldiers were billeted 
in Milton, and were on duty there for about six months. They 
were relieved weekly, the reliefs marching to and from Glasgow 
on certain days, and always at the same hours. Of course the 
boys of those days soon learned this, and were waiting to see 
the " sodgers." At this time also, officers from the Criminal In- 
vestigation Department, Edinburgh, were posted at Milton, 
during all the time the military were occupying the village. They 
were to act only in the event of disturbances taking place, or any 
breach of the law. 

CALDWELL & RITCHIE. 

In 1860 Messrs. Caldwell & Ritchie transferred their works 
from JCelvinhaugh Field, Glasgow. The partners, who now 
became tenants of Kincaid, were Finlay Caldwell and William 
Ritchie. Previous to 1852 they had been engaged with Messrs. 
Neil & Co., calico printers, Pollokshaws, Mr. Caldwell in charge of 
the block printers and Mr. Ritchie as colour maker. In 1852 they 
resolved to commence business on their own account, encouraged 
thereto by the good times and the very remunerative prices then 
prevailing. They accordingly started in Kelvinhaugh. Prosperity 
attended the new " Field," their business increased beyond the 
accommodation which Kelvinhaugh afforded, hence they trans- 
ferred to Campsie in 1860, when they took a nineteen years' lease 
of Kincaid Field. On its completion in 1879, as both partners 
had only sons in the business, the original partners retired that 
year in favour of their sons, who continued under the same style. 



1 



1^ 

tn the autumn of 1884 an extensive fire consumed the ward- 
house and entire finishing department, and threw some hundreds 
of workers out of employment for a few months. The Field was, 
however, speedily rebuilt and remodelled, the utensils and ma- 
chinery that had been destroyed being replaced by others of the 
latest and most improved kinds. Mr. James Caldwell retired from 
the firm in 1888, when he ceased to reside in the parish. Mr. 
William Ritchie, jun., is now the sole partner. He has built for 
himself a beautiful house on the Waltry burn, which he has 
named Waltry. Mr. Ritchie, sen., has been spared to enjoy a 
well-earned leisure, and to see the continued prosperity of the firm. 



LENNOXMILL. 

In 1786, the year after Kincaid had been started by Henderson, 
Semple, & Co., another Glasgow firm, who traded under the style 
of Lindsay, Smith, & Co., took a lease of 30 acres of land for a 
period of 99 years, at a rental of £3 per acre. On this land they 
forthwith proceeded to erect a printfield. The site of the new 
work was adjacent to a mill called Lennoxmill. It was at first 
called the Westerfield, to distinguish it from Kincaid or the East- 
erfield, but in course of time it came to take its distinguishing 
name from the old meal mill. The Rev. James Lapslie, in his 
account of the parish, mentions that it was considered to be well 
planned and laid out, and for that day ^* uncommonly commodious." 

There was no village of Lennoxtown then, and the starting of 
a public work gave a great impetus to the building trades to pro- 
vide accommodation for the workmen. Lindsay, Smith, & Co. 
had the terrace at Whitefield erected. Demand was soon followed 
by supply, and the Newtown of Campsie, as distinguished from 
the Clachan, or old town, rapidly sprang up and developed into a 
thriving village, as the houses were occupied as soon as they were 
finished. Shops followed, to supply the necessaries of life. The 
two " Fields " caused a great demand for labour, and this abund- 
ant employment for young as well as older workers attracted 
families from other districts less favourably situated in this respect 
A spirit of activity and progress became general and characterised 
the people of the district in all their dealings. 

The transformation effected in two or three years was some- 
thing astonishing and at first acted like an irritant on Mr. Laps- 
lie, the minister of the parish. The quiet secluded valley, with 
its lairds, farmers, and graziers, its millers, weavers, and cottars, 
was suddenly filled with the stir and energy of an industrial centre. 
The total population of the parish in 1789 was only 1627. In 
1793 it had risen to 2517, mainly owing to the abundant employ- 
ment to be obtained in the printfields having attracted families to 
the parish. According to the Statistical Account the two Fields 
employed the same number of " hands." In each work there 



13 

were 37 block printers, 37 tearers (all boys), 22 copperplate 
printers and assistants, 160 pencillers, 16 cutters and engravers, 
2 millwrights, 8 labourers, 8 furnace men, and 2 excise officers. 

In 1793 the wages paid to the various classes of workers were 
as follows, per week : — Block printers, 18/ to 21/; copperplate 
printers, 17/ to 20/; engravers and cutters, 18/ to 21/; labour- 
ers 7/ ; pencillers (women), 5/ to 6/; masons, 11/; millwrights, 

lo;. 

In the Statistical Account, Mr. Lapslie laments what he calls the 
sudden transition from strict to loose manners by those attracted 
by the employment to be had in the " Fields," who, he adds, were 
not attentive to regularity of conduct. But, he admits, this soon 
improved ; the worst gradually left and the more sober and indus- 
trious remained ; so that by 1793 things had greatly improved, 
morals having become more regular than they had been when 
the works were commenced. 

I have been unable to glean any information regarding the 
individuals who composed the firms who introduced calico print- 
ing at Kincaid and Lennoxmill. Lindsay, Smith, <& Co. is a 
name few in Lennoxtown have ever heard of, yet they were the 
pioneers of an industry which called Lennoxtown into existence, 
which has ever since been mainly dependent on Lennoxmill for its 
prosperity. Owing to commercial embarrassments, Lindsay, 
Smith, <& Co. stopped their works about the beginning of the 
present century, when their connection as individuals with the 
parish would appear to have ceased entirely. The workers betook 
themselves elsewhere in search of employment; the houses 
recently erected and hitherto fully occupied were left tenant- 
less, and soon fell into disrepair, the broken windows and empty 
houses giving the village a most forlorn and deserted appearance, 
which happily it has never since presented. Lennoxmill was 
unoccupied for some years, notwithstanding its abundant water 
supply and the existence of dwelling-houses for the workers, which 
offered great inducements to those in the calico printing trade, or 
who contemplated starting public works requiring water and house 
accommodation. 

THE DALGLISHES. 

The stress of circumstances, which caused the stoppage of 
Lindsay, Smith, & Co. was also operating at Balfron, where, 
about the same time, Mr Dunmore and his partners, after carrying 
on business as calico printers at Endrick Field, closed their works 
and dissolved the partnership. As Endrick Field, through the 
Dalglishes and J. Dennistoun, has an interest for Campsonians, 
I may here trace the source of the connection. A firm styled 
Dalglish & Hutcheson, had a printfield on the Clyde at Fleshers' 
Haugh, Glasgow Green, which they occupied for some years 
previous to 1790, In Old Glasgow and its Environs^ Sene:!( refers 



14 

to it, and I mentioned that it was probably to that Field that the 
late Mr Dalglish referred, when, at a pnblic meeting in Cahon, 
during his first canvass of the city, he mentioned he had a family 
connection with the £ast-end, and consequently some claim on 
the £ast-enders as originally one of themselves. 

A correspondent, on seeing a report of the lecture which appeared 
in a local newspaper, thinks I am mistaken in thinking the 
Dalglishes had anything to do with a printfield in the Fleshers' 
Haugh. He says : — 

*• I have always understood that Mr. Dalglish was at one time a weaver in 
the Calton, and when business prospered with him he married a Miss Jane 
Clyde. It was in htmour of this* lady that Clyde Street, Calton, Glasgow, 
received its name. A Canipsie woman, Jane Clyde Kussell, whom I knew 
in Glasgow, informed me she was named after Mrs. Dalglish, and assured 
me that it was quite true that Clyde Street, Calton, had got its name after 
her." 

But to return to Endrickbank. In 17D0 Charles Park of Parkhill 
let to Robert Dnnmore of Ballindalloch in tack for 999 years the 
lands of Duniechip, as well as the portion cut off the estate by 
the new road to Glasgow. In 1792 Charles Park fues to Robert 
Dunmore the above lands, the feu-duty being £14 8s 9d and 
duplication. Robert Dnnmore, the same year, feue<l them to a 
company consisting of John Monteith, Gilbert Hamilton, James 
Dennistoun (who was born at Newmill of Glorat, in 1752), 
Robert Scott Moncrieff, William Scott Moncrieff, William 
Dalglish (elder brother of the Robert Dalglish who was senior 
partner at Lennoxmill), James Buchanan, and Robert Dunmore, 
all merchants in Glasgow. This co-partnery carried on business 
as John Monteith & Co. The feu-duty was £61 3s 6d, and dupli- 
cation. In 1802, John Monteith & Co. purchased from the 
trnstees on the sequestrated estate of Robert Dunmore the lands 
of Endrick Field. After an occupancy of about ten years, 
Endrick Field was closed and the partnership dissolved. James 
Denntstoun, one of the partners, was a Campsie man, and it is 
not unlikely that it was owing to him that the attention of the 
brother of his partner, William Dalglish, was first called to 
the suitability of Lenuoxmill, then standing vacant. William 
Dalglish I'etired from the printing at the dissolution of the 
Endrick Field firm, but his younger brother, Robert, along 
with Mr Patrick Falconer, and, a younger brother, Alexander 
Dalglish, determined to enter the trade. They commenced busi- 
ness under the style of R. Dalglish, Falconer, & Co. They 
leased the works formerly occupied by Lindsay, Smith, & Co., 
and land to the extent of 33 acres. They acquired the plant of 
John Monteith & Co. at Endrick Field, which they had conveyed 
to Lennoxmill. They had the steam boilers transferred with 
other plant, but these could not pass on the highway owing to the 
branches on the large oak tree of Blairquhosh, which had there- 
fore to be cut off to allow the passage, 



15 

Great changes have taken place in connection with the firm8> 
carrying on calico printing since the beginning of the century^ 
but since 1805 the style of the company occupying Lennoxmill 
has remained the same. Three generations of Robert Dalglishes 
have followed each other in the partnership. The two older 
generations always manifested the keenest interest in the welfare 
of the village of Lennoxtown, and they did much to promote its- 
best interests. A little detail concerning the founders of the firm 
will be interesting to all the natives of the parish, especially to 
those who may have been connected personally or through rela- 
tives with LennoxmilL 

Robert Dalglish, the principal founder, was born in 1770. He- 
was trained to business in the warehouse of Mr. Andrew Steven- 
son, muslin manufacturer, Bell Street, Glasgow. He had the 
reputation of being a shrewd, cautious, sensible man, who was 
looked up to and esteemed by all who knew him. He resided at 
first in Glasgow, his department being the commercial one, but 
he was even then a frequent visitor at the Field. He took 
great interest in his work people and also in the education of their 
children. In some cases he would personally examine the boys in 
order to test and judge of their proficiency. Where they were 
found to be very deficient he had them frequently sent to school 
at his own expense : this, too, in working hours. 

While living in Glasgow he seems to have come under the 
influence of Dr. Chalmers, then of the Tron Parish, by whose 
fervid preaching he was much impressed. He remained on inti- 
mate terms with him afterwards, when he was residing at Lennox- 
mill Cottage. In Chalmers' Memoirs we find in his diary, under 
date 1820, Tuesday, 11th July— " Mr. Robert Dalglish's chaise 
came to take us out to Campsie ; after tea walked to Campsie 
Glen. Wednesday — ^Went to Muckle Bin. I had nearly laired 
among the soft moss of the hill, and in the struggle the horse fell 
on its side. Previously, in throwing back its head, it struck my 
face, and set my nose bleeding. After dinner, express from Kil- 
syth, intimation of Dr. Rennie's death. I took a warm bath in: 
the evening in one of the immense circular vats of the manufac* 
tory. It was fortunate it was not a dye work, or else I might 
have come out a bottle-green colour." 

Mr. R. Dalglish was Dean of Guild in Glasgow in 1825-6» 
As Preceptor of Hutchesons' dospital he laid the foundation 
stone of a Glasgow Bridge on 18th August, 1829. Mr. Dalglish 
entered the Glasgow Town Council, and was Lord Provost of that 
city, in 1832, when the Reform Bill passed. In a book published 
a few years ago, giving the portraits and biographical sketches of 
one hundred prominent men in Glasgow and the West of Scotland, 
the writer of Mr. Dalglish's life remarks that he was far from 
being a reformer, yet that he, in order to keep control over the 
exciting movements which preceded the passing of the Reform 
Bill of 1832, put himself at the head of the reforming movement,. 



16 

presidiDg at the meetings at which the reformers agitated in its 
favour. He even headed one of the greatest processions, where 
the people made a great popular demonstration ; towns, parishes, 
societies, craftsmen, with 500 flags and 200 bands of music ; the 
numbers, including spectators, were reckoned at from 80,000 to 
100,000. 

Peter Mackenzie, in his reminiscences, tells of Provost Dalglish 
receiving, in his blandest manner, at his new, elegant, self- 
contained house on the south side of St. Vincent Place, a deputa- 
tion who wished to have the city bells rung and an illumination 
in the evening when, in March 1831, the Reform Bill had passed 
its second reading by a majority of one. Old Peter likewise 
describes the Provost's illumination : 3,000 jettees in front of his 
house, with " Let Glasgow Flourish " sparkling out in the centre, 
dKJ. ; surmounting this were figures of Trade, Commerce, and 
Manufactures hailing Reform. In every view, for effective 
display, Provost DalgKsh's house bore away the palm. 

Mr. Alexander Dalglish had charge at Lennoxmill. He resided 
directly opposite the Field gate, the lower flat of the same house 
t)eing occupied by Mr. Wylie. By his first marriage Mr. A. Dal- 
glish had a son who was popularly known as " Dandy James," 
who took his place as one of the managers for a few^ years after 
his father's death, but he left Campsie, it was understood, to go to 
England. He returned and married a niece of Mungo Park, the 
celebrated traveller. 

Mr. Alexander married as his second wife Mrs. Buchanan, 
a widowed sister of Mungo Park, a tall, handsome lady, who 
is still remembered by many. After her husband's 
death Mrs. Dalglish resided in G-lorat, from 1840 till 
1847, when she died. Alexander Dalglish belonged to the old 
school. He was commonly called " Saunders," and fancied he 
required a short rest at " twal hours," when he regularly adjourned 
to take his " meridian." He liked companionship at this import- 
ant function, so he was generally accompanied by Mr. Wylie or 
one of the foremen. After a slight refreshment, duty was 
resumed in the Field. By and by his nephew, Mr. Robert, came 
to take a greater charge of the management, which passed to, Mr.. 
Gardner, who succeeded Saunders when the latter became unable 
to undertake all the duties. 

Tw^o of the original partners of Endrick Field, on the dissolution, 
of that concern, recommenced business, viz., John Monteith and 
Robert Scott Moncrieff, the firm being that of John Monteith & 
Co., the founders of the. great manufacturing business at Blantyre. 
The old firm of John Monteith & Co. consisted at one time of 
these two. Monteith was energetic and pushing, his partner timid 
and nervous, so Moncrieff was paid out and Mr. Patrick Falconer 
assumed in his place, and the firm became Monteith & Falconer. 
Falconer had a knowledge of French and a smattering of 
German, so Monteith proposed that he should attend the great 



17 

fairs in Germany, which would afford a favourable opportunity 
of disposing of their goods in the Continental markets. In Pepu* 
lor TrcuUtiona of Glasgow^ p« 156, Mr. Andrew Wallace tells a 
story how Mr. Falconer, when on a business mission to Germany, 
was arrested on landing in Holland, then occupied by the French. 
He was suspected of being a spy, and was carried before the 
French general. He was surprised at the Frenchman's minute 
enquiries concerning Glasgow, who at last, having requested to 
be left alone with the stranger, dropped French and spoke out in 
guid braid Scotch — ** But, ma freen, do ye ken auld James Mon- 
teith of Anderston." *^ Ou aye, general, I ken him brawly, for 
he's my ain partner's faither." The general was Mortier, who 
had been educated in Glasgow University. His father and Mr. 
Monteith had considerable dealings, and, bringing his son en a 
visit, left him for three years to pursue his education. After a 
long talk about Glasgow bodies. Falconer was allowed to pass on 
his way through the French lines unmolested. 

Quitting his partnership with Monteith, Falconer now joined 
Robert Dalglish and his brother in the new enterprise at Lennox- 
mill. Mr. Patrick Falconer was an elder in Dr. Chalmers' church. 
He is said to have been a singularly godly man. He was author of 
a book entitled. Intellectual Difficulties of Christianity, He rarely 
visited Lennoxmill, and was therefore little known in Campsie. 
In Dr. Chalmers' Memoirs there is an allusion to him in his diary 
under date 1818 — "Went out to Mr. Falconer's country plaee, 
where I dined and staid all the evening. Mr F. is among the 
most eminently spiritually-minded men I ever met." 

In Glasgow and its Clubs Dr. Strang relates the following 
incident : — " It is told of a well-known calico printer in this city, 
when the presence of excisemen was required at the works to 
stamp goods with His Majesty's seal, that he was in the habit of 
inviting these functionaries to breakfast, and of course, as he was 
a religious man, to family worship. Both the temporals and the 
spirituals were at that time most unusually prolonged, and the 
officers having forgotten to take their stamp along with them, a 
very profitable use was made of it during their absence." I have 
already mentioned the fact of Provost Dalglish having been an 
intimate friend of Dr. Chalmers, as well as a member of his 
church, and that Mr. Patrick Falconer was one of his elders. 
I was formerly under the impression that Dr. Strang's story had 
a reference to one of the Lennoxmill partners, but I am assured 
that this was not so. In justice to Lennoxmill we must clear it of 
this impeachment. 

Provost Dalglish had two sons, on whom devolved in course of 
time the management of the business. Andrew Stevenson Dal- 
glish was bom in 1793, and died in 1858. Robert was bom in 
1808 and died 20th June, 1880. Little was known at Lennox- 
mill about the elder brother, but his personality was felt during 
the great strike which took place in 1 834. The energy with 

B 



1^ 

Whieh he threw himself into the struggle, and the ahilitj and 
ingenuitj he displayed in obtaining workers, in protecting them, 
and making the most of some very unpromising material, made 
him the object of fear and dislike to the strikers and their sympa- 
thisers. When by his firmness and determination he had at last 
gained the victory he became temporarily unpopular, and the ill- 
feeling found vent in the doggrel of local rhymers, which has 
now sunk into oblivion. 

Mr Stevenson Dalglish after this became prominent as 
a citizen of Glasgow, and ceased to be associated with Lennoxmill. 
He was a great admirer of the Duke of Wellington, and took an 
aotive part in getting up the statue to him, by Marochetti, 
which stands in front of the Glasgow Royal Exchange. Partly 
in recognition of his exertions in this matter, and partly as a 
mark of esteem, he was entertained by his fellow-citizens at a pub- 
lic dinner in the Trades' Hall, in Oct., 1844. His portrait is on 
one of the has reliefs on the Queen's statue in St. George's Square, 
For this honour he was indebted to the grateful memory of Baron 
Marochetti, the artist of this statue and also of the Iron Duke's. 
Stevenson Dalglish was one of the most active sergeants of the 
Glasgow troop of yeomanry, and according to Peter Mackenzie 
rode one of the most spanking grey horses ever seen in Glasgow, 
for which he was frequeutly offered 300 guineas or more. 

In the Stray Leaves of Alexander Rodger we find allusion to 
Campsie matters. There is one song especially, entitled, '' Come, 
fye, let us a' to the guzzle," where both Provost Dalglish and his 
son are referred to. Sandy Rodger used to come out to Torrance 
about the year 1820, where, I am iixformed, he taught a singing 
class. 

And there will be jolly John Greordie, 

The king o' the calico nobs ; 
Wi* Kobin,* the proud cotton lordie, 
Sae fond o' nice pickings and jobs. 
And tere will be Norman M*Tartan, 

Wha in her nainsell be a host, 
Wi' face red and round as a partan, 
To greet us wi' some yeuky toast. 
And there will be braid-backit Steenie,t 
Whase bouk made the Glazert recede, 
Ae nicht, when pursuing some queenie, 

He plumpit in, heels over heid. 
The holms and the haughs were o'erflooded, 

The hay ricks were carried awa, 
The beasts to the hills quickly scudded, 
Or else they'd been droon'd ane an' a'. 

Another of Rodger's songs hits at a popular minister of Campsie: — 

And there will be bare-legged gillies 
Frae Morven, frae Mufi, and Tiree ; 

* R. Dalglish, late Provost. 

t S n D sh, Esq., a very portly gentleman, who once fell into the 

Glazert and caused it to overflow its banks. 



19 

As rampant and rough as young Allies ; 
Shust come ta great wonder to see. 

Robert, the younger son — Mr Robert, as he was called — learned 
the business practically in the ** Field," where hQ seems to have 
been well liked. Whea cholera broke out in Campsie in 1833 he 
was very active in taking both precautionary and remedial 
measures. Along with James Kincaid, for many years the 
beadle in the U.P. Church, he went through the village of 
Lennoxtown, and personally attended to the fumigation, disinfec- 
tion, and ventilation of houses where the disease had been. At 
the time of the strike, he remonstrated with the workers and gave 
them warning in a friendly spirit, that the effect would be the 
erection of machinery to do the work hitherto performed by them. 
This fhey treated with incredulity, believing such a result to be 
quite impossible. In his endeavours to effect a peaceful termina- 
tion to the dispute he even took a number of the leaders into the 
" Store " and treated them. 

There is one anecdote illustrating Mr. Robert's kindness of 
heart which I had from the recipient himself, who spoke with a 
warm feeling of gratitude to his old employer and benefactor. A 
little boy, aged seven and a-half years, the son of a widow, was 
sent to work as a " tearer." In the course of time the boy wanted 
to learn the trade of block-cutting, but this could not be accom- 
plished until he had paid the entry money of £7 7s. to the trade 
union. He could obtain no assistance from his mother or from 
relatives, yet, he resolutely set himself to what seemed at first a 
hopeless task. After pondering one plan after another, as a last 
resource he resolved to try and borrow the money from his 
employers. So he went to the counting-house in Lennoxmill and 
addressed the request to Mr. Robert, that he should advance 
the money necessary to obtain his apprenticeship at the trade 
he had selected. Pleased with the boy's appearance, impressed 
with his transparent honesty of purpose and his sturdy independ- 
ence and self-reliance, he laughingly turned to the clerk and 
said — " M*Intyre, let him have the money, but take care that he 
pays his instalments regularly." Before, however, it was half 
paid back the balance was voluntarily cancelled. The boy learned 
the block-cutting by-and-bye. Owing to the strike he left 
Campsie and found his way to Glasgow, where, by his business 
abilities and sterling character, he long held a leading position in 
the calico printing trade in the East-End. When he retired from 
the active duties of his calling it was not to enjoy ease, but to 
give his best services to promote works of philanthropy and educa- 
tion as a member of the Glasgow School Board, of which he is 
still a member. He retains his keen interest in Campsie 
undiminished. 

Mr. Robert Dalglish, after living for some time in Lennoxmill 
Cottage, purchased Kilmardinny in 1853, and thenceforth made 
that his home till about 1878, when he returned to live at th^ 



20 

Cottage ODce more, on his taking into his own hands the active 
duties of management of the ^* Field." In 1857 he came for- 
ward as a candidate for the representation of the city of Glasgow 
in Parliament. He stood as an independent Radical. Buchanan 
and Dalglish were returned, Hastie, wl^ had heen one of the 
sitting members, losing his seat. The poll was, Buchanan, 7069 ; 
Dalglish, 6764 ; Hastie, 5044. Mr Dalglish was returned in 
1859, 1865, 1868, and retired in 1874. His portrait was given in 
Vanity Fair in 1873, when he was termed the most popular man 
in the House of Commons. He bestowed great attention on all 
Glasgow concerns, and his hospitality to the members of deputations 
and others from Glasgow who had occasion to go to Westminster 
on municipal or other public business of the city was princely. 

Mr. Dalglish is held to have committed an error of judgment in 
coming back to Lennoxmill and undertaking its management ; 
especially in parting with all the old foremen and employees who 
had grown grey in the service of his firm. His personal manage- 
ment was not generally considered a success. Indeed, this could 
hardly have been expected. While he was away in London at 
his Parliamentary duties the business entirely changed. The 
years of splendid prosperity that preceded the American civil war, 
when Lennoxmill was in the very fore-front of the trade — when 
it had almost a monopoly of some of the most lucrative work — 
were followed by years of keen competition, when other houses 
came forward and wrested much of their trade from Lennoxmill. 
A process of reconstruction of the works was commenced then, 
having its object to lessen labour and cheapen production. This 
has now been completed under the present skilful and energetic 
manager, Mr. Oliphant Brown, who had the good fortune to be 
assistant manager to Mr. John Cowan in Lancashire. 

After Mr. Dalglish's death the works were taken over by a 
limited liability company, who now carry on the business as R. 
Dalglish, Falconer, & Co., Limited. 

In noticing the personal history of the partners I have anticipated 
events, and now revert to them in chronological order, 

MR. BARCLAY. 

The Messrs. Dalglish brought from Balfron two of their princi- 
pal employees, and put them over Lennoxmill as managers. One 
of these was Mr. Wylie, who had charge of the printers, and 
whom I recollect well ; an old man, going regularly down in the 
forenoon, wearing a shepherd's tartan plaid, evidently impressed 
with the belief that things would not get on unless he went down 
to keep everything right. The other, Mr. Robert, Barclay, was 
colour- maker and dyer. Mr. Barclay must have been an intelli- 
gent, energetic, deeply religious man. He threw himself with 
great heartiness into every good work that had for its object the 
religious and social improvement of the villagers. He himself 



^1 



i.k 



initiated many of the schemes, and organised public meeting^ t6 
promote them. Among those mainly founded by him were a 
Bible and Missionary Society, Mutual Improvement and 
Friendly Societies. He, along with Mr. Alex. Fraser (eldest 
son of the worthy teacher), John Shand, and others, originated 
the Y. M. Association, which has had a most useful history. 
After he left this Association was given up, but it was resusci- 
tated a few years after by a few earnest young men in Lennox- 
mill. The chi^ moving spirits were John M*Vicar, machine 
printer ; John Cowan, colour-maker ; and John M*Luckie, then 
a pattern drawer. These three hunted up the old minutes of the 
association, and took the preliminary steps to have it resuscitated. 
In this they were completely successful. Among the earliest 
names enrolled were Rowland Hill £adie, John Service, and other 
well-known names. 

THE FIELD KIRK. 

But, reverting to Mr. Barclay, his earnest personality first 
attracted, then influenced, and deeply impressed several younger men, 
who became his fellow- workers, and who carried on his good 
works after he left the locality. Mr. Barclay was an elder of the 
Relief Church. This church originated in an unpopular presentee 
being placed as minister of the parish. Its membership, as long as 
Mr. Lapslie lived, embraced many heritors and the principal 
farmers in the parish ; but the greater number of these, on the 
advent of the Rev. Norman Macleod, in 1825, returned to the 
" Auld Kirk " in the Clachan. But long before this exodus took 
place, probably mainly owing to the moral and personal influence 
of Mr. Barclay, a much closer connection was formed with Len- 
noxmill. During the long period in which Mr. Gordon Wilson 
managed the works, with rare ability, and sagacity, and conspicu- 
ous success, the Relief and the Field were getting more closely 
identified. I have no intention of saying a single word in dispar- 
agement of the pastor or people of the Relief congregation, whose 
religious profession was adorned by consistent lives and active 
Christian work, but it cannot be denied that to those unconnected 
with the Relief the intimate connection with Lennoxmill came to 
be attributed to the fact that Mr. Gordon Wilson was one of its 
members, and wielded, probably quite unconsciously, a preponder- 
ating influence. His position in Lennoxmill made him the most 
influential man in the church. His subordinates there naturally 
attached great weight to his opinions and sought to give 
e£Fect to his wishes. 'J'his fact exercised considerable influence, 
according to popular opinion, in determining new-comers, 
who had obtained situations in Lennoxmill, to join the 
Relief. To such an extent did this obtain, that in popular 
parlance, the two churches were the Hill Kirk and the 
Field Kirk. Where there was ecclesiastical rivalry, accompanied 



2^ 

by unfriendly feeling, the Field Kirk became Wilson, Kay, & Co., 
which I have often heard it called. It certainly was amusing that 
people from other parts of the country, on getting employment in 
Leonoxmill, went almost as a matter of course to this Kirk. 
English and Irish Episcopalians from Lancashire, Established 
Churchmen from the Western Islands, who had never heard of 
the Relief body till they came to Campsie, at once joined its 
membership, apparently as a matter of course. Besides the manager 
nearly all the heads of departments were connected with it. One 
outspoken foreman boldly avowed that he went to the Relief for 
the sake of his work, to the Hill Kirk to see and be seen, and to 
the Roman Catholic Chapel for the sake of his soul. It was at 
one time considered to be for their interests in the Field to attend 
the Relief Kirk, and take all their provisions, &c., at the Store. 

Mr. Barclay left Lennoxmill owing to some expression of 
opinion by one of his employers that he occupied himself too 
much with outside work, and that it would be better if he con- 
centrated his energies on his duties at Lennoxmill. After this he 
removed to Glasgow, where he was manager for many years in 
Dalmamock Print Work. His removal was a great loss to 
Lennoxtown, not only to the Field but also to the parish, where 
he was highly respected. He continued throughout his long life 
actively to promote the good of his fellow-citizens. 

BLEACHING. 

When Lennoxmill was re-started in 1805 the cotton pieces 
were bleached by exposure in the fields around, which became 
literally whitefields. In these fields were placed sentry boxes for 
the shelter and protection of the excisemen appointed to watch 
that the duty of sixpence per yard was duly paid. The grass- 
bleach was the work of natural agencies — ^rain, dew, and sun ; 
aided by copious sprinkling of water in dry weather, and turning 
occasionally on the grass. The process was tedious, but the 
durability of the cloth bore favourable comparison with 
that subjected to the speedy processes of modern chemistry. The 
fields in which the cloth was bleached were protected by beautiful 
beech hedges, which ran in lines east and west, indeed they were 
called " The Lines," the remains of which are still visible between 
Whitefield and the " Grey Stane." One who has wrought there 
informs me these <* Lines " were swarming with birds' nests, and 
that it was delightful to be employed out there in the summer 
time. 

A PREMIUM ON SOAP. 

Not only was printed cloth then taxed, but certain materials 
used in the various processes had excise duties levied. On soap, 
for instance, from 1782 till 1816 the duty was — Hard soap, 2^ ; 



23 

soft soap, l|d per lb. In 1816 the duty was raised from 2;^ to 
3d per lb on the hard soap. But a rebate to manufacturers came 
to be allowed. Mr Gordon Wilson has told nie thiat he has gone 
to the Supervisor's office in Kirkintilloch and been repaid at one 
time the sum of £1300, as drawback for one year on soap alone 
that had been nsed in the Field. 



COLOUR PRINTING. 

The fu'st work attempted by Dalglish, Falconer, & Co. at Len- 
nox mill was, I have been informed, handkerchiefs, indigo blue 
with a white spot. When fairly into working order, in those 
early days, the turnout of finished goods was limited as compared 
with present times. Then one man and a boy could only print, 
in one colour, six pieces of 25 yards each per day. If there had 
been eight colours in the pattern, then eight men and eight boys 
would have been required to print the six pieces, nfaking 150 
yards in all. Improvements came to be effected gradually in the 
various processes. A great step was made in advance when 
colours for dyeing were printed by cylinders first, and after the 
cloth had been dyed, other colours necessary to complete the 
design were afterwards put in by block printing. Imperfections 
in the printing were filled in by pencillers. What a contrast that 
presents to what can now be done in any of our parish print-fields 
with one cylinder machine. With coal tar colours, including 
alizarine, all the different colours can now be printed by the 
machine at one run, and as many as 700 pieces of cloth have been 
run through the printing machine in a single day. In connection 
with this point I have received the following letter from a practi- 
cal man : — 

** You would be safer, before practical people, to say from 200 to 300 
pieces of 30 yards each. Probably your informer was thiukiiig of once on a 
time, when a great effort was made to see how many pieces could be done in 
one day at l^nnoxmUl, by a two-colour printing machine, not an eight- 
colour one." 

A CRISIS IN "THE VALE." 

We now pass on to the era of the Reform Bill in 1832. At 
that time there were two of the leading printing firms situated in 
the Vale of Leven. These were the Stirlings of Cordale. and the 
Messrs. Kibble of Dalmonach. The Stirlings printed ^^furni- 
tures," bed curtains, drapery in large patterns, and were turkey 
red dyers also. Messrs. James and John Kibble did fine muslins 
and cambrics in fast colours. When undoubtedly one of the 
leading firms in the country, and to outward appearance prosper- 
ous, they unexpectedly suspended payment, about 1835. The works 
were accordingly closed, and, after a time, sold. 



Lennoxmill put on its mettle. 

This event became an important epoch to Campsie, for the 
Lennoxmill firm seized the opportunity, acquired the copper 
rollers, blocks, plant, and patterns of the Dalmonach firm. Hav- 
ing secured these, they also succeeded in getting the great firm of 
Graham, Alexander & Co., of London, to transfer to them the 
trade which they had sent to Dalmonach. But after a fair trial, 
of Lennoxmill workmanship, their new customers expressed dis- 
satisfaction with its style and finish, which they alleged compared 
unfavourably with that formerly produced by Kibble at Dalmon- 
ach. Dalglish, Falconer & Co., thus put on their mettle, deter- 
mined to remove all cause of complaint, and made great exertions 
to improve their workmanship in the Field. To secure this they 
went in quest of the most skilled workmen who could be obtained. 
This task was rendered comparatively easy, owing to the number 
of highly-experienced men who had been thrown out of work at 
Dalmonach. The Messrs. Dalglish now offered inducements to 
those considered most suitable, which caused them to enter their 
employment at Lennoxmill, many obtaining posts as foremen, or 
higher wages. It was at this time that Mr. Kay, foreman engraver, 
and Mr. Cooke, foreman printer, came to the Field. This soon 
effected improvements, but Graham, Alexander & Co. were still 
complaining that the colouring was deficient and not up to that of 
the old Dalmonach firm. The obvious cure for this was to obtain 
if possible the same skill that had given such satisfactory results 
at Dalmonach. 

Messrs. Dalglish learned that a clever young colour-maker 
was still retained, engaged in winding up matters for the 
Messrs. Kibble at their works. Messrs. Dalglish applied to this 
young man, and in order to induce him to come to Lennoxmill 
made him a very tempting offer. This was accepted, and on the 
26th October, 1836, the young man, Mr. Gordon Wilson by name, 
came to Lennoxtown to enter on his new duties. 

THE DISCONSOLATE EXILES OP THE LEVEN. 

After their removal to Lennoxtown some of the natives of the 
Vale of Leven did not take kindly to their new surroundings. 
Lijte the exiled Jews in Babylon, they longed for their own 
" Vale." Like the Jews they relieved their home-sick pinings by 
pensive wanderings by the Glazert banks. One of their number 
gave vent to his feelings in a poetic effusion, the first four lines of 
which, being a parody on a well-known psalm, caught the public 
ear, and lingered long in the memories of a generation who have 
now, with very few exceptions, all passed away. These lines were : 

By GUusert's streams we sat and wept, 

When Leven we thought on ; 
In midst thereof we dashed our heads 

The big grey stanes upon. 



\ 



it 

Shortly after the events narrated, Messrs. James Black & Co. 
acquired Dalmonach, and the re-opening of that work gave an 
opportunity for some of the home-sick ones to return. The 
greater number, however, remained at Lennoxmill, which accounts 
for a warm feeling of regard still entertained for the Vale of 
Leven and its natives. The Vale of Leven men must have given 
great satisfaction, for the firm went there afterwards for Mr. 
John ^ftrr, now of Lennox Cottage, who was brought from Leven 
in 1845 to take charge of the pattern room, issuing orders for 
printing, seeing these executed ; with charge also of the printing 
machines. When loss of sight caused Mr. Barr to retire, he was 
much missed, and it was found very difficult to replace him. 

In 1835 there were only 6 or 7 machines and about 200 tables 
in Lennoxmill, on which the work was done by hand by block 
printers. The patterns were cut in relief on the blocks, or vari- 
ous strips of flattened copper wire were inserted edgewise, and 
then filed and polished into a horizontal plane. These blocks 
were worked by hand, and block printing was then one of the 
leading skilled handicrafts in connection with the calico printing 
industry. There was excellent remuneration at piece-work rates 
for such skilled labour. By working steadily the block-printers 
could easily make what was then considered a very high wage, 
but in their own interests they formed a trade union, and agreed 
among themselves to a self-denying ordinance, whereby they 
restricted their earnings to seven pounds per month, and latterly 
to only six pounds per month. The wages, I am informed, 
averaged about 35/ per week, o£F which the ^* tearer " had to be 
paid about 2/6 per week. The pay was made up monthly to a 
regular date. The printers were paid for all work passed previous 
to, and including, the Tuesday preceding the pay Saturday. The 
work performed during the pay week, but after the Tuesday, was 
technically called a *^ dead horse," and formed the nucleus, or 
nest egg, of the following month's pay. 

TRADE ENTRY MONEY, SHOP FINES, AND PAY-OFFS. 

The trades' unions of the present day are great friendly societies, 
making provision for want of employment, for disablement by 
sickness or accident, or in case of death. Some unions seek to 
enhance the value of their members' labour by restricting their 
day's work, or by combination to influence the rate of wages. 
The block-printers confined their attention exclusively to the 
latter, and to regulating the terms of admission to their trade 
and the amounts to be paid at entry. If £10 were paid down, 
the persons paying that were free from all subsequent payments 
to their trades' union. But if they only paid the minimum sum 
of £7 7s, they had to " pay off " whenever they were liable. Not 
only block-printers but block-cutters and engravers had to pay 
suck entry money. In some cases half -entry of £3 lOs* was 



26 

exacted before a member was allowed to commence work ia a new 
shop, if he had left his former printfield of his own accord. If 
the work was closed, or employment could not be had, the half- 
entry was not exigible. Almost every conceivable circumstance 
was made the occasion of a trade or shop fine or pay-off. The 
signs of an incipient beard in the apprentice were carefully watched, 
and when it was at length pronounced to be " the genuine article," 
the oldest apprentice tendered his services as barber, the victim 
was seized, seated, daubed over his face and scraped, and then had 
to pay out the usual half-crown for the first shave. When a man 
got a new suit of clothes, when he left off day's wages and was 
put on piece-work, when his work was changed, when his apprentice- 
ship was out, when he got married, when his wife had a baby, a 
bottle of whisky had to be procured to stand treat to his shop- 
mates, and men and women all partook, sometimes to excess, even 
within the gates in working hours. 

These shop fines were exacted in Lennoxmill, Kincaid, and 
Lillyburn. Mr. John Brown, who formerly resided at Burnhouse, 
but who is now living at Whitefield, has told me the following, 
illustrating the rigour with which they were enforced, he him- 
self having been one of the victims in the case in point. John 
Bauchope, block-printer, residing at Craighead, Milton, was em- 
ployed at Kincaid. His child died, and he was off work for two 
or three days till after the funeral. When he went back his shop- 
mates would not allow him to resume work until he had paid for 
a bottle of whisky, as a fine for having had a death in the house— 
Bauchope, or Bank, as he was called, point-blank refused to pay, 
declaring that there might be some excuse for e^qacting a pay-off 
in the event of a birth, but for a death, it was cruel, it was in- 
human. Afraid that they might be done out of their treat, and 
thinking that even if they succeeded, one bottle was rather * too 
little, some of the printers resorted to an expedient to entrap John 
Brown, then serving his apprenticeship as a block-printer. With 
a plausible excuse that the goods were wanted at once it was pro- 
posed to Brown to finish Bauchope's ^ Apiece," — willing to oblige 
and unsuspicious of any trick, he proceeded to do so. Whenever 
he commenced he was saluted, ^^ Hallo I my man I what business 
has an apprentice to work in a journeyman's place, and at a 
journeyman's job too ? a fine 1 a fine 1 " Bauchope had meantime 
gone to the manager, Mr Heys, and indignantly protested that 
cannibals would have shown more humanity ; this was not the 
conduct of men but of devils. Mr Heys, however, recommended 
him to pay for his bottle, to say no more about it, but quietly 
resume work; accordingly, he came back and gave in — ^both Brown 
and he had to pay their fines. 

The sums thus levied at entry, half-entry, and in pay-offs were 
not paid into sick aliment or death and funeral expenses, but 
were entirely expended on eating and drinking. Seven appren- 
tices have been known to begin their servitude at one time, and 



27 

seven guiDeas had to be paid by each before they were allowed to 
begin their apprenticeship, and forty-nine guineas were in hands 
at one time to be swilled and guzzled. Such occasions presented 
great temptations to all in the trade. A very few refrained 
altogether — many enjoyed themselves in moderation, but others, 
it is to be feared a majority, went to excess. The late Rev. Dr. 
Edwards has informed me that before he left Lennoxtown he has 
seen men lying about at Bulloch's corner drinking whisky out of 
milk boynes. The bouts continued as long as the money lasted* 
The effect was most demoralising to all concerned, and the 
families of the revellers were the greatest sufferers, in the long 
run. 

THE STBIES, 1834. 

We now come to the period of the great strike, an event 
fraught with disaster to those who, with little consideration or 
counting of the cost, so rashly decided to proceed with it. We 
have already referred to the Block-printers' Trade Union. From 
a monthly levy of Is. 6d. per man and 9d. per apprentice a large 
annual income had gradually accumulated, until a sum of about 
£6000 or £7000 was at the credit of their funds. This was con- 
sidered a very large amount, and gave the printers the idea that 
with it to fall back upon they could at any time bring their 
employers to their terms. Block-printers were paid so much the 
^* over," that was the number of times the block had to be repeated 
across the " piece." It was generally four or live overs ; this at 
2d. per over was 8d. or lOd. on a piece of cloth 24 yards long. 
Narrower pieces of only 3 overs but 28 yards long had recently 
beea introduced, and they had been paid at the same rate 
per piece and per "over" as those only 24 yards. The 
printers considered this a grievance, and claimed ^d. per piece for 
the extra 4 yards. As new styles came out differing from the old 
ones for which the over prices had been settled, the employers 
complained that the printers were fractious and exaggerated the 
differences in style and length of pieces, and they resisted the 
claims for extras on the innovations, and refused to pay them. I 
have been assured by one of themselves, the late Mr. John M*Nee, 
Eastside, Kirkintilloch, that the workers in Kincaid, where he 
was then employed, would not have been effected to the extent of 
2/6 in twelve months by the matters which were then in dispute, 
and which led to the strike. He was one who was deput^ to 
wait on Mr. Inglis on behalf of the men. ^^ What do you think 
about it yourself now, John ? " *^ Oh ! I am quite satisfied, but I 
am but one." Heat and temper got into the discussiona Strong 
speeches were made on behalf of the men, and the flourishing 
state of the funds was dwelt on. The more cautious and prudent 
workmen, who knew the miseries which a strike involved on their 
families, even when it was successful, and if it lasted only a few 



w^ks, advised patience, and were opposed to the strike. But tbey 
were threatened, and found it prudent to leave the district for a time. 

Without, realising the magnitude of the struggle they were 
entering on, a strike was decided on, and the hlock-printers came 
out at Lennoxmill, Kincaid, and Lillyhnrn, with the sympathies 
and best wishes of the majority of their fellow-workmen. The 
engravers were neutral, a course which led to important results 
after it was all over. ^The employers were determined not to 
yield, and entered keenly into the struggle. This became pro- 
tracted, and the strikers gradually scattered over the country in 
search of whatever employment could be got. New print-works 
were started about this period at Paisley, Barrhead, and Kilmar- 
nock, where some found employment; many, however, forsook 
V their old trade and never returned to Campsie. The places 
vacated by the strikers were gradually filled up, weavers from 
Kirkintilloch, Camlachie, Millguy, or Milngavie as it is now 
termed, furnishing a large quota of the new hands, or ^* nobs," as 
the strikers called them. 

Amongst the *^ nobs " who came to Kincaid was Mr. James 
Martin, in these latter days a member of the Glasgow School 
Board and the Glasgow Town Council — now Bailie James 
Martin of Gallowgate Street A Campsie man still living has 
seen ^* Jeems " marching in the counter-demonstrations, when the 
"nobs" showed themselves in the village streets. When the 
employers' recruiting parties had obtained workers willing to 
accept their terms, the new hands had to be marched to Lennox- 
mill under protection. 

On one occasion the scouts of the strikers reported the advance 
of the " nobs," who were being brought over the south hill to the 
Field. The strikers and their sympathisers immediately mustered 
on the north bank of the Glazert in great numbers, opposite the 
stepping-stones, which were a little to the westward of the present 
bridge, in hopes that they would in this way intimidate them from 
their purpose of taking employment in the Field, and, if they 
persisted, many urged violent measures and were prepared to 
oppose them by force. However, the " nobs " were got into the 
Field in safety, thanks to the good generalship of Mr. Stevenson 
Dalglish, and lodgings were provided for them there. They were, 
however, greatly annoyed and harassed inside the gates by fellow- 
workmen, who sympathised with those " out." They were hooted, 
jostled, and intimidated if they ventured outside, either singly or 
in small parties. This prevailed to such an extent that '^ the 
powers that be " had to be called in to preserve the public peace, 
and protect the new workers from persecution. Hostile collisions 
occurred between opposing parties, which resulted in legal pro- 
ceedings, convictions, and imprisonments, which only further 
embittered the excited feelings. 

Demonstrations were made by sympathisers from Milngavie 
and neighbouring towns and villages, who marched in procession 



29 

through Lennoxtown and encouraged the Btrikers to persevere. 
So high did the excitement reach that it was said it had been 
threatened to set fire t4> the works at Lennoxmill. This threat 
brought matters to a crisis, and an application was now made to 
the civil authorities for a military force capable (^ protecting both 
the Field and those employed in it A detachment of the £nnis- 
killing dragoons was at once despatched, and was quartered inside 
the Field, in what becanfe subsequently known as ^*The Barracks" 
in Lennoxmill. Kincaid and Lillyburn were also placed under 
military protection. Meanwhile Mr Stevenson Dalglish was 
exerting himself to the utmost to get the vacant places filled up. 
Where men could not be obtained, he assigned work to women 
which hitherto had always been considered men's work. 

Every expedient was devised to save labour. It is an old 
proverb that necessity is the mother of invention. Machinery 
was devised and introduced to supersede manual labour. One oi 
the expedients tried for the first time was Coubrough's Printing 
Machine, the inventor claiming in its favour that it could print 
300 or 400 pieces per day. While all this was going on, the firm 
straining every nerve to get work carried on as usual, the strikers 
making demonstrations to bafile them, a rather ludicrous incident 
happened in front of the Field gate. The village being apparently 
perfectly quiet, the dragoons had ridden out to exercise their 
horses, and had gone up the Craw Road, leaving a solitary horse- 
man on duty in tlie Field. A crowd suddenly gathered in front 
of the gate, determined apparently on effecting an entrance by 
forcing or carrying the gate by assault. But the garrison was 
equal to the occasion. Signalling to the gatekeeper to open the 
locked gate, he put his horse to the gallop, and charged out into 
the crowd, brandishing his sword and striking out freely with the 
flat of his blade. The crowd gave way, completely cowed, and 
before the other troopers returned, had gradually dispersed. Mr. 
William Craig of Balglass had witnessed the whole incident, the 
sudden tumult and the hasty dispersion, and on his jeeringly 
taunting one of the ringleaders for running away in such a 
cowardly fashion from one man, the strike leader's reply was 
^^ Faith, man, it was time to rin awa', when the cauld steel was at 
your wame." After this, although the strike dragged on for 
weeks, the spirits of the strikers gradually sank, as they began to 
realise they had the worst of the struggle. 

AMATEUR THEATRICALS. 

There has always been a number of admirers of the drama in 
Lennoxmill. Before 1^30 a goodly number of young men em- 
ployed in the Field used to go to Glasgow after work hours to 
attend the theatre. They walked there and back, and resumed 
work next morning at 6 o'clock. There was an amateur perform- 
ance of Allan Ramsay's '^ Gentle Shepherd," in Robertson's Hall, 



J 



so 

about 1880. *'Rob Roy" was performed in the Lennox Arms' 
Hall in 1831. James Biggar was the "Dougal Cratur," John 
Lindsaj was the Bailie, and with Wattie Paterson, D. Crawford, 
Malcolm Kincaid, and others, made up a very respectable com- 
pany. Indeed, Biggar as Dougal and Lindsay as the Bailie were 
said to be exceptionally good. Mr. James Millar, of Glasgow, 
was asked to be Helen McGregor, but his mother would not allow 
him. When the strike took place a nSmber of these amateur 
actors formed a company to "star" the country districts, in order 
to raise funds in support of those who were out on strike. They 
went to Fintry, Killearn, Balfron, Callander, and Doune, in all 
of which places they had a friendly reception, good houses, and 
liberal responses to their appeals on behalf of the families of the 
strikers. Their success was owing to a combination of talents in 
the company. Biggar was an excellent bugle player, and was full 
of fan. Wattie Paterson played the trombone. He also walked 
np and down the outside, with a long whip in his hand, shouting, 
" Walk in, ladies and gentlemen." Others played various musical 
instruments with considerable skill. Malcolm Eincaid was quite 
an expert juggler, and clever at all kinds of sleight-of-hand tricks. 
In later times I remember Robert M^ Gilchrist and James 
Brodie going frequently to Glasgow after working hours to hear 
famous actors in parts which they were studying, with a view to 
reproducing the plays at home. Their services and those of the 
other members of later companies of amateurs, and the great 
Unanciai success of their performances in clearing off the debt on 
the Town Hall, and for other public objects, are well known and 
too recent to require notice here. 

MOSE S M'L AY. 

Before leaving the subject of the strike I must pay a pacing 
tribute to one of the men who became prominent when the 
struggle had been entered on. This was Moses M*Lay, block- 
printer, Crossbill. When Dalglish, Falconer & Co. started, he came 
with them from Killearn. He had wrought previously at End- 
rick Field, walking to Balfron and home again every day. He 
was a man universally respected, and was appointed treasurer of 
the Strike Funds, as the printers declared they could ** lippen him 
wi* the bawbees." He never resumed work in Lennoxmill after 
the strike, but continued a life of Christian activity and great 
usefulness. He was known as a praying man, and was in request 
as a visitor of the sick, to whom, he was unwearied in declaring 
the consolations of the gospel. Mr James Millar has told me 
this anecdote about him. 

" When I was a child I had a sore illness, and was thought to be dying. 
A kind neighbour, bid Grannie Gault, used to come and sit up all niglit to 
relieve my mother*s watch and let her get some rest. One night, when it 
seemed that I was dying, Moses M'Lay was sent for, and came at once. He 



31 

knelt down and engaged in prayer. Suddenly Grannie Gault ceased rock- 
ing the cradle ; both my mother and she thinking that I was gone. She 
touched Moses, and said — ' Oh, Moses, stop ! he's deid.' All were gazii^ 
earnestly, hoping against hope, when I suddenly opened my eyes. My dear 
mother often told me the story ,^ when I was grown up, and how Grannie 
said, when they wen3 full of joy at the favourable * turn * of the trouble — 
' He's a braw broo'd loon ; he'll gar some woman sigh and lay bye her 
supper.'" 

Moses M*Lay died in 1837, aged 56, having caught typhus ferer 
from an individual whom be had been called in to pray for. 
Although not then employed in Lennoxmill, Provost Dalglish 
wrote to express his high respect for his character and his regret 
that he was unable to attend the funeral. The late Rev. John 
Edwards, D.D., said of him he hardly ever knew any man for 
whom he had a higher respect. I find Mr. M'La/s name enrolled 
on the list of Elders of the Relief Church, among other Campsie 
" Worthies," who did much in their day and generation to pro- 
mote spiritual life in the parish. 

COLLAPSE OP STRIKE. 

On the collapse of the strike, when the men gave in the masters 
could not abandon those who had come to them in their hour of 
need. The nobs had to be retained, so there was no room for the 
old hands, many of whom had to leave the parish in search of 
work, while others fonnd employment at other vocations. The 
block-printers brought irretrievable disaster on their trade, as 
employers had stimulated the minds of mechanicians to devise 
new methods of executing the work. This gave wondei'ful 
impetus to machine cylinder printing, so that in about twenty 
years after the strike, block printing was entirely discontinued in 
Lennoxmill, and the allied trades of block cutters, &c., were all 
cast adrift. It was in 1856 that hlock printing was entirely 
given up in Lennoxmill. At the period of the strike Mr. Archd. 
Duncan was an apprentice engraver. He was working late one 
evening, when he was warned to be prepared to co-operate in 
protecting the work in the event of an attack, which it was feared 
was likely to be made upon it. That same evening the dragoons 
arrived. Of course their appearance made a sensation, and was 
an incident not likely to be forgotten by any one who saw it — or 
saw the commotion it caused in Lennoxtown. Messrs. Dalirlish 
felt grateful to the engravers for their benevolent neutrality. 
The same entry-money was exigible from the apprentice engravers 
as from the block -printers. The engravers themselves first reduced 
their entry by one half. Latterly the entry money was abolished 
in all the trades in the Field. 

TURKEY RED. THE MACBEANS, FATHER AND SON. 

Up till the stoppage of Messrs. Kibble & Co. in Dalmonach, 
turkey-red dyeing had been carried on in Lennoxmill, but at that 



32 

time the future of turkey-red dyeing did not appear very bright, 
so, with the accession of orders from Graham, Alexander, & Co., 
the firm decided to discontinue it. The turkey-red dyeing was 
under the sole charge of a Highlander, Mr. M^Bean, who came 
from near Inverness. Mr. M^Bean brought from the north a 
little colony of strongly-built young men, of whom I only remem- 
ber Hugh McDonald, once an engraver, now a herbalist in Glas- 
gow. Mr. M* Bean's son entered the Glasgow warehouse of the 
firm, where he showed great business aptitude and was highly 
appreciated. Other firms also came to see his worth, and he 
passed into the service of Messrs. James Black & Co., where he 
rapidly came to the front. Happily married and in the enjoyment 
of domestic felicity, with bright prospects for the future before 
him, his health failed, and he died young. After his death his 
young widow, with her little daughter, returned to her own people 
in Inverness, where I had the pleasure, a few years ago, of partak- 
ing of her hospitality. 

I have received the following interesting reminiscences from an 
old Field man, now occupying a distinguished position. Rightly 
to understand this we must recollect that the Factory Act, 
regulating the employment of women and children, was only 
passed in 1838. It was amended and regulated in 1844. The 
Ten Hours Act was passed in 1847, and the Children's Labour 
Act in 1853. Also, that calico intended for printing had to be 
** singed " to clear it of fibrous down. It was passed quickly over 
cast iron at a red heat. Another process was passing it over hot 
drying rollers. After the cloth had been printed it required to be 
dyed. This was done in three operations — 1, dunging; 2, madder- 
ing ; 8, clearing. I remember when the Fintry carts used to 
came to Lennoxmill full of cow dung, then in great request. All 
pieces madder dyed were passed through the dung vats, then 
washed, then streamed in the lade to get rid of the dung ; bran, 
soap, and other ingredients being used to clear the whites after 
the dyeing. These explanations are necessary for those un- 
acquainted with the processes in Lennoxmill to follow the details 
described in the following communication : — 

MR. JOHN YOUNG'S REMINISCENCES. 

^ I went to the Field io the year 1833, as message boy in the printers 
warehouse. This was the year before the Printers' Strike and the year that 
the " Big Lura " was built. £Iie Cooper, an Englishman, was head fore- 
man over the printers and old Andrew White under foreman. I was in the 
employment of the firm for 26 years, until I came here in 1859. I have a 
clear remembrance of many of the events of the first cholera. Mr Dalglish* 
senr., was then Lord Provost of Glasgow. I remember that he brought out 
to the works a lot of plaster cloth and camphor. The plaster cloth was cut 
to a shape to fit the breast and belly, the camphor was worn in a small 
woollen bag, to prevent infection. My father, Thomas Youn^, made wooden 
moulds for cutting the plasters, so as to fit various sizes of people. 

*' Saunders Dalglish I remember well, from the time I was 6 or 7 years of 
age. He was a kind old man, who used to walk back and forward on fine 



33 

summer evenings, between the Field Road and the Pond. If any boys were 
at play he would offer them pennies to have races on f(K)t, or running their 
hoops, or for playing ball. He died l)efore the strike took place. 

** Kobert Barclay I also knew well. When I was 10 years of age I had 
the misfortune to be thrown from a horse one winter's night, whilst Archie 
Miller and I were getting a ride fmm my uncle's house at Torrance. Both 
of us were thrown. I had the larger bone of my right leg broken, under the 
knee, and had to lie on my back for six weeks at one stretch. This was 
during the period of the strike. 

*' During my three months* confinement Robert Barclay kept me supplied 
with as many story books from the Sabbath School Library as I could 
manage to read. I used to work with Mr. John Wylie, then colour-maker, as 
assistant boy, while he was making experiments on different shades of 
colour, and 1 liked this very much, as we were in a room all by our- 
selves. 

" I had several jobs in the works before I commenced my apprenticeship 
of seven years to print-cutting. One of these jobs was working in the 
*' warm end ** of the blotching-liouse ; there we had to stand over nearly 
red-hot plates, and keep stretching out the cloth as it kept passing over the 
drying rollers. 

" Another boy and I took it by turns, 15 minutes at a time. I have seen 
when I came out to cool that I could hardly touch the metal buttons on my 
clothes, they were so hot. This was then done only with a certain class of 
goods and I don't think is ever done now. 

" Another job I had, gave me an opposite experience. It was work- 
ing at the Lade, streaming cloth in the water. This was pleasant in the 
summer months, but not in the winter. All the same, we had often to 
stand over the boards and the cold water from G a.m till 12 p.m. on many 
occasions. 

^' I will ever remember one very cold night, when the tlieimometer fell 
nearly to zero, that my comrades and I were all frozen to the boards, cloth 
and all. Our leggings were covered with ice, and fingers benumbed with cold. 
My comrades and I latterly were crying, and had to be lifted from the boards 
to which they were frozen. When I reached home about 2 o'clock in the 
morning, my mother rose, and when she saw the frozen condition I was in, 
she commenced crying too, with sorrow. She said she would never let me 
go back to that job again although the family should starve. This was the 
year Lennox Castle was building, and we had b\x weeks of frost without 
any thaw. Tliis exposure to cold I've had to endure for IG hours on a 
stretch, for the magnificent pay of Gd per day and Id per hour for overtime. 
Strong, full-grown, healthy women at similar work had then only lOd per 
day, and l|d per hour for overtime. The works at that time were allowed 
to work night and day when busy. Even the youngest workers were com- 
pelled to work two or three nights per week. That was the time the firm was 
making money, getting good prices in the market, and paying a third less for 
labour than what was then given in other printfields near Glasgow. . . . 
I was sorry to learn from various sources that, years after I had left, trade 
had begun to decline, and that Lennoxmill, for the first time in my remem- 
brance, was obliged to go on short time. ... On the whole — with very 
few exceptions indeed — I can testify that Mr Dalglish was well and faith- 
fully served by all his employees, foremen, and managers. While their 
industry built up his fortune, it can never be said it was afterwards lost 
through any fault of theirs." 

When Mr. Dalglish was away in London he seemed to lose 
touch with the advancing spirit of the age. He let many of his 
best workmen drift away to other districts, where they received 
better remaneration ; and, besides, many of his best salesmen in 
Glasgow and Manchester were allowed to leave and enter the 
warehouses of rival houses, who paid higher salaries. 

c 



34 

THE KING'S BIRTHDAY. 

I am not aware whether the employees in Lennoxmill now 
show their loyalty by observing the Queen's birthday, but when 
George the Third was king it was the eorrect thing for all good 
citizens to observe it as a holiday, and in this way testify their 
loyalty. There was a treat in ihe evening to all Lennoxmill 
workers, and the firm presented all the apprentices and boys with 
a sum of twopence, to be expended by them at pleasure. This 
was spent on fire-works if loyal, or on good things if selfish, and 
they were treated also at the expense of the firm to a glass of 
toddy, if they cared to have it. Very few in those days refused 
either the twopence or the glass of toddy. 

TEMPERANCE MOVEMENT. 

Public rejoicing and social festivity were inseparably associated 
with drinking customs. Scenes of excess, as I have already 
mentioned, frequently accompanied the payment of entries by new 
apprentices, and other occasions, such as half -entry and pay-ofPs. 
These evils were fostered by the system of paying the wages in 
public-houses. These practices connected with pay-offs, &c., had 
long grieved the hearts of such men as Robert Barclay and his 
coadjutors, who were intent on effecting social and moral reforms. 
Hitherto they had felt themselves powerless. They hailed the 
arrival of the pioneers of a new movement to promote temperance. 
In the year 1829 there was convened a public meeting in the 
Relief Church, to explain the objects and advocate the claims of 
temperance. This meeting was called to hear addresses by Mr. 
William Collins, the father of the well-known Sir William Collins, 
who was accompanied by a Mr Cruickshanks, known as the con- 
verted Dundee Carter, and whose personal appeals were very 
effective in gaining adherents. The results of this meeting were 
far reaching. Two men became zealous converts to the new 
cause, and threw themselves heart and soul into the work of 
spreading its principles and advocating their adoption. These 
were Mr Alexander Fraser, the eldest son of Mr Fraser, teacher, 
and Mr James M^Pherson, shoemaker. Mr Fraser had served 
his apprenticeship as an engraver in Lennoxmill. He then 
went to a printwork in France, but after two or three 
years returned to Campsie as foreman engraver, studied for the 
ministry, and was ordained in connection with the Congregational 
Church, first in England, then in Ewing Chapel, Waterloo St., 
Glasgow. Failing health caused him to remove to a more genial 
climate. Mr Eraser's co-worker, Mr James M'Pherson, left 
afterwards for Glasgow, and then became employed in home 
mission work by the widow of the famous Lord Byron, His 
daughter is the well-known Miss M^Pherson, the story of whose 
life and philanthropic work in taking destitute boys and girls to 



I 



35 

Canada is well known in all the churches. It is briefly detailed 
in the Sunday at Home for September, 1882. With such apostolic 
fervour did these two men devote themselves to this work while in 
Campsie that they purchased a pony and gig to take them to the 
neighbouring villages after their day's work was over. Asa result of 
their arduous labours a great change for the better was soon visible. 
This was greatly assisted by the system of entries being discon- 
tinued, and by the adoption of payment of wages in Lennoxmill 
in working hours. It is a pleasure to have this opportunity of 
doing an act of justice to these two noble men, by recalling their 
self-denying exertions to a generation in Lennoxmill, to whom 
their names are already almost unknown. 

Since the *^ Notes " of the lecture was published in the local 
newspaper I have received the following letter : — 

'* Home of Industry, 
'* 29 Bethnal Guebn Ho ad, London £. 
"Deab Sib, 

" A newspaper with your lecture to tlie Campsie Y.M.C.A. 
lias been forwarded to me. Accept my thanks for the honourable mention 
and kindly reference to my beloved father's memory. I have liad such a 
full life since his departure to glory in '51. His last words were, ** Jesus, 
Jesus," breathed into my ear as his dying arms were around my neck. He 
was a genius and a devoted Christian of great reality. His life work I have 
by God's grace souglit to carry on, for tlie best welfare of tlie young, and it 
has been a right royal life. My sisters, Mrs Merry and Mrs Birt of Liver- 
pool, have co-operated with me. Togetlier, we have aided 8,200 destitute to a 
land where they are now in comfort and plenty. It is the Lord who has taken 
up weaklings, " poor yet making others rich." Life seems so real around 
me in this dying mass, 200,000 in this parish, that to look forward to our 
coming Lord, hastening His return by winning souls^ rather than by going 
back on these old times, helps one to endure. We as a band endeavour to 
influence some 10,000 to 12,000 weekly in direct gospel work. Thanking 
you again, believe me, j'ours sincerely, " Annie Macphrrson." 

PAYMENT OF WAGES. 

Up till about 1832 a system prevailed in Lennoxmill of giving 
to the foreman in each department the money required to pay the 
wages of those in the department under his charge. This was on 
a Saturday afternoon, and all went to public-houses in the village, 
where it was divided, and the workers paid. Of course it was 
necessary to obtain change, so this and the use of a room was 
afforded in return for their patronage. Jt was expected that 
every one using the room would spend something for the good of 
the house, or contribute a small sum as payment. Under such a 
system it wa» quite possible for a clever but unprincipled foi*eman 
to cheat both his employers and his employees. Sucli a system of 
payment of wages encouraged drinking to excess, as many 
workmen spent too much of their hardly earned wages before 
they left; the carousal kept them at home on the Sabbaths, and it 
was often continued well into the following week. Realising the 
evils attendant on this system of pays, Mr. R. Dalglish had 



36 

mfttters put on a more satisfactory basis. He arranged that 
every man, woman, and child separately, should be paid by a clerk 
during working hours, a practice strictly followed out afterwards. 
A decided iniprovemeot at once resulted. The pay was made on 
Thursday up to the Saturday preceding. The workers were more 
regular aud punctual at work on the Friday mornings than they 
used to be on the Mondays or even the Tuesdays, and the pay on 
Thursday has continued to be the custom ever since. 

FRIENDLY SOCIETIES. 

Friendly societies were introduced and mainly promoted by 
Messrs. Robert Barclay, Alex. Fraser, James M'Phersqn, Robert 
Morrison (block-printer J, John Glen fengraver), John Wylie, 
Matthew M'Culloch, Adam M'Luckie, and others. The constitu- 
tion of the society that was the first formed was, I understand, 
drawn up by Messrs. Barclay and M*Pherson. In the event of 
any member becoming ill and unable to work, the society became 
bound to pay 20/ per week, as long as the member was unable to 
work. There was the fatal mistake, in neither introducing a 
limit to the liability of the members, nor specifying a period after 
which the sick allowance would decrease, and in due course ter- 
minate altogether. The success of this society led to the forma- 
tion of another one, on a smaller scale. The weekly payment was 
smaller, only Id per week, and so in proportion was the sick 
benefit, which was 7/ per week. In this penny society there was 
unlimited liability of members for the allowance to sick, and 
there was no stated period at which this should terminate. Mr. 
William Eadie, foreman mason, long acted as secretary. 

Alexander Farquhar, a labourer in Lennoxmill, became a mem- 
ber of both societies. He became unwell, alleged he was unfit to 
work, and he then became entitled to 20/ a week from the one 
society, and 7/ per week from the other. His wages in Lennox- 
mill would be about 12/ to 14/ per week, so that his sick allow- 
ance was fully double his ordinary weekly wages. He never re- 
sumed work, but became a permanent burden on both societies, 
and outlived nearly all the original members. As the member- 
ship decreased the calls on those remaining became heavier, till 
these amounted to from 3/ to 4/ per week. The matter was 
tested in court, but the members failed to get rid of their liability. 
Such a constant drain on their funds prevented the accession of 
new members, and for a time brought all Friendly societies into 
local disrepute. Such incidents led to the existing societies being 
placed on sure foundations, and none of these now in favour, such as 
Foresters, Shepherds, Free Gardeners, &c., entail such liabilities. 
The Penny Society by a final effort collected about £G0, for which 
amount Farquhar compromised his claim. Before his death the 
original society was reduced to about four members, who made up 
his weekly aliment among them. 



\ 

I 
\ 



The llev. John Gillon, Koniao Catholic clergyman, now took 
up the idea and instituted a society among his own people, the St. 
Patrick's Society. He took an active interest in this and person- 
ally superintended its operations for many years. It was not con- 
fined to his own flock, and many Protestants joined it, as it was 
kept in a flourishing condition. In recognition of his exertions 
in connection with this matter, and also his devotion in visiting 
during the third cholera epidemic, the inhabitants of Campsie (and 
I am assured chiefly the Protestants) presented him with an eight- 
day clock in a mahogany case, on the door of which a suitable 
inscription was engraved on a silver plate. After this, so generally 
was he esteemed by all classes, Mr. Gillon was often called the 
Protestant Priest. Shortly after this he was transferred to 
Dundee. His successor would have gladly acquired the clock, 
but Mr. Gillon prized it too highly to part with it in his lifetime. 

A secession from the St. Patrick's Society afterwards took place, 
headed by John Kinloch, a Field man, and John Morrison, shoe- 
maker, Rowantreefauld. It was they who then originated the 
Campsie Yearly Friendly Society, which still exists in a prosperous 
condition. This society, I understand, breaks up at the close of 
every year and is then reconstituted. 

There was another society which, after a prosperous course for 
a few years, suddenly went down, owing to want of concord among 
its membership. Mr. John Walker, for many years in charge of 
the white warehouse, and latterly of the finishing of the cambrics, 
was identified closely with this one — the Oddfellows Friendly 
Society — and he took a very active part in its management. 
With a large membership and a flourishing condition, a proposal 
was made to raise the weekly contribution one penny per week. 
'J'his met with strong opposition, and, in consequence of the 
diversity of opinion, a disruption took place. Both parties laid 
claim to the regalia, or wished it divided between them, and the 
meeting closed with a "scene." It was the intention of both 
parties to reconstitute the society on a new basis, but as time 
passed, their good resolutions cooled down, and these schemes led 
to no practical result. 

Another movement, which had for its objects the cultivation of 
habits of thrift and forethought, was that of the Penny Savings 
Bank. Mr. John Gardiner long took a deep interest in its success. 
Mr. Gardiner had charge of the finished warehouse and of the 
despatch of orders. 

FIELD MEN WHO HAVE GOT ON. 

The ups and downs in the lives of the workers in Lennoxmill 
contain much that is romantic, and a modern novelist might find 
among them materials amusing and instructive. A few instances 
only can I mention here. One young man, who wrought as a 
block-printer for a short time in Lennoxmill, left, to return about 



38 

25 years later as a partner in tbe oldest parish printfield, and 
his son is now one of the M.P.s for Glasgow. A block-printer 
named Simpson was employed in the Field. In order to avoid 
marrying a girl who had loved " not wisely but too well," he sud- 
denly resolved to leave Lennoxmill, and go south to England. He 
was then so hard up that he had to borrow a pair of shoes. In 
the south he got his chance, and in time became sole proprietor of 
Foxell Bank Printworks, Lancashire, then one of the leading 
works in England. Many years afterwards he re-visited Campsie, 
full of old memories, with a heart warming to old associates. He 
called on all his old cronies whom he found alive and invited 
them to a splendid supper, where he hospitably entertained them. 
It was found that the average age of these Campsie callants was 
over 74 years. Amongst their number were old Johnnie Leckie, 
grocer, and old John Glen, engraver, then very aged men, but 
hale and hearty in spite of their years. So many have gone from 
Lennoxmill to the printfields in Lancashire that a social gather- 
ing of the natives of Campsie and their friends can be held in 
Manchester. 

JOHN YOUNG, F.G.S., HUNTERIAN MUSEUM, 
GLASGOW UNIVERSITY. 

John Young served his apprenticeship to print-cutting, and 
worked as a journeyman at this trade till the firm gave up block- 
printing. He then passed to the wright shop. In 1855 the 
meeting of the British Association for the Promotion of Science 
was held in Glasgow, over which the Duke of Argyle presided. 
Mineral and geological collections were formed in Glasgow for 
this meeting of the Association, and a man skilled in the rocks 
and fossils of this district was required to superintend, classify, 
and generally take charge of the valuable collection. By request, 
Mr. John Young was allowed to go to Glasgow to undertake this 
duty, which was performed to the great satisfaction of the savants. 
At the expiry of five months, he resumed his old duties in Lennox- 
mill. Becoming interested in geological science, he had early 
commenced to study the geology of the Campsie district, and form 
a collection of its various rocks and fossils. Little did he think 
that these pursuits of his leisure hours should afterwards lead him 
away from his native home to a new and active sphere of life. 
This it has done, but it has not made him forget his early days in 
Lennoxmill. While he was arranging the collection referred to 
the authorities in Glasgow University discovered his worth, and 
whenever the opportunity occurred they offered him the charge of 
the Hunterian Museum, a most congenial occupation. Mr. 
Young has become the life and soul of the Glasgow Geological 
Society. He gave a lecture to that society in 1858, entitled, 
** On the Geology of the Campsie District," and, the same winter, 
he re-delivered it in the Mechanics' Institute, Campsie. At the 



39 

l^equest of the Glasgow society, this lecture has been extended 
and printed, and now forms Part I., Vol. I., of the society's 
Transactions. He gives a full sketch of the physical features of 
the Campsie district, along with lists of the various fossils found 
in the strata, and descriptions of the rocks and minerals. When 
he left for Glasgow, Sandy Cowan, who was also a print-cutter, 
and also a student of geology, returned to Lennoxmill to till the 
vacancy. Poor fellow, he accidentally cut his leg with a chisel a 
few weeks afterwards, and died from the effects of inflammation 
of the wound. 

MR. JOHN COWAN. 

When I was a scholar in Mr. James Gray's Sabbath school, I 
was a short time in Mr. Young's class. From that I passed to 
the class of Mr. John Cowan, from which I was taken and made 
a teacher. Mr. Cowan had been one of the three who resuscitated 
the Y.M.A. The essays, discussions, and intellectual life 
awakened there made the want of a public library and reading- 
room to be greatly felt. So the Mechanics' Institute was evolved, 
as a consequence of the operations of the Y.M.A. In the estab- 
lishing and early management of the Institution Mr. Cowan took 
an active interest. He was also an ardent temperance reformer. 
Mr. Cowan went to England to push his way upwards. His 
great skill and administrative ability soon asserted themselves. 
He was placed over large print-works in Lancashire and Derby- 
shire. His high character, incorruptible integrity, and pawky 
Scotch humour revealed to those coming in contact with him one 
of the best types of a Scotchman, and what is better, a Christian 
gentleman. He has now retired from business. I had occasion 
to be in Hull recently. Learning that I was coming, he had a 
kind invitation awaiting me at the hotel, asking me to dine and 
stay over night with him at Wycliffe House, Anlaby Road, where 
he is residing now, with one of his married daughters. He sends 
by me a very kind message to the younger generation, who are 
now members of the C.Y,M.A., and also to some of his former 
friends in Campsie. 

MR. WILLIAM GARDNER. 

One who was a class-mate with me, Mr. William Gardner, died 
in his early manhood. He had already attained the position of 
manager to the Messrs. Heys at Barrhead. Speaking to Mr. 
Gordon Wilson about Mr. Gardner, shortly after his death, Mr. 
Heys declared he had never had a better manager in his work. 

A son of Mr John Barr, so well known in Lennoxtown, is at 
present manager of Mr. Potter's Printworks, at Dinting, near 
Glossop; which are the largest in the world. 



40 

MESSRS. JAMES AND ALEXANDER YOUNG. 

In Rumney's Printworks, at Stubbins, near Ramsbottom, James 
and Alexander Young are employed, the latter as managing 
partner. I am informed that the ingenuity of the brothers Young 
has devised various new methods of printing, the most recent 
being one by which exquisitively fine patterns can be printed on 
glass, wood, iron and other har<l smooth substances that can be 
used in the internal decoration of houses, steamships, &c. I have 
myself seen beautiful specimens of their workmanship on both 
glass and wood. A crate of glass, containing 30 sheets, 36x48, 
can be printed in a quarter of an hour. It would rather surprise 
some of our local calico printers to see a sheet of glass, as large 
as a dining-room table, printed from copper rollers before you 
could say " Jack Robinson." The brothers, James and Alexander 
Young, are living in the Rossend ale Valley, where they are keen 
supporters of Lord Hartington. In compliment to the district 
and constituency, they have named their invention the " Rossen- 
dale." I see this noticed briefly, under the head of *' New Ap- 
pliances and Improvements," in the Plumber and Decorator and 
Journal of Gas and Saniiai^ Engineering for 1st September, 1890. 
RefeiTing to the productions of the Rossendale Glass and Wood 
Decorating Co. ; oflice, 53 Portland St., Manchester, the article 
says : — 

** Decorated glass, turned out in first-class style and permanent to boot, 
can now be placed on the roarket at an astonishing low price. The scope of 
the invention renders it possible to produce perfect coloured decorations for 
windows, which, in effect and permanence, are on a par with ordinary ena- 
melled glass, and ranging up to, in artistic colouring and effect, the most 
elaborate leaded or stained and painted glass windows. On plain ground 
sheet glass or plate glass it is the easiest thing in the world for the 
patentees' machinery to turn out ad lib, glass decoration with the quality of 
permanence. Another development is the printing on wood of Venetian 
blinds," &c. 

There has been a great demand for this new class of " prints " 
from our colonies, from China, Japan, &c. I understand the 
process has been patented, and I trust the Messrs. Young will reap 
the reward of their ingenuity as inventors. 

The Lennoxmill young men have come well to the front in 
other branches and professions, but I cannot enter into detail now. 
I can only mention one case, that of the late John Service, D.D., 
Glasgow. I remember when he was in Lennoxmill, employed as 
a clerk in the Counting-House, and I became a member of the 
Y.M. A. shortly before he left to attend the University. 

A great many former Campsonians are to be found in connection 
with the printworks around Manchester, they being employed, 
either as skilled workmen, or as foremen in the various branches, 
or as the managers of the works. Many of them cherish the 
old Canipsie associations. 

I have an old cutting from the Lennox Herald of a gathering 



4i 

which took place a few years ago in Manchester, and which 1 
may now quote : — 

**0n Saturday night a number of Campsonians, with other Scotch 
friends, residents in Manchester and district, held an inaugural festival in 
the Merchants' Hotel, Oldham Street. Covers were laid for eighty. Mr. 
John Cowan presided and gave the sentiment of the evening, * Campsie.' 
Mr James Sniellie gave * Scotland, our Native Land.' Songs were sung by 
Mr. Kobert DalgUsh, engraver (one specially composed for the occasion), and 
Thomas Mackay ; and recitations by Josiah Kay and William Kay. Among 
others present, the names of James Cowan, U. M*Innes, Hamilton 
Humphreys, Brodie, M'Adam, Paton, M'Kinley, Robertson, and M'Kean 
will be well remembered in Lennoxtown." 

At this meeting Mr. Thomas M*Kay sang a "Field" song, 
written by William Smith, a genial native of Campsie, who was 
in his youth a handloom weaver, but for many years an employee 
in LennoxmiH. The song is, I believe, well known, 

" We seldom meet oor frien's to greet. 
And troubles they are mair than twa; 

Oor chequered life's replete wi' strife, 
And will be on this earthly ba*. 

Clicrus — We're a* met and happy set, 

Nor frae oor hames so long awa' ; 
And since we a' sae weel agree, 

Oh, wlia can think to gang awa' ? " &c. 

There used to be an annual re- union in Glasgow of the 
" natives of Campsie and their friends." Why they are now 
given up I do not know. Some of the meetings have been very 
enjoyable. 

MR. JAMES MILLAR'S SPEECH AT CAMPSIE RE-UNION OF 1872. 

Of the " natives " of Campsie whom the committee asked to 
preside at the re-union in Glasgow, the very lirst they delighted 
to honour was Mr. James Millar, Monteith Row, Glasgow, who 
served his apprenticeship as a block-cutter, I have already 
referred to the manner in which he raised the £7 7/ of entry 
money. He left the Field about the time of the strike. In the 
course of a most interesting address as chairman, about 1872, I 
think, Mr. Millar said — 

** This is the sixth Re-union of the Natives of Campsie which I have at- 
tended in Glasgow. The first was held in the Wheat Sheaf Inn, Adelphi 
Street, in the year 1835. The second was held in the following year, 1836, 
in the Black Bull Hall, at the foot of Virginia Street. Both of these meet- 
ings were in the form of a supper and ball, and with many of the guests, I 
remember, inspiring bold *' John Barleycorn " made the fun grow fast and 
furious. After an interval of thirty years we met in this hall three years 
ago. Our present Ke-union is the fourth meeting in this hall of Camp- 
sonians and their friends, and your present Chairman is the only native of 
Campsie, who has hitherto been called on to preside at these social 
gatherings.'' 



Mr. Millar, after giving a historical sketeh of the parish, 
referred to the print-works, and spoke as follows : — 

*' There is more skilled labour required in a print-work than in any other 
kind of manufacture I know of. There is to begin with, ihe designer, who 
designs the pattern; the engraver, who cuts this on steel and copper; or 
the block-cutter, who indents it in copper, or brings it out in relief on 
wood. Then the chemist and colour-maker, who prepare colours in endless 
variety of shades ; the printer, who applies them to the cloth ; then 
bleachers, dyers, finishers, mechanics, blacksmiths, joiners, tinsmiths, 
plumbers, masons, and a great variety of unskilled labour, men, women, 
boys, and girls, to say nothing of clerks, salesmen, &c. All these may be 
seen any day in a print-work, forming a busy hive of human industry, the 
products of whose labour go to every quarter of the world, and decorate the 
persons of women of every clime and colour." 

COAL SUPPLY. 

Coals used to be supplied to Lennoxmill from Sculliongour, 
from the pits at the Derries, near Baldorrau, Milton, and the 
Alum Coy.'s mines. About sixty years ago Mr. William M*Far- 
lane, of Muckcroft, leased the coal and lime in Newlands, Cloch- 
corr, Balglass, and South Birbiston, working them from an 
** ingaun e*e" in the Culloch Slap mine, near the rifle targets.^ 
Mr. Matthew H. Muirhead, Kirkintilloch, is the present lessee. 
Mr. M'Farlane obtained the contract for the supply of Lennoxmill, 
and at once proceeded to throw a wooden bridge over the Glazert, 
to accommodate his traffic. This was the bridge that continued 
to span the water until the railway was extended to the Blane 
Valley, when Mr. M'Farlane's bridge was replaced by a new one, 
at a level to suit the railway passing beneath it. The supply of 
coals was continued till the Campsie branch was opened, when a 
wider area of selection was opened up. I remember Mr. M*Farlane, 
whose conversational hobby was the Church, ministers, and their 
sermons. In Mr. Wm. Partington's interesting communication, 
apropos of Mr. M*Farlane, he says : — 

" You mention William M'Farlane of Muckcroft ; he was a relative of 
my wife's father, and a very good. Christian gentleman. I will give you 
two anecdotes about him. He had a pet gander at Muckcroft, which often 
accompanied him to his office at the coal mine. Arriving there, he would 
say to it, * Awa' hame, ye scoundrel,' and away it would fly off back to the 
Muckcroft. Some time before Mr. M'Farlane's death, an evil-disposed 
person cut the gander's head off, threw it into his lobby, greatly to the 
worthy man's distress. At the mine he had a byng of coal lying, and a 
number of poor people used to go up and help themselves to the coals. 
This got so prevalent that complaints were made to the police to have it 
put a stop to. The police accordingly caught a number gathering coals, 
and reported the matter for Mr. M'Farlane's instructions. He, however, 
rather sympathised with the delinquents, told the policemen, * They were 
just some o' my ain men's folks,' and added, * Gie awa', ye beadle bodies, 
I dinna like ye.' " 

FIRES. 

One of the largest fires that ever occurred in Lennoxmill was, 
I understand, when the Turkey-red stove was burned. As that 



4a 

occurred before 1834 very few remember it now. I myself vividly 
remember one night when, about ten o'clock, the Field bell rang. 
There was at first a startled look — " What can that mean ? " then 
a cry of " Fire ! the Field's on fire ! " In about five minutes the 
whole village had turned out, and from the corner of the Field 
Road to the scene of the fire, there was a solid mass of human 
beings. This fire originated in some sparks reaching the beams of 
cloth in the grey loft at the top of the new machine shop. It was 
beside the big beam engine, and near Willie M*Call urn's boilers ; 
but, although a big blaze, there was not very much damage 
done. 

The next big fire was the ageing-room, which communicated by 
a gangway with the large wooden house built over the pond, and 
called '* the ark." This was a large fire ; the glare attracted 
people from a wide area around. The damage was covered by 
insurance. This would be about 1857 or 1858. 

Willie Gray's muslin-room, or "back style," was also a big fire. 
The Field fire brigade did splendid service on this occasion. In 
particular, honourable mention should be made of Robert Walker, 
foreman mechanic, David M'Donald, John Mulholland, William 
Smith, and, indeed, every man not only in the fire brigade but in 
the Field, nobly did his duty. Often at great personal risk they 
exerted themselves to the utmost, and succeeded in preventing 
the fire from spreading to where it would have consumed the 
work. 

I have had a photograph of this fire posted to me from Lennox- 
town. There is a printed narrative on the back of the photo ; — 

»• Burning of Warehouse No. 65— 12th December, 1871. — Fire broke 
out a little after seven oclock p.m. iSteam was immediately kept rushing 
tlirougii the dye-house roof. . . . The steam pipes were broken and a strong 
head of steam kept on. These means, perseveringly persisted in, speedily 
liad the desired effect. AU danger to surrounding buildings was removed 
by ten o'clock. 

" Some remarkable instances of hardihood were displayed. One man 
kept his po^t, though seemingly enveloped in the flames and hot steam, 
steadily playing on an iron door of communication. Another went under 
the burning building and smashed the main steam pipe with a fore-hammer ; 
indeed, all exerted themselves to the utmost. 

" Lennoxtown, 20th December, 1871." 

On making enquiry who was referred to aS having kept his 
dangerous post at the door, I was informed, ** Davoc M'Donald 
looked after his post like a hero." 

Some time after this, part of the old machine shop was destroyed 
by fire. Fears were entertained that it might spread to the white 
warehouse and finishing departments, but it was fortunately checked 
before this could occur. 

There was another large fire after the concern had been made 
a limited company. The finished warehouse, full of goods ready 
for despatch to Loudon, was consumed. The money loss in this 
case was much greater than in the other fires. Here, again, the 



u 

tneQibers of the fire brigade displayed great courage, and shewed 
efficient organisation and discipline. 

VOLUNTEER MOVEMENT. 

It is impossible in connection with Lennoxmill, and the public 
spirit at all times shown therein, to omit to notice the volunteer 
moyement. When the movement had been fairly launched in the 
country, Mr. Dalglish called a meeting in the works, and offered 
to clothe and equip a company of 80, with a band of 20. The 
only stipulation Mr. Dalglish made was that all the members must 
be employed in Lennoxmill. This offer was at once acceded to. 
A company of 80 men was enrolled, Mr. Gordon Wilson, the 
manager, being captain. Drill was commenced forthwith, and 
entered into with such spirit, that the Lennoxmill corps could 
hold their own, both at drill and shooting, with any existing in 
the county. Indeed, in discipline, martial bearing, and physique, 
the Lennoxmill Company might have been taken as belonging to 
a ^* regiment of the line." They had one great advantage in 
having the Lennoxmill Brass Band — numbering 20 performers — 
in connection with their corps. This band was then in a high 
state of efficiency, under Mr. Edward Conner, an employee at the 
works, an excellent musician, and capital conductor. This band 
was of great service in public functions. For instance, when the 
Hon. Mr. Hanbury Lennox arrived with Mrs. Lennox after their 
wedding, both companies of volunteers formed a guard of honour, 
and, headed by the band, escorted them to the castle. 

PLEASING TRAITS OF CHARACTER. 

One pleasing trait of the workers in Lennoxmill was their 
sturdy independence and intense dislike to parochial relief. There 
was an esprit de corps in the work and a feeling of brotherhood, 
so that when accident, protracted disease, or family distress 
rendered the bread-winner incapable of work, a hearty response 
was made. When it was a case for taking through a subscription 
sheet, £10, £15, or £20 would be quickly collected, a sum which 
generally sufficed to tide over the particular emergency. An 
outsider like myself rarely heard of these, but I can recollect 
having heard that during the Crimean War all the workers gave 
a day's pay on behalf of the wives and children of the soldiers 
who had fallen in battle or perished by disease. On this occasion 
the sum of £70 was collected, and Mr. Gordon Wilson had the 
pleasure of transmitting this handsome sum to the treasurers of 
the fund. 

A HORSE STORY. 

Previous to 1849 the whole traffic from and to Glasgow was 
carted. Mr. William M'Gilchrist, the Field carter, had a beautiful 



45 

grey horse, and when passing his house in the Field Road his wife 
used always to speak kindly to the horse and often gave it a piece 
of oat-cake, of which it was fond. One day, as the horse was pass- 
ing, Mrs. M*Gilchrist was stooping over a boyne at the door steps, 
and did not notice the horse. " Badger," unaccustomed to such 
coldness, seized Mrs. M^Gilchrist by the dress, lifted her up, and gave 
her a shake, then set her down. When she had recovered from her 
astonishment she hastened into the house, brought out a whole 
'* farl," and presenting this, with kind speech and gentle patting, 
soon soothed " Badger's " ruffled feelings, and he never tried such 
a prank again. 

GAMES AND MATCHES ON SATURDAY AFTERNOONS. 

Before I close, I advert to the games and amusements of my 
boyish days, which are now entirely changed. " Smugglers," 
" rounders," and shinty were popular games long ago. I can 
recollect once at a New-Year time a team going from the Field 
to play a shinty match with the Vale of Leven. They went away 
in high spirits, sanguine of success, but returned crest-fallen, 
badly beaten. I can only recollect two of the players in this 
match, Hugh Kane and David Armstrong (baker). I remember 
when quoits was a favourite game. When I was a boy there 
were two brothers, named M'Crone, blacksmiths in the Field, 
whom I recollect being the local crack players. " Bullets " was 
another favourite game. There were matches on the Saturday 
afternoons, sometimes between individuals or between different 
" shops " in the Field, or frequently with players from Kirkintil- 
loch. I was present as a boy at a great match on the Cumber- 
nauld road, when three players aside represented Campsie and 
Kirkintilloch respectively. Thomas Meikle and John and 
Malcolm Brown were, I think, the Field champions. For Kirk- 
intilloch — ^W. Graham (the "Kornel"), Stewart, and Miller. 
Kirkintilloch won the match and the stakes of three or five 
guineas by two hails to one. 

MR. WILLIAM PARTINGTON'S REMINI SCE N SE S. 

I have received a long letter from Mr. William Partington, 
from which I make the following extracts : — 

" Forest Works, Bulwell, Dec , 1890. 

" In the published * notes ' of your lecture I have not observed any refer- 
ence to the 

"CAMPSIE mechanics' INSTITUTION, 

which owed its birth and management almost exclusively to those who were 
employed in Lennoxniill. This was instituted in 1848, and was one of the 
best things that Campsie has ever experienced for the improvement of its 
rising young men. The institution was well managed by a number of 
excellent, intelligent, working men, such as John Cowan, George Somerville, 
Thomas Wilson, W. Shiel, James M'Crie, Jamieson Frovan, &c., &c., not 



46 

forgetting your humble servant. There was a meeting in the Fi^ park to 
consider |he question of a 

TOWN HALL. 

Some proposed we should bog as much money as would build it. I proposed 
we should raise the money by subscription and in lOs. shares. This plan 
was adopted, and the hall was built, and opened by the Hon. Mr. Hanbury 
I^nnox. Mr. K. Dalglish, M.P., was also very liberal in helping us to build 
the hall. The total cost was £1340. We were £600 in debt when the hall 
was finished, but we got up concerts, private theatricals, &c., &c., and we 
wiped off the debt, and the Hall Co. are now able to pay a dividend. There 
is another useful thing of which I have seen no notice taken,- the Field 
Park, used as a public recreation ground. 

FIELD PARK. 

*^ I was the means of getting this park for the workers in I^>nnoxniill. I 
went to Mr. Gordon Wilsun and offered him £10 for the use of it, when I 
did not know how or where I should ever raise the money. I represented to 
Mr. Wilson what a great benefit it would be. He received me very favour- 
ably, and suggested that I should embody all I had said to him in a letter 
addressed to Mr. 11. Dalglish, and if Mr. D. consulted him he would not 
throw any difficulties in the way. In reply, Mr. Dalglish acce<1ed to my 
request, and gave a free grant of the Field Park, not only to the workers in 
lA*nnoxniill, but for the benefit of the inhabitants of Campsic. 

** Should you ever at any time be anywhere near Nottingham, be sure to 
come to Bulwell and call at Forest Works, and you will get a heartj*^ 
welcome. And noM' I must close. With kind regards, 

" Yours sincerely, 

'• William Partington." 

I have enjoyed the use of the Field Park in «iy younger days, 
but I never knew to whom the public of Campsie were indebted 
for procuring this from Mr. Dalglish. 

All old Campsonians will be pleased to see from the foregoing 
letter that Mr. Partington is as bright and cheery as ever, and 
that he has not forgotten tlie parish or the local institutions in 
which he took such a deep interest while residing in Lennoxtown. 

MR. GORDON WILSON. 

I have already referred to the circumstances under which Mr. 
Gordon Wilson left Dalmonach and in 183C entered on his 
lengthened period of service at Lennoxmill. As colour-maker, 
manager, and partner, he remained there till March, 1877, and 
during this long period the firm enjoyed great prosperity, not a 
little of which was due to his good management and the able 
manner in which he was supported by Mr John Barr, another 
Vale of Leven man, and the foremen of the various departments. 
I remember hearing Mr Dalglish say, when he was addressing a 
meeting in the Field Park, that in the event of Glasgow electing 
him a Member of Parliament, he could go away to London and 
leave Lennoxmill in the full charge of Mr. Wilson, in whom he 
reposed the utmost confidence. I have often had occasion to re- 
fer to Mr. Gordon Wilson in the course of this paper. I cannot 
refrnin from noticing two recognitions of his public services, that 



47 

were accorded to him on the occasion of hit retiring from Lennox- 
mill and leaving Lennoxtown to take up his abode in Kirkintilloch. 
One from gentlemen unconnected with the work, and the other 
from the workers in Lcnnoxmill. The first of these was a public 
dinner. Avery representative committee, consisting of Mr. Ritchie 
of View Park, Mr. James Uoss, Baldow, and the Kev. William 
Wood, made all the arrangements, and to suit general convenience 
of friends coming long distances to attend, it was held in a Glas- 
gow hotel. Mr. Alexander Macnab of Lillyburn presided. Mr. 
James Wright of Myrtle Hank, Kirkintilloch, was croupier. Fifty 
gentlemen assembled to do honour to the guest of the evening. 
The other was in the Town Hall, Lennoxtown, when a large and 
enthusiastic gathenng of the workers in Lennoxmill was held. 
Here a beautiful illuminated address was presented, also a massive 
silver tea tray with suitable inscription, and a brooch and earrings 
for Mrs Wilson. Mr. Archibald Duncan presided, and made the 
presentation. The clergy were present in the persons of Dr. 
Munro, Rev. W. Wood, and the Rev. J. H. Magini, I shall allow 
the address to speak for the donors : — 

" We, the woikere in Lcnnoxmill Print Works, avail ourselves of the 
opportunity this meeting affords to present an Address to you, expressing, 
though imperfectly, the feelings on the occasion of your separation from us 
as our Manager. 

*' That arduous aud honourable position you occupied for the long period 
of fully forty years. 

** You came among us a very young man, and though there are few left 
now who were workers then, we have sufficient to testify that from first to 
last your character and disposition have been always the same. 

** We found you, Sir, ever anxious to encourage any good movement 
among us; ever ready to assist and encourage us in times of trouble or 
difficulty, and ever jealous of our reputation. 

" Hegretting, as we now do, your separation from amongst us, it still 
affords us satisfaction to know that your feelings incline you to remain in 
our neighbourhood, and we feel assured that the happiness and prosperity 
of Campsie will always interest you. 

" In now. Sir, saying Farewell, we earnestly desire for yourself and your 
Family, happiness and prosperity. May you be long spared together, and 
as years roll on, and separations necessarily take place, may that good 
Providence which has sustained and supported you hitherto, be your Guide 
and Counsellor to the end. 

" In connection with this Address, our Chairman will present you with 
a token of our remembrance which will remain with your Family when you 
are gone, and testify to your children that your honourable and consistent 
walk in life was highly appreciated by that people among whom you spent 
so many of the best of your days. 

** Signed, in name of the workers, 

** Archibald Dukcan, Chairman of Committee. 

" Lennoxtown, 6th April, 1877." 

ALLOCH PRINTFTELD. 

There existed at one time a printfield at the Alloch Dam, 
which is situated between Glorat Mansion House and Glorat Mill. 



48 

The work was situated between the dam and the row of beech 
trees. John and George Brown, now Ifving at Whitefield, 
remember the block-printing building. They remember that the 
doors had holes in which the finger was inserted and the catch 
lifted and the door thus opened. Operations must have been con- 
ducted on a very small scale, and in a very primitive fashion. 
The calico printer who then carried on the business was, as far as 
I can gather, a Mr. Monteith. Accompanied by his wife, he 
went to Glasgow with the finished goods, which were conveyed in 
a barrow. The barrow returned laden with raw materials, and 
when this was filled to its utmost capacity, the calico printer's 
helpmeet, besides her own ** parcels," carried out the finer dyestufiFs 
on her back as she walked home from Glasgow. Although the 
water supply was abundant there were disadvantages in the situa- 
tion, and after a few years the work was discontinued. 



HACJGHHEAD PRINTFIELD. 

There was a printwork erected at Haugiihead, on the Fin Glen 
burn, opposite Kilwinnet Farm. The members of the co-partnery 
who started this Field were William Hart, Duncan Ferguson, 
William Archibald, and James Donaldson. The time selected 
for commencing — shortly after the block-printers' strike— does 
not seem to have been favourable. After continuing for three or 
four years, operations were discontinued. In later years the old 
print-field was twice occupied as a power-loom factory. It did 
not continue long enough to make much mark on the parish 
history. 

LILLYBURN PRINT-WORKS. 

This work has had a more varied and eventful career, especially 
in its earlier history, than either Kincaid or Lenuoxmill, the 
other and older printworks of the parish. 

About sixty years ago it was carried on as a print- work by Mr. 
Bankier, who left it to go to Glasgow to engage in business as a 
calenderer. In this he seems to have succeeded. He found his 
way into the Town Council, became one of the City Magistrates, 
and was widely known as Bailie Bankier. 

When Bankier left Lillyburn, Sir Samuel Stirling of Glorat, 
his brother. Captain Stirling, and Mr. John Gray of Oxgang, ' 
entered into partnership, and commenced business as distillers, 
converting the print-works into a distillery. This did not prove a 
successful speculation, and was discontinued in 1828. Stories are 
still current as to the abundance of whisky in Milton and Mount 
of Glorat in those days, and how easily it could be got from the 
distillery, from which it was almost openly carried off in pails and 
watering cans. When this firm ceased to carry on business, 



49 

Lillybum was taken by the Messrs. Dawson, then and still of 
Linlithgow, who continued it for a few years as a distillery, and 
then abandoned it. It is not a little remarkable to note the com- 
plete disappearance of the distilleries which formerly existed in 
this district. In Kirkintilloch there were several, and there were 
others in Campsie besides LillyburD. 

George Brown, farmer, had a distillery at the mains of Ben- 
cipich. John Forrest was both miller and distiller, at French 
Mill ; some of the buildings connected with it may still be seen 
adjoining Milton Station. In Kirkintilloch there was Freelaad's 
"Old" Distillery; one at Habbie's Howe, opposite the old 
foundry ; Finlay's one at the Holm ; one at the Loch ; one at 
Dun tibiae, on the Waterside Mill lade ; besides two breweries, 
Jaffray's and that of Mr. James Wood. These distilleries 
explain the great number of tombs in the Old Aisle erected to 
the memory of Englishmen, who were here as officers of excise. 

The reason of the total disappearance seems to be that small 
works, however prudently and economically carried on, are un- 
able to compete in production, as regards cost, with large works, 
where a profit of Id or 2d per gallon on a turn-out of millions of 
gallons, puts out of the market the productions of works only 
producing thousands, and where there is an on-cost of perhaps 9d 
or Is per gallon, as against greatly reduced costs in the large 
distilleries. 

The next tenants of Lillyburn were Messrs. George M^Farlane 
& Co., who re-converted the distillery into a printwork, as it had 
been originally. Mr. M^Farlane had made a fortune as a calico 
printer near Hurlet, and now put his sons into Lillyburn. They 
were not acquainted with the practical work, and did not give its 
management any close supervision. They seem to have been im- 
posed upon in many ways, if the stories still current in Milton are 
to be credited. The inevitable result of want of knowledge, of 
supervision, and of ordinary prudence soon followed, and they dis- 
continued business, after having, according to popular report, lost 
a very large sum during the twelve years the works had been 
carried on by them. 

Lillyburn works were now exposed for sale, and in 1843 were 
bought at a public sale by Mr. Alexander Macnab, the head of 
the firm who now carry on business there. 

Mr. Macnab's father, the late Mr. James Macnab, began life as 
manager to his uncle, Mr. D. Ferguson, at Milncroft, near Glas- 
gow. In a few years he was asked to take the management of 
larger works at Strathblane, belonging to Messrs. Sharp & 
Buchanan. After a few years, he joined his brother John, the 
late Mr. Thomas Boyd, along with a Mr. Smellie, and they com- 
menced business as calico printers at Bellfield, Kirkintilloch, 
under the style of Boyd, Smellie, & Macnabs. The firm took a 
lease of the works for nineteen years from the late Mr. Thomson. 
Mr. Boyd and the Messrs. Macnab soon found reason to complain 

D 



50 

of their partner Mr. Smellie. Calico printing was qaite uncon- 
genial to his tastes and his sporting proclivities. At every public 
ball, at every wedding to which he could obtain an invitation, at 
dances of all kinds he was sure to be present. He was also musi- 
cal, and an excellent player on the violin, and was in consequence 
in great request at social and festive gatherings. He was a fine 
looking man, and when attired in the full dress of the period, with 
white hat and top boots, he was a " dandy " of the first water. 

He had a passion for dogs, having sometimes as many as forty 
in his possession at one time. Three of these dogs, of the famous 
Kirkintilloch " Blue Pauls," were matchless fighters, and were 
never beaten. These were " Courage," " Crib," and *• Tiftae." 
The story of the "Blue Pauls," descended through the male line 
from a Campsie dog, may be told here, although unconnected with 
calico-printing at Lillyburn. A regiment changing quarters 
marched through Kirkintilloch shortly after 1820, when there 
was left behind, strayed, a fine bitch, believed to be the property 
of one of the officers. This dog was of a very peculiar kind, 
which beat all the fanciers to determine the breed. The most 
plausible conjecture was that it was a cross between an English 
bull and some other terrier, probably Bedlington. It was large 
in size, and a more game animal never walked. It would face 
anything. It became the property of what would be called now a 
syndicate of the " Fancy," of which a man named Shaw, who 
kept the Beehive Tavern in Townhead, was a leading man. Dr. 
Robertson of Campsie had a famous white bull dog, ** a beauty," 
and said to be perfect in all the points. From a cross between 
this Campsie dog and the strayed regimental waif sprang the race 
that for a few years were famous as the Kirkintilloch Blue Pauls. 

There used in these days to be great dog fights at Bishopbriggs 
for large sums of money, sometimes even for £40 or £50 
a side. This breed was never beat, and so famous did it 
become that orders came from every part of the country, even 
from abroad, to procure dogs of this strain, for which large sums 
were offered. The strain was soon spoiled by chance indis- 
criminate crossing, and the qualities that had made the parents 
valuable were lost in their '' messan " descendants. How could 
Mr. Smellie be expected to plod at Bellfield when excited with 
the chances of " Courage " or " Crib " ? After the copartnery 
had existed for two years, he retired from the Bellfield firm. 

During the currency of their nineteen year's lease, great suc- 
cess attended Boyd & Macnabs, and according to popular report 
a great amount of money was made by the Bellfield firm. Their 
manufactures were fortunate in obtaining a favourable name; 
** Bellfield prints " being not only well known in Scotland but 
also in Manchester and London. When Lillyburn came into the 
market the lease of Bellfield had not expired, and the firm were 
not at liberty to leave until it had run out. Mr. Alexander 
Macnab therefore secured it in the meantime, and as soon as they 



51 

were at liberty to do so, the Messrs. Macnab transferred their 
l>usiness from Bellfield to Lillyburn. Mr. Boyd went to Barr- 
head, whither a number of the Kirkintilloch employees followed 
him. 

Before the advent of Messrs. James and John Macnab, nothing 
had succeeded at Lillyburn. Since that time, however, the 
reputation which the firm had gradually and surely built up at 
Bellfield has been maintained and increased. The business not 
only continues to flourish, but actually at the present time the 
works have been largely extended, new machines fitted up, and the 
i^ery best appliances and latest improvements adopted. The 
present style of the firm is Alexander Macnab & Co., and the 
partners are understood to be Mr. Macnab, his two sous, and Mr. 
•John Hunt. 

Mr. Macnab is the first gentleman in the parish who has adopted 
the use of electricity for lighting purposes, and not for lighting 
only, as it is used in the drawing-room of Lillybiu*n to play the 
piano ! Apropos of electric lighting I have been informed that 
Mr. Alexander Macnab nearly fifty years ago gave the first public 
•display of the then newly discovered light in Kirkintilloch. He 
took his apparatus up to the Town Steeple, and from the sounding 
boards above the clock dials exhibited a light that was seen for 
miles around. 

At a time when lectures were fewer, and on that account 
perhaps more highly a|)preciated, Mr. Macnab gave about 30 
lectures on chemistry, electricity, and magnetism, and was always 
ready when requested to deliver a lecture or a speech when any 
good object was to be promoted. As a Justice of the Peace, 
member of School Board, and now as County Councillor, Mr. 
Macnab still continues to take an active interest in public affairs. 
He is a great traveller. Egypt, Ireland, Italy, France, and 
Germany have been visited by him, and on his return he generally 
gives the result of his observations in a popular lecture, when 
there is the additional attraction of photographs of the scenes 
described, illustrated by a powerful magic lantern. On these 
occasions a rare treat is enjoyed by those privileged to hear about 
and see representations of the scenes described. 



While these sheets are passing through the press, I am reminded 
that when the late Mr. R. Dalglish left ** The Cottage " he went 
to live at Dumbreck House, Paisley Road, and thence to S^Vtaar- 
dinny. A few days ago I met a well-known townsman q[ Kirkin- 
tilloch, who has told me that he was engaged herdins^Q Campsie 
when Waterloo was fought. I took the opportunity Xf asking him 
if he remembered the meeting at Cannerton in 1820Z u Fine, man ; 
I mind it, we ca'd it Knocky Buckle Brae. I /anna keep frae 



52 

laughin' yet, as I min' o' " Printer John," as be was ca'd, he was- 
among the first to tak' to his heels ; bat he halted, turned round, 
and shouted ** Stan' firm, lads, stan' firm." Having given this- 
excellent advice to others, he disregarded it in his own case, and 
ran away as fast as his legs would carry him. " Printer John '* 
belonged to a once well-known family in Birdston, and was so- 
called to distinguish him from '* Farmer John." 

COTTAGE HOSPITALITY. 

When Mr. Dalglish resided at * * The Cottage " he cultivated 
friendly relations with his foremen in the Field. He had them 
frequently at his hospitable table — and there are many queer 
stories concerning these convivial evenings. Once, after a night 
of it, the guests had great difficulty in finding the gate. One of 
them wandered oiT the road and came to a tree. Mistaking this- 
for the wall outside the gate, he bethought him that he should 
keep touch of the wall along the " Doddle Raw," which would ^ 
lead him very nearly home. He commenced his journey, steadily- 
tramping, always keeping his hand on the tree. He must have, 
walked a long time round and round the tree ; but at last more 
light and increasing sobriety enabled him to take his bearings- 
afresh, and find his way to the road. It was discovered next 
morning that there was a beaten path round the tree. The weary 
traveller had unusually large feet, and he was afterwards fre- 
-quently reminded how admirably they were adapted for road- 
making purposes. 

My paper on " The Rev. James Lapslie and his Times," read at 
the opening of the Y.M.A. course last winter, was the means of my 
obtaining many new facts and anecdotes concerning him. It has- 
been the saine with " Calico Printing " ; and in drawing these long^ 
rambling, discursive jottings to a close, I have to express my grati- 
fication at the reception given to the " Notes." Since they 
appeared, much additional information has accumulated, and this 
pamphlet has attained its present proportions. If time and space 
had permitted, many other details could have been noted, and 
other interesting topics touched upon. 



manui.i«, 
'' Bellfiela 
also in Man 
market the le. 
not at liberty 
Macnab there'* 



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